Page 106

4
Etiology of Child Maltreatment

Certain characteristics of child maltreatment complicate research into its etiology. These characteristics include: (1) the extreme socially deviant nature of the behavior, (2) its low prevalence, (3) the presence of multiple factors in the context of child maltreatment, such as poverty and violence, (4) changing political and historical definitions of the behavior, and (5) the troubling and complex nature of the behavior that requires a rethinking of conventional wisdom about human nature and parenting.

Variation in operational definitions and theoretical concepts of child maltreatment is a major problem in reviewing the etiology of child maltreatment. Although this chapter sometimes distinguishes among the etiologies of different kinds of maltreatment, the necessary data to support these distinctions are generally unavailable. The panel believes that, rather than separating research on subpopulations divided by types of maltreatment, it is more useful to review research within a framework that focuses on the range of factors associated with child maltreatment as a general phenomenon. The panel recognizes that some factors are more closely linked with certain forms of child abuse and neglect (such as the relationship between poverty and child neglect). However, as noted in Chapter 2, similarities and differences in the etiologies of physical abuse, physical punishment, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect have not been well articulated in the scientific literature. In many cases research has not differentiated the etiologies and outcomes associated with multiple forms of maltreatment especially when various forms co-occur in one individual, either within the



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 106
Page 106 4 Etiology of Child Maltreatment Certain characteristics of child maltreatment complicate research into its etiology. These characteristics include: (1) the extreme socially deviant nature of the behavior, (2) its low prevalence, (3) the presence of multiple factors in the context of child maltreatment, such as poverty and violence, (4) changing political and historical definitions of the behavior, and (5) the troubling and complex nature of the behavior that requires a rethinking of conventional wisdom about human nature and parenting. Variation in operational definitions and theoretical concepts of child maltreatment is a major problem in reviewing the etiology of child maltreatment. Although this chapter sometimes distinguishes among the etiologies of different kinds of maltreatment, the necessary data to support these distinctions are generally unavailable. The panel believes that, rather than separating research on subpopulations divided by types of maltreatment, it is more useful to review research within a framework that focuses on the range of factors associated with child maltreatment as a general phenomenon. The panel recognizes that some factors are more closely linked with certain forms of child abuse and neglect (such as the relationship between poverty and child neglect). However, as noted in Chapter 2, similarities and differences in the etiologies of physical abuse, physical punishment, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect have not been well articulated in the scientific literature. In many cases research has not differentiated the etiologies and outcomes associated with multiple forms of maltreatment especially when various forms co-occur in one individual, either within the

OCR for page 106
Page 107 same contemporaneous period or during a lifetime. Comparative studies of the origins and correlates of different kinds of abuse are rare. Most forms of maltreatment are part of a pattern of maladaptive behavior that emerges over time, but research evidence regarding the origins and maintenance of this pattern of behavior is not clear. Investigators disagree about whether child maltreatment is a continuum of behaviors (ranging from mild physical discipline to severe forms of physical or sexual abuse) or a set of unique behavioral problems with distinctive etiologies (Gelles, 1991). Since studies of multiple forms of maltreatment are rare and researchers generally deal with one type of maltreatment in their work, such disagreement may result from the manner in which research projects have been organized.1 More recently, researchers are giving more attention to factors such as the severity and chronicity of abuse and neglect and the co-occurrence of multiple forms of maltreatment. With few exceptions (Wolfe, 1991), most etiological models lack a vocabulary for understanding the temporal organization of child maltreatment or demonstrating potential connections between maladjustments (including attitudes and beliefs) and abusive behaviors of the perpetrators. The existing models also do not resolve uncertainties about the continuum that may or may not exist between physical punishment and physical abuse, or between inadequate care giving and parental neglect. As a result, we currently know very little about the significant causes and pathways that influence risk factors in the etiology of child maltreatment. Overview Of Etiological Models Etiological models of child maltreatment are beginning to evolve from isolated cause-and-effect models to more sophisticated approaches that consider multiple pathways and interactive effects among factors that contribute to child maltreatment.2 In the early 1970s, recognizing the limitations of focusing on only parent or only child characteristics, researchers started to emphasize interactions among child, parent, and environmental risk factors. Gil (1970), for example, was one of the first to document the role of poverty and family disadvantage on the rates of child abuse. His work was followed by investigations by Garbarino (1977), who noted that isolation from social support systems was a significant, but not a sufficient, condition of child maltreatment (Wolfe, 1991). The recognition of the role of ecological or ''situational" factors gradually led to the development of contemporary multicausal interactive models, which emphasize the importance of the sociocultural context of child maltreatment. Current theoretical models include: (a) the ecological models of Belsky and Garbarino, based on the conceptions of Urie Bronfenbrenner (Belsky, 1980, Garbarino, 1977; Lutzker, 1984); (b) the transitional model

