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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies MANAGING GLOBAL GENETIC RESOURCES Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1993
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This material is based on work supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, under Agreement No. 59-32U4-6-75, and by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Grant No. DAN-1406-G-SS-6044-00. Additional funding was provided by Calgene, Inc.; Educational Foundation of America; the Kellogg Endowment Fund of the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine; Monsanto Company; Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Rockefeller Foundation; U.S. Forest Service; W. K. Kellogg Foundation; World Bank; and the Basic Science Fund of the National Academy of Sciences, the contributors to which include the Atlantic Richfield Foundation, AT&T Bell Laboratories, BP America, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, E.I. duPont de Nemours & Company, IBM Corporation, Merck & Co., Inc., Monsanto Company, and Shell Oil Company Foundation. In addition, dissemination of the report was supported by the W. K. Kellogg Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Agricultural crop issues and policies / Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. p. cm. — (Managing global genetic resources) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04430-8 1. Crops—Germplasm resources—Management. 2. Germplasm resources, Plant—Management. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives. II. Series. SB123.3.A47 1993 333.95'316—dc20 93-31987 CIP Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. Printed in the United States of America
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Committee on Managing Global Genetics Resources: Agricultural Imperatives PETER R. DAY, Chairman, Rutgers University ROBERT W. ALLARD, University of Calilfornia, Davis PAULO DE T. ALVIM, Comissão Executiva do Plano da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brasil* JOHN H. BARTON, Stanford University FREDERICK H. BUTTEL, University of Wisconsin TE-TZU CHANG, International Rice Research Institute, The Philippines (Retired) ROBERT E. EVENSON, Yale University HENRY A. FITZHUGH, International Livestock Center for Africa, Ethiopia † MAJOR M. GOODMAN, North Carolina State University JAAP J. HARDON, Center for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands DONALD R. MARSHALL, University of Sydney, Australia SETIJATI SASTRAPRADJA, National Center for Biotechnology, Indonesia CHARLES SMITH, University of Guelph, Canada JOHN A. SPENCE, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago Genetic Resources Staff MICHAEL S. STRAUSS, Project Director JOHN A. PINO, Project Director‡ BRENDA BALLACHEY, Staff Officer§ BARBARA J. RICE, Project Associate and Editor ALWIN Y. PHILIPPA, Senior Program Assistant * Executive Commission of the Program for the Strengthening Cacao Production, Brazil. † Winrock International, through January 1990. ‡ Through June 1990. § Through November 1989.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Subcommittee on Plant Genetic Resources ROBERT W. ALLARD, Chairman University of California, Davis AMRAM ASHRI, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel VIRGIL A. JOHNSON, University of Nebraska (Retired) RAJENDRA S. PARODA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand* H. GARRISON WILKES, University of Massachusetts, Boston LYNDSEY A. WITHERS, International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, Italy Crop Vulnerability Work Group H. GARRISON WILKES, Chairman, University of Massachusetts, Boston IVAN W. BUDDENHAGEN, University of California, Davis DONALD N. DUVICK, Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Retired) GARY P. NABHAN, Native Seed/SEARCH, Tucson, Arizona National Plant Germplasm System Work Group CALVIN O. QUALSET, Chairman, University of California, Davis JOHN L. CREECH, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Retired) S.M. (SAM) DIETZ, U.S. Department of Agriculture (Retired) MAJOR M. GOODMAN, North Carolina State University A. BRUCE MAUNDER, DEKALB Plant Genetics, Lubbock, Texas DAVID H. TIMOTHY, North Carolina State University Forest Genetic Resources Work Group GENE NAMKOONG, Chairman, U.S. Forest Service and North Carolina State University KAMALJIT BAWA, University of Massachusetts, Boston JEFFREY BURLEY, Oxford University, United Kingdom SUSAN S. SHEN, World Bank, Washington, D.C. * Formerly at Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Subcommittee on Animal Genetic Resources HENRY A. FITZHUGH, Chairman, International Livestock Center for Africa, Ethiopia ELIZABETH L. HENSON, Cotswold Farm Park, England JOHN HODGES, Mittersill, Austria DAVID R. NOTTER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University DIETER PLASSE, Universidad Central de Venezuela (Retired) LOUSE LETHOLA SETSHWAELO, Ministry of Agriculture, Botswana THOMAS E. WAGNER, Ohio University, Athens JAMES E. WOMACK, Texas A&M University
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Board on Agriculture THEODORE L. HULLAR, Chairman, University of California, Davis PHILIP H. ABELSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University DALE E. BAUMAN, Cornell University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State College SUSAN K. HARLANDER, Land O'Lakes, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota PAUL W. JOHNSON, Natural Resources Consultant, Decorah, Iowa T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin JAMES R. MOSELEY, Jim Moseley Farms, Inc., Clark Hills, Indiana DONALD R. NIELSEN, University of California, Davis NORMAN R. SCOTT, Cornell University GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University PATRICIA B. SWAN, Iowa State University FREDERIC WINTHROP, JR., The Trustees of Reservations, Beverly, Massachusetts SUSAN E. OFFUTT, Executive Director JAMES E. TAVARES, Associate Executive Director CARLA CARLSON, Director of Communications BARBARA J. RICE, Editor JANET L. OVERTON, Associate Editor
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Preface The crucial role of genetic resources in supporting human society is frequently overlooked and greatly undervalued. They are of tremendous practical and historical significance for human life. They underpin both our daily survival and are responsible for generating a large part of the wealth of nations. Germplasm is a resource that consists of the genetic materials that can perpetuate a species or a population of an organism. It can be used both to reproduce and, through hybridization and selection, to change or enhance organisms. Conserving genetic resources in the form of crop, livestock, microbial, and tree germplasm is a means of safeguarding the living materials now exploited by agriculture, industry, and forestry to provide food for humans and feed for livestock, fiber for clothing and furnishing, fuel for cooking and heating, and the food and industry products of microbial origin. Genetic conservation is also an integral part of a still broader activity concerned with protecting and maintaining the quality of air, water, and soil and the many plants, animals, microorganisms, and communities of organisms that help to mold and stabilize the global environment. Conservation ensures that future generations of humans will also benefit from earth's biological resources. In 1985 the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council, under the chairmanship of Dr. William L. Brown, concluded that an assessment of the status of global genetic resources important to agriculture was needed. Encouragement for this study came from several government and foundation officials and scientific associations. The National Research Council established the Committee on
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives in November 1986. The scope of its study was largely restricted to plants, animals, and microorganisms used in commerce or having potential for such use. Why is it necessary to preserve materials that were originally collected from undeveloped agricultures or from the wild? The success of modern high-yielding crop varieties is such that they tend to replace older peasant varieties even in remote parts of the world. Even though many of the varieties widely grown 20 years ago can still be found, they are also increasingly being replaced. These materials can be important sources of genetic variation. People have also destroyed or altered many natural habitats of wild crop relatives and made them unsuitable for the plants that once grew there. There is widespread concern among many agricultural scientists about the status of conserved germplasm worldwide. Most collected materials, to be of use, must be evaluated and tested at the expense of considerable effort and resources. If properly conserved and catalogued such material is available to others who may wish to use it. Is enough being done? Is the material already conserved in seed stores and other facilities adequately documented, properly stored and managed, and freely available to anyone with a legitimate need? Does it include all the potentially important genetic information that can still be collected now but which may be disappearing and therefore not available much longer? Are sufficient resources being applied by national governments to their own and to global needs? What priorities have been established and are they correct? What mechanisms are in place for conserving genetic resources? Conserving the genetic resources of exploited species first arose when humans saved individual or small groups of animals and part of their harvests of gathered seeds, roots, and tubers of plant. They were kept for herd increase and planting. Putting aside the better forms for future use began the long process of selection and improvement responsible for the development of agriculture. The first crop plants and livestock were undomesticated wild species that gave rise, thousands of years later, to modern varieties and breeds. The rediscovery of genetics at the end of the last century gave breeders an explanation of the mechanism of inheritance. The earlier cultivars and breeds and their closely related wild species were sources of useful variation that could be introduced by hybridization. Breeders assembled collections of useful materials that were described, catalogued, and tested and could be saved from year to year. These collections were the first forms of germplasm to be systematically conserved, at least during the working lifetime of the breeder.