OCR for page 106
Page 108 of Wolfe, which views child maltreatment as an escalating process and as one end of the continuum of maladaptive parenting (Wolfe, 1991); and (c) the transactional model of Cicchetti (Cicchetti and Carlson, 1989), based on Sameroff and Chandler's (1975) formulations. Although simple models identified key variables associated with child maltreatment—often termed "risk factors"—they did not establish a firm etiology of child maltreatment or specify causal relationships or sequences between the associated variables. Furthermore, results across these studies are often conflicting, and the predictive power of single variables, such as the individual characteristics of the parent, child, or environment alone, is limited. The emerging social interactional models emphasize the importance of viewing child maltreatment in the context of the family, community, and society rather than emphasizing only individual parental psychopathology or individual stressors (Belsky, 1980, 1992; Cicchetti and Carlson, 1989; Garbarino, 1977; Parke and Collmer, 1975; Wolfe, 1991). The phenomenon of child abuse and neglect has thus been moved away from the conception of an individual disorder or psychological disturbance, toward the conception of a symptom of an extreme disturbance of childrearing, often part of a context of other serious family problems, such as poverty, alcoholism, or antisocial behavior (Burgess, 1979; Pelton, 1989; Starr, 1979; Wolfe, 1991). New empirical findings invoking interaction models suggest that, although studies of abusive and nonabusive parents have not detected important significant differences in terms of personality dimensions, studies of the interactions of abusive and nonabusive family processes have yielded important distinctions, including unrealistic expectations of their children, the tendency to view their own children's behavior as extremely stressful, and their view of themselves as inadequate or incompetent in the parenting role (Wolfe, 1991). As a result of these shifting paradigms, the panel has observed that terms in the research literature on the origins of child maltreatment are often confused in discussions of cause and effect and risk relationships. The use of terms in child maltreatment studies such as risk factors, intermediate or moderator variables, mitigators, mediators, confounding variables, and so forth lacks the precision found in fields that have more developed sources of statistical and epidemiological data to test theories.3 Furthermore, theoretical terms used in child maltreatment discussions are generally not matched by empirical data, and factors that are hypothesized as significant correlates have often not been tested in rigorous controlled studies. Much of the data base relies on anecdotal material derived from clinical research. As a result, many variables are hypothesized as acting in multiple ways, sometimes as antecedents to child maltreatment, sometimes as consequences, sometimes as factors that are present with or without a modifying effect on the causal relationships that result in child maltreatment.

OCR for page 106
Page 109 For example, a strong association has been shown between the role of poverty in generating stressful experiences and the anger that become precipitating factors in child abuse and neglect (Gil, 1970; Pelton, 1978, 1989). Yet the relationship between poverty and child maltreatment is complex—most poor parents clearly are not abusive and poverty alone is not a sufficient or necessary antecedent for child maltreatment. In addition, the effects of parent and family characteristics on the etiology of child maltreatment may vary significantly with social class (Trickett et al., 1991). Interactive models generally build on a probabilistic risk assessment process, assuming that child maltreatment occurs when multiple risk factors outweigh protective, compensatory, and buffering factors (Cicchetti and Carlson, 1989). Some factors may be relatively enduring and others transient. Some factors may play important roles in instigating maltreatment, while others may help sustain patterns of abuse and neglect. A factor may be protective in some combinations or increase the potential for abuse (potentiating) in others. It is the combination of risk potentiating and protective factors in all levels of the system that determine the likelihood of maltreatment, rather than a single factor serving as a causal influence in isolation from the others (Cicchetti and Carlson, 1989). In reviewing potentiating and contributing factors, researchers often focus on risk factors that appear to be malleable, that is, that can be changed as a result of a treatment or preventive interventions. This perspective suggests that maltreatment results from complex constellations of correlated variables whose influence may increase or decrease during different developmental and historical periods. The combined effects of multiple variables provide diverse possible pathways to maltreatment. Furthermore, interactive models recognize that risk and protective factors are not static, but change over time as individuals, their life circumstances, and the society in which they live change. The interactive models, although relatively new, show promise and suggest issues that need to be addressed in research on the etiology of child maltreatment. However, the complexity of analysis associated with interactive models and the difficulties of distinguishing causal effects from observational data have inhibited their testing and application. The panel has selected a developmental/ecological/transactional model of the etiology of child maltreatment as the basis for reviewing the key literature relevant to this chapter (Belsky, 1980; Cicchetti and Lynch, in press; Garbarino, 1977). As summarized in Figure 4.1, this model was selected for its breadth and advantages in organizing the large and often conflicting literature on the etiology of child maltreatment. Although the selected model identifies promising strategies or questions that should be addressed in future research, it is not intended to exclude others in research on child maltreatment.

OCR for page 106
Page 110 FIGURE 4.1 Diagram of Belsky's (1980) ecologically integrative model of child abuse. SOURCE: Hamilton, Stiles, Melowsky, and Beal (1987). The selected model views maltreatment within a system of risk and protective factors interacting across four levels: (1) the individual or ontogenic level, (2) the family microsystem, (3) the exosystem, and (4) the social macrosystem. The ontogenic level involves individual characteristics and the changing developmental status of family members. The family microsystem includes the family environment, parenting styles, and interactions among family members. The exosystem consists of the community in which the family lives, the workplace of the parents, school and peer groups of the family members, formal and informal social supports and services available to the family, and other factors such as family income, employment, and job availability. Finally, the social macrosystem consists of the overarching values and beliefs of the culture. The ecological/developmental framework indicated in Figure 4.1 begins with an analysis of individual factors at the individual level and proceeds through the other ecological levels. This approach follows the conception

OCR for page 106
Page 111 of human development as being nested within a set of transacting ecological systems. This conceptual framework is presented by the panel to highlight emerging research priorities in the field of child maltreatment. Individual Ontogenic Factors The influence of ontogenic factors such as adult4 and child characteristics in contributing to child maltreatment is often moderated by interactions with other factors. Attempts to identify adult or child characteristics related to maltreatment have produced an inconsistent and contradictory research literature. Consequently, the effects of individual factors need to be studied in conjunction with other factors and not studied in isolation. Adult Personality Characteristics Early studies of the etiology of child maltreatment assumed that a distinct psychiatric syndrome or disorder would be found to characterize parents or other caretakers (such as stepparents, grandparents, and foster parents) who maltreat children under their supervision and care. Although a small percentage of parents involved in child maltreatment could be diagnosed with a psychotic disorder, most individuals were identified as troubled or anxious persons who rarely exhibited extreme psychopathology (Steele and Pollock, 1968). A consistent profile of parental psychopathology or a significant level of mental disturbance has not been supported (e.g., Melnick and Hurley, 1969; Polansky et al., 1981, 1992; Spinetta and Rigler, 1972). However, certain types of psychiatric disorders can be important factors in determining outcomes for the maltreated child—children reported as maltreated are less likely to remain with their biological family if evidence of a parental psychiatric disorder is obtained (Runyan et al., 1981; Widom, 1991). Physical Abuse Early psychiatric studies stimulated a search for parental characteristics and a personality profile of abusing parents (Milner and Chilamkurti, 1991).5 Recent prospective studies (e.g., Pianta et al., 1989) have identified a set of parental personality attributes associated with child maltreatment that have emerged with sufficient frequency to warrant attention. These attributes are low self-esteem, external locus of control, poor impulse control, negative affectivity (including depression and anxiety), and antisocial behavior (including aggression and substance abuse) (for reviews, see Baumrind, 1992; Belsky, 1992; Cicchetti and Lynch, in press). Central in these attributes is a triad of highly correlated personality characteristics, involving depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior.

OCR for page 106
Page 112 Depression, anxiety, and antisocial behavior are associated with disrupted social relations, social isolation, unavailability or lack of utilization of social supports, and an inability to cope with stress (Crittenden, 1985; Wolfe, 1985). Disruptions in social relations are also found in studies of maltreating parents who are described as insular, alienated, unhappy and dissatisfied in relationships with friends, neighbors, spouses, and children. This pervasive discontent and lack of skill in social relations can be exacerbated by additional stressors (Belsky, 1980; Cicchetti and Lynch, in press; Garbarino, 1977). Furthermore, these attributes and attitudes are likely to increase the probability of encountering stressful life experiences and inhibit the development of supportive relationships with a spouse, friends, and family that could help buffer the affected individual from the effects of stress. Neglect Polansky et al. (1981) have proposed that parental characteristics help explain the origins of neglect, particularly chronic neglect. Early studies of neglectful families have suggested that child neglect is only one expression of pervasive and deeply rooted inadequacies in the life of a parent that sometimes appear early in adolescence. This condition has been termed as a character disorder of neglectful parents, usually expressed as the "apathy-futility syndrome" and the "impulse-ridden character" (Polansky et al., 1972, 1981, 1992). Although neglectful parents appear to be less depressed, anxious, angry, and confused than physically abusive parents (Pianta et al., 1989), such parents have been termed childlike or infantile, revealing an absence of self-esteem and an inability to plan important life choices such as marriage, having children, or getting a job. Impulse-ridden behaviors can result from early deprivations in the parent's own life, usually involving the absence of mature adults with whom the child may identify. Sexual Abuse The literature on adult personality characteristics associated with child sexual abuse is more extensive than that of other forms of child maltreatment, since the primary etiology of child sexual abuse has been sought in the profile of the adult offender in contrast to other forms of child maltreatment, which often focus on parent-child interactions. Although no specific syndrome or diagnostic category has been associated with child sexual abuse, personality characteristics frequently found in child molesters have contributed to various etiological theories of pedophilia (DSM-III-R, 1987). Some child molesters are reported to be timid, unassertive and awkward; others

OCR for page 106
Page 113 exhibit conduct disorder and poor impulse control; others are successful community leaders who have achieved professional respect. Empirical evidence clarifying the role of psychological and psychosexual development and maturity levels of child molesters is needed (Araji and Finkelhor, 1986). Psychiatric profiles used to classify sex offenders frequently report the presence of an antisocial personality disorder among child molesters, but sex offenders have a heterogeneous range of psychopathology and personality disorders and an accepted system for sexual offender classification and the contribution of perpetrator characteristics has not been established6 (Conte, 1984; Hartman and Burgess, 1989; Lanning, 1992; Prentky, 1990). Currently, Faller has suggested an incest-assault continuum, noting that, although contributing factors from the cultural, environmental, individual, and family context will vary from case to case, sexual abuse requires "an adult who has sexual desires toward children and the willingness to act upon them" (Faller, 1988:115). Efforts to classify pedophiles and incest offenders have also focused on the style of abuse, drawing on information obtained from offender self-reports, criminal investigative reports, and victim reports (Hartman and Burgess, 1989). A series of research studies have sought to highlight critical factors in the style of sexual abuse, such as the degree of violence (Finkelhor, 1984; Wyatt and Newcomb, 1990), the relationships among sexual stimuli and violence stimuli and their respective arousal components (Hartman and Burgess, 1989); the offender-victim relationship (Panton, 1978; Wyatt and Newcombe, 1990), the victim's and offender's age (Armentrout and Hauer, 1978); and the offender's level of education and mediators to negative outcomes (Knight, 1985; Wyatt and Newcombe, 1990). Although the large majority of adult offenders in reported child sexual abuse cases are male, the increasing number of reports of female offenders suggests an unexplored pathway in examining the dynamics and origins of child sexual abuse (Finkelhor, 1987). Although women have been reported in a smaller number of cases (Finkelhor, 1987), concerns about detection bias, general research inattention to women, and the significance of maternal-child relations suggest that the role of female sexual offenders has been underestimated in research on child sexual abuse. Clinical studies of child victims of sexual abuse as well as adult offenders (based on retrospective studies) indicate that behavioral and perceptual disorders resulting from childhood sexual victimization may contribute to subsequent assault behavior (Becker, 1988; Hartman and Burgess, 1989). One promising area of research inquiry has examined outcomes—such as power, control, sadistic pleasure, or displaced anger—that offenders seek to achieve in the sexual victimization of a child (Knight et al., 1985). Finkelhor (1987) has proposed four major theories, often presented as competing explanations, to explain child sexual abuse:

OCR for page 106
Page 114 • Abusers obtain powerful, developmentally induced emotional gratification from the acts; • Abusers have deviant physiological sexual arousal patterns; • Abusers are blocked by arrested psychosexual development and emotional immaturity in their capacity to meet their sexual needs in more conventional ways; and • Abusers have problems in their capacity for behavioral inhibition (Finkelhor, 1987). The search for a biological basis for child sexual abuse has also not been successful. Although mental retardation or physiological abnormalities sometimes provoke arousal and disinhibition in sexual abusers, such abnormalities have not been substantiated as a major cause of sexual abuse (Araji and Finkelhor, 1986; Kelly and Lusk, 1992; Langevin, 1983). Hormone levels and chromosomal makeup have been studied extensively, but definitive evidence of these factors accounting for specific sexual interest toward children has not emerged (Goy and McEwen, 1977; Kelly and Lusk, 1992). The disinhibiting contribution of alcohol and alcoholism is the most frequent and well-established biologic agent often associated with sexual abuse, ranging from 19 to 70 percent of reported cases (Aarens et al., 1978; Finkelhor, 1987; Morgan, 1982). Other potent psychoactive agents, such as opiates (including heroin), amphetamines, and cocaine, may be additional pharmacological contributors to abuse. However, the nature of the relationship of substance use and abuse, different types of substance abuse situations, and the use of violence against children is not well understood. Empirical studies have been biased by a reliance on reported incidents of drunkenness or drug use rather than studying the emerging relationship between such phenomena and child maltreatment as they occur (Pernanen, 1991). Cultural acceptance of the disinhibiting effects of alcohol (MacAndrew and Edgerton, 1969) or drugs has been proposed as one theory that provides an explanation for the breach of social norms and standards involved in child sexual abuse, but theoretical work in this area is in a very early stage of development. Emotional Maltreatment The etiology of emotional abuse and neglect is less developed than that of the other three forms of maltreatment discussed above. However, emotional maltreatment appears to be more prevalent, and some investigators believe that its consequences are more destructive than other forms of child abuse and neglect (Garbarino and Vondra, 1987; Hart and Brassard, 1987; Hart et al., 1987). The relationship between the etiology of emotional maltreatment and other forms of child abuse and neglect is currently not known.

OCR for page 106
Page 115 Summary Although we have limited knowledge about processes that link adult and child characteristics and child maltreatment, a considerable research literature on child maltreatment, stress and coping, developmental psychopathology, and normal child development indicates that parental personality characteristics influence child development primarily through the interactive process of parenting. Disrupted parenting can occur in a variety of ways, especially when a parent's personality attributes (such as anger, anxiety, etc.) are compounded by additional stressors such as marital conflict, poverty, unemployment, and having a difficult child (Conger et al., 1984; Hetherington, 1991; Patterson et al., 1992). It is vital, therefore, that scientists examine individual or psychological factors in combination with each other to develop a more comprehensive understanding of their contributions to child maltreatment. Adult Attitudes, Attributions, and Cognition Cognitive factors in adults who maltreat children, including negative attitudes and attributions about their children's behavior and inaccurate knowledge and expectations about child development, also play a contributing role in child maltreatment, especially neglect (Holden et al., 1992; Zuravin, 1987). Attitudes held before the birth of the child, such as negative maternal attitude toward an unwanted or unplanned pregnancy, have also been associated with later maltreatment (Altmeier et al., 1982; Brunquell et al., 1981; Egeland and Brunquell, 1979; Murphy et al., 1985; Zuravin, 1987). Abusive parents may have incomplete or distorted knowledge and understanding of normal child development or their own children's behaviors. The tendency of physical abusers to impart negative attributes to others, including their own children and interpersonal relationships, is associated both with differences in abusive parents' expectations and attributions about children's behavior and with psychophysiological hyperresponsiveness to stimuli. In comparison to nonabusive parents, abusive parents show greater physiological reactivity as well as irritation and annoyance in response to children's positive and negative affective states and behavior (Casanova et al., 1992). For example, abusive parents, in comparison with nonabusive parents, sometimes perceive their children as more aggressive and intentionally disobedient, annoying, and less intelligent, although other observers fail to detect such differences in the children's behavior (Mash et al., 1983; Reid et al., 1987). In addition, physically abusive mothers perceive their children's negative behavior as a result of stable internal factors such as a

OCR for page 106
Page 116 personality trait, but their positive behaviors as a result of unstable external factors. The reverse is true for nonabusive mothers (Larrance and Twentyman, 1983). Research has been contradictory on abusive parents' knowledge of normal child development as a contributing factor to maltreatment. While some studies have pointed to abusive parents' limited understanding of child development (Disbrow et al., 1977; Spinetta and Rigler, 1972), others have found no significant differences from nonabusive parents (Starr, 1982). Starr (1992) suggests that, even if abusive parents have adequate child development knowledge, they may not apply such knowledge to their childrearing practices. The absence of studies on how transactions between fathers' and children's characteristics and life circumstances promote or buffer children from the risk of maltreatment is a major gap in the research literature. With the exception of studies of sexual abuse, researchers generally exclude analysis of fathers' attributes or roles within the family or rely on maternal reports of such information, which is a major methodological limitation (Holden et al., 1992). This exclusion results from the difficulties of recruiting fathers into child maltreatment studies. Intergenerational Transmission of Abusive Parenting The notion that abused children become abusing parents has received significant attention and has been one of the most pervasive and popular themes in the literature over the past several decades (Cicchetti and Aber, 1980; Kaufman and Zigler, 1987; Kempe and Kempe, 1978; Steele and Pollack, 1968; Widom, 1989). Two clinicians at the forefront of child maltreatment research in the 1970s observed that "the most constant fact (concerning child abusers) is that parents themselves were nearly always abused or battered or neglected as children" (Fontana, 1973:74, quoted in Belsky, 1992) and that "we see an unbroken line in the repetition of parental abuse from childhood into the adult years" (Steele, 1976:15, quoted in Belsky, 1992).7 The intergenerational hypothesis is controversial because it is supported largely by retrospective analyses. Retrospective studies suggest that the rate of intergenerational transmission is high and that the vast majority of abusing parents were abused as children. For example, Steele and Pollack (1968), in a study evaluating clinical data, found that all 60 abusing parents had been abused during childhood. Retrospective studies indicate a range between 7 percent (Gil, 1970) and 70 percent (Egeland and Jacobvitz, 1984) in the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment. Kaufman and Zigler's (1987) partial review of the literature estimated a 30 percent rate (plus or minus 5 percent) of intergenerational transmission.

OCR for page 106
Page 150 Floody. O.R., and D.W. Pfaff 1972 Steroid hormones and aggressive behavior: Approaches to the study of hormonesensitive brain mechanisms for behavior. Aggression 149-185. Fontana, V. 1973 The diagnosis of the maltreatment syndrome in children. Pediatrics 51:780-782. Friederich, W.N. 1988 Behavior problems in sexually abused children. Pp. 171-191 in G.E. Wyatt and G.J. Powell, eds., The Lasting Effects of Child Sexual Abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Gabinet, L. 1983 Child abuse treatment failures reveal need for redefinition of the problem. Child Abuse and Neglect 7:395-402. Garbarino, J. 1977 The human ecology of child maltreatment: A conceptual model for research. Journal of Marriage and the Family 39:721-735. Garbarino, J., and A. Crouter 1978 Defining the community context for parent-child relations: The correlates of child maltreatment. Child Development 49:604-616. Garbarino, J., and D. Sherman 1980 High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk familes: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development 51:188-198. Garbarino, J., and J. Vondra. 1987 Psychological maltreatment: Issues and perspectives. Pp. 24-44 in M.R. Brassard, R.Germain, and S.N. Hart, eds., Psychological Maltreatment of Children and Youth. New York: Pergamon Press. Gelles, R.J. 1983 International perspectives on child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect 7(4):375-386. 1991 Physical violence, child abuse, and child homicide: A continuum of violence or distinct behaviors. Human Nature 2(1):59-72. 1992 Poverty and violence toward children. American Behavioral Scientist 35(3):258-274. Gelles, R.J., and A.W. Edfeldt 1986 Violence towards children in the United States and Sweden. Child Abuse and Neglect 10:501-510. Gelles, R.J., and E.F. Hargreaves 1981 Maternal employment and violence toward children. Journal of Family Issues 2:509-530. Gelles, R.J., and M.A. Straus 1988 Intimate Violence. New York: Simon and Schuster. George, C., and M. Main 1979 Social interactions of young abused children: Approach, avoidance, and aggression. Child Development 50:306-318. Gil, D.G. 1970 Violence Against Children: Physical Child Abuse in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Giovannoni, J.M., and A. Billingsley 1970 Child neglect among the poor: A study of parental adequacy in families of three ethnic groups. Child Welfare 49(April):196-204. Goldberg, S. 1983 Parent-infant bonding: Another look. Child Development 54:1355-1382.