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies The emergence of plant and animal breeding programs during the first half of this century created a demand for germplasm exchange among breeders and for collecting expeditions and explorations to satisfy the growing need for such crop plant characters as disease resistance, insect resistance, earliness, stiff stalks, and grain quality. At first much of the material collected was wasted because it was not properly stored and regenerated to avoid admixture, nor was it adequately described. Similarly livestock producers wishing to improve the productivity and adaptation of herbs to local conditions imported exotic breeds from other parts of the world. When breeders retired, their stocks were often either discarded as useless or sold for slaughter by colleagues who did not appreciate their value. In the United States, a nation almost wholly dependent on crop plants and livestock not native in North America, the elements of a national germplasm program evolved from early requests for U.S. travelers abroad to send back seeds or plants of promising trees or crops. From 1836 until 1862, when the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) was established, the U.S. Patent Office distributed seeds and plants from overseas to U.S. farmers. In 1898 a Seed and Plant Introduction Section of USDA began to promote the collection and introduction of new crops. However, it became clear that it was necessary to minimize the risk of bringing in pests and diseases. In the United States, the first plant quarantines were initiative by individual states. California, in 1881, was the first to pass an act to prevent the spread of the grape gall louse from other states. Federal plant quarantine regulations were not adopted until 1912, although drastic legislation had been accepted in Europe and Australia by 1877 to restrict the introduction of the same grape pest from the United States. Other nations in the developed world followed suit. National plant germplasm collections were established in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, the former Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. Following World War II and the establishment of the World Bank to aid the economic development of poorer nations, a network of international agricultural research centers (IARCs) began to emerge. These centers were designed to provide both improved germplasm and agronomic research to help developing countries become self-sufficient and improve their agricultural exports to world markets. Among the most visible of the IARCs are those administered by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), a body representing the principal donors that fund its activities. Centro International de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) and the International Rice Research
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies the contribution of the IRRI germplasm bank to breeding new rice cultivars for India to exemplify the value of properly managed and accessible germplasm for all crops. Chapter 14 traces genesis of "the North-South debate," which features the industrialized nations of the northern hemisphere and the developing countries of the southern hemisphere. The genesis and operation of the national and International germplasm conservation programs are discussed in Chapter 15. Conserving genetic resources is an important part of agriculture. These resources, and the environment in which they found, provide our daily bread. What stronger motivation could we possibly need to improve our management and support for them? PETER R. DAY, Chairman Committee on Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Imperatives
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Acknowledgements Many scientists and policymakers have contributed time, support, and information instrumental to the committee's analyses contained in this report. The committee thanks Robert Craig and Michael Lesnick for including several members of the committee and its staff in the Keystone Center's International Dialogues on Plant Genetic Resources; Henry Shands for support and valuable assistance throughout the project; Robert Weaver for early discussions on conservation and economics; Charles M. Rick for information on tomatoes; and Takuma Tsuchiya for information on barley. The assistance of Dennis Allsopp, Ivan Bousefield, Les Breese, Paul D. Bridge, Stephen Brush, David L. Hawksworth, Douglas Gollin, William Grant, David A. John, Robert P. Kahn, Steven King, Barbara E. Kirsop, Jan Konopka, James M. Price, Peter H. A. Judith Lyman Snow, and Theo van Hintum is gratefully acknowledged. The committee appreciated the contribution of the individuals throughout its deliberations. Many other scientists and policymakers assisted by sharing their insights and expertise throughout the study. Numerous scientists and agriculturalists around the world gave us candid assessments of genetic resources activities in their countries. To all of these individuals the committee expresses its gratitude. While the many subcommittee and work-group participants provided valuable information for this report, the conclusions and recommendations are those of the committee. Administrative support during various stages of the development of this report was provided by Philomina Mammen, Carole Spalding,
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Maryann Tully, Joseph Gagnier, and Mary Lou Sutton, and they are gratefully acknowledged. The committee also thanks Joi Brooks and Sherry Showell, interns sponsored by the Midwestern University Consortium for International Activities, for assisting in the development of the report, and Michael Hayes for his editorial work. The committee also honors the memory of William L. Brown, whose leadership and early vision of the importance of crop genetic resources were crucial to the launching of this effort.
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 An Agricultural Endowment 2 The Need for Genetic Resources 4 Accessing Genetic Resources 6 Building Cooperation 14 Looking to the Future: Recommendations 15 AN OVERVIEW OF GENETIC RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 29 The Importance of Germplasm 32 The Origins Of Conservation 33 The Usefulness Of Germplasm 34 The Threat of Genetic Vulnerability 36 Emergence of Global Concerns 37 Dissenting Views 40 The Problem of Economic Analysis 43 Microorganism Collections 43 PART I Managing Global Genetic Resources: Basic Science Issues 1 GENETIC VULNERABILITY AND CROP DIVERSITY 47 What is Genetic Vulnerability? 48 Plant, Pathogen, Pest, and Environmental Relationship 53 Breeding Strategies and Their Impact on Genetic Diversity 60 Vulnerability and Crop Diversity Since 1970 67 Recommendation 81
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies 2 CROP DIVERSITY: INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSES 85 Germplasm Collection And Conservation Worldwide 85 Development of International Crop Breeding Programs 92 Global Impact of Changes in the United States 99 Recommendation 114 3 IN SITU CONSERVATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES 117 The Importance of In Situ Conservation 117 Wild Species as Genetic Resources 119 The Status of In Situ Conservation of Wild Types 121 The Status of In Situ Conservation of Domesticated Types 127 Recommendations 128 4 THE SCIENCE OF COLLECTING GENETIC RESOURCES 131 Types of Collections 131 Sampling Strategies 134 Parameters of Genetic Diversity 135 Empirical Studies of Genetic Diversity: Numbers of Alleles and Allelic Profiles 136 Formulation of Sampling Strategies 139 Empirical Studies Of Allelic Diversity and Environmentally Influenced Genetic Differentiation 141 Sample Sizes for Each Collection Site 145 Number of Sites to Sample 150 Recommendations 151 5 THE SCIENCE OF MANAGING GENETIC RESOURCES 153 Seed Regeneration 154 Characterization 161 Evaluation 162 Monitoring of Seed Viability and Genetic Integrity During Storage 166 Recommendations 170
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies 6 USING GENETIC RESOURCES 173 An Example of Germplasm Use 173 Breeders' Perceptions and Practices 174 Users' Perceptions of the Germplasm System 179 Breeders' Perceptions of Active Collections 180 Modernization of Active Collections 183 Evolutionary Processes and Germplasm Use 184 Recommendations 186 7 BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GERMPLASM CONSERVATION 189 Alternatives to Storing Seeds and Whole Organisms 190 Molecular Conservation Technologies 197 Recommendations 202 8 DOCUMENTATION OF GENETIC RESOURCES 205 Information on Germplasm Collections 206 Computerization of Germplasm Collection Data 210 Current Status of Genetic Resources Documentations 213 Future Developments 215 Recommendations 216 9 THE CONSERVATION OF GENETIC STOCK COLLECTIONS 219 Importance and Use of Genetic Stock Collections 220 Genetic Stock Collections 220 Maintaining Genetic Stock Collections of Agricultural Crops 227 Examples of Genetic Stock Collections 229 Toward a More Secure Future 236 Recommendations 236 10 THE GENETIC RESOURCES OF MICROORGANISMS 239 Organization of Microbial Culture Collections 240 Microbial Resources in Culture Collections 242 Conserving Microbial Diversity 244 Maintenance of Genetic Stability in Culture 245 Maintenance in Natural Habitats 247 Potential of Microbes in the Agricultural, Biotechnological, and Industrial Sectors 248 Recommendations 253
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies PART II Managing Global Genetic Resources: Policy Issues 11 EXCHANGE OF GENETIC RESOURCES: QUARANTINE 259 Reducing the Risks from Pests and Pathogens 260 Quarantine and Global Transfer of Plant Genetic Resources 262 Importation of Genetic Resources 273 Recommendations 274 12 EXCHANGE OF GENETIC RESOURCES: PROPRIETARY RIGHTS 279 Proprietary Rights on Living Beings 280 Plausible Impacts of Proprietary Rights on the Terms of International Germplasm Exchange 287 Selected species 290 Implications of the Examples 298 Recommendations 301 13 GENETIC RESOURCES: ASSESSING ECONOMIC VALUE 303 Valuing Genetic Resources 303 The Problem of Lack of Markets 304 Price Evaluation Methods 306 Rice: An Example of Pricing Methods 309 Implications for Other Crop Species 318 Recommendations 319 14 CONFLICTS OVER OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT, AND USE 321 Politics and Geography 321 International Dialogue on Plant Genetic Resources 324 Responses to the Conflict Over Genetic Diversity 336 Recommendations 344 15 NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS 347 National Programs 347 International Programs 359 The Role of International Programs 364 The Global Genetic Resources Network 365
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Other International Centers 366 Constraints to Effective International Programs 374 The Future 375 Recommendations 379 REFERENCES 381 GLOSSARY 407 ABBREVIATIONS 415 AUTHORS 419 INDEX 423
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Managing Global Genetic Resources: Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies Agricultural Crop Issues and Policies
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