OCR for page 106
Page 151 Goodwin, J., T. McCarthy, and P. Divasto 1981 Prior incest in mothers of abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect 5:87-96. Goy, R., and B. McEwen 1977 Sexual Differentiation and the Brain. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Groth, N.A., W.F. Hobson, and T.S. Gary 1982 The child molester: Clinical observations. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality 1(1-2):129-144. Hamilton, A., W.B. Stiles, F. Melowsky, and D.G. Beal 1987 A multilevel comparison of child abusers with nonabusers. Journal of Family Violence 2(3):215-225. Hamilton, C.J., and J.J. Collins 1982 The role of alcohol in wife beating and child abuse: A review of the literature. Pp. 253-287 in J.J. Collins, ed., Drinking and Crime: Perspectives on the Relationships Between Alcohol Consumption and Criminal Behavior. London: Guilford Press. Harford, T.C., and D.A. Parker 1985 Alcohol dependence and problem drinking in a national sample. Pp. 29-31 in Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco: An International Perspective for the Future, Volume II. Proceedings of the 34th International Congress on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, Calgary, Alberta. Hart, S.N., and M.R. Brassard 1987 A major threat to children's mental health: Psychological maltreatment. American Psychologist 42(2):160-165. Hart, S.N., R., Germain, and M.R. Brassard. 1987 The challenge: To better understand and combat the psychological maltreatment of children and youth. Pp. 3-234 in M.R. Brassard, R. Germain, and S.N. Hart, eds., Psychological Maltreatment of Children and Youth. New York: Pergamon Press. Hartman, C.R., and A.W. Burgess 1989 Sexual abuse of children: Causes and consequences. Pp. 95-128 in D. Cicchetti and V. Carlson, eds., Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hetherington, E.M. 1989 Coping with family transitions: Winners, losers and survivors. Child Development 60:1-15. 1991 The role of individual difference in family relations in coping with divorce and remarriage. In P. Cowan and E.M. Hetherington, eds., Advances in Family Research: Vol. 2 Family Transitions. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press. Hetherington, E.M., and W.G. Clingempeel 1992 Coping with marital transitions: A family systems perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 57(no. 2-3). Higley, J.D., and S.J. Suomi 1989 Temperamental reactivity in non-human primates. Pp 153-167 in G.A. Kohnstamm, J.E. Bates, and M.K. Rothbart, eds., Temperament in Childhood. New York: John Wiley. Holden, E.W., D.J. Willis, and M. Corcoran 1992 Pp. 17-46 (Chapter 2) in D.J. Willis, E.W. Holden, and M. Rosenberg, eds., Prevention of Child Maltreatment: Developmental and Ecological Perspectives. New York: John Wiley.

OCR for page 106
Page 152 Hrdy, S.B. 1976 Care and exploitation of nonhuman primate infants by conspecifics other than the mother. In D. Lehrman, R.A. Hinde, and E. Shaw, eds., Advances in the Study of Behavior Vol 4. New York: Academic Press. Huesmann, L.R., L.D. Eron, M.M. Lefkowitz, and L.O. Walder 1984 Stability of aggression over time and generations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 20:1120-1134. Hunter, R.S., and N. Kilstrom 1979 Breaking the cyle in abusive families. American Journal of Psychiatry 36(October):1320-1322. Hunter, R.S., N. Kilstrom, E.N. Kraybill, and F. Loda 1978 Antecedents of child abuse and neglect in premature infants: A prospective study in a newborn intensive care unit. Pediatrics 61:629-635. Huston, A.C. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kadushin, A. 1976 Child welfare services. Children Today (May/June) 5(3):16-23. Kadushin, A., and J.A. Martin 1981 Child Abuse: An Interactional Event. New York: Columbia University Press. Kamel, F., E. Mock, W. Wright, and A. Frankel 1975 Alterations in plasma concentrations of testosterone, LH, and prolactin associated with mating in the male rat. Hormones and Behavior 6(3):277-288. Kaufman, J., and E. Zigler 1987 Do abused children become abusive parents? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57:186-192. Kavanaugh, K., L. Youngblade, J. Reid, and B. Fagot 1988 Interactions between children and abusive control parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 17:137-142. Kelly, R.J., and R. Lusk 1992 Theories of pedophilia. In W. O'Donohue and J.H. Geer, eds., The Sexual Abuse of Children: Theory and Research, Volume 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press. Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Steele, W. Droegemueller, and H.R. Silver. 1962 The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association 181(1):17-24. Kempe, R.S., and C.H. Kempe 1978 Child Abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kinard, E.M., and L.V. Klerman 1980 Teenage parenting and child abuse: Are they related? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 50(3):481-488. Klein, M., and L. Stern 1971 Low birth weight and the battered child syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Childhood 122:15-18. Knight, R.A. 1985 A taxonomic analysis of child molesters. Pp. 2-20 in R.A. Prentky and V.L. Quinsey, eds., Human Sexual Aggression: Current Perspectives. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 528. New York: The New York Academy of Sciences. Knudsen, D.D. 1988 Child sexual abuse and pornography: Is there a relationship? Journal of Family Violence 3(4):253-267.

OCR for page 106
Page 153 Kotelchuck, M. 1982 Child abuse and neglect: Prediction and misclassification. Pp. 67-104 in R.H. Starr, ed., Child Abuse Prediction: Policy Implications. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Kreuz, L.E., and R.M. Rose 1972 Assessment of aggressive behavior and plasma testosterone in a young criminal population. Psychosomatic Medicine 34:321-332. Krugman, R.D., M. Lenherr, L. Betz, and G.E. Fryer 1986 The relationship between unemployment and physical abuse of children. Child Abuse and Neglect 10:415-418. Langevin, R. 1983 Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press. Lanning, K.V. 1987 Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis. December. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Arlington, VA. 1992 Investigators' Guide to Allegations of Ritual Abuse. January. National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. Quantico, VA. Lanyon, R.I. 1986 Theory and treatment in child molestation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 54(2):176-182. Larrance, D.T., and C.T. Twentyman 1983 Maternal attribution and child abuse. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92:449-457. Last, J.M. 1988 A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Lauderdale, M., A. Valiunas, and R. Anderson 1980 Race, ethnicity, and child maltreatment: An empirical analysis. Child Abuse and Neglect 4:163-169. Leventhal, J.M. 1981 Risk factors for child abuse: Methodologic standards in case-control studies. Pediatrics 68(November):684-690. Leventhal, J.M., S. Horwitz, C. Rude, and D. Stier 1993 Maltreatment of children born to teenage mothers: A comparison between the 1960s and the 1980s. Journal of Pediatrics 122:314-319. Lewis, D.O. 1992 From abuse to violence: Psychophysiological consequences of maltreatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 31(3):383-391. Lewis, D.O., J.H. Pincus, B. Bard, and E. Richardson 1988 Neuropsychiatric, psycho-educational, and family characteristics of 14 juveniles condemned to death in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry 145(5):584-589. Lewis, D.O., S.S. Shanok, J.H. Pincus, and G.H. Glaser 1980 Violent juvenile delinquents. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry and Child Development: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological Abuse Factors: 591-603. 1989 Toward a theory of the genesis of violence: A follow-up study of delinquents. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 28(3):431-436. Lichtenstein, K. 1983 Prediction Based on Census Data and Economic Indicators. Paper presented at the 3rd National Conference on Research, Demonstration, and Evaluation in Social Services, American Public Welfare Association, Washington, DC.

OCR for page 106
Page 154 Light, R. 1973 Abused and neglected children in America: A study of alternative policies. Harvard Educational Review 43:556-598. Lorber, R., D.K. Felton, and J.B. Reid 1984 A social learning approach to the reduction of coercive processes in child abusive families: A molecular analysis. Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy 6:29-45. Lutzker, J.R. 1984 Project 12-Ways: Treating child abuse and neglect from an ecobehavioral perspective. Pp. 260-295 in R.F. Dangel and R.A. Polster, eds., Parent Training: Foundations of Research and Practice. New York: Guilford Press. Lynch, M.A., and J. Roberts 1977 Predicting child abuse: Signs of bonding failure in the maternity hospital. British Medical Journal 1:624-626. MacAndrew, C., and R.B. Edgerton 1969 Drunken Comportment: A Social Explanation. Chicago, IL: Aldine. Maccoby, E.E., and J.A. Martin 1983 Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. Pp. 1-102 in P.H. Mussen and E.M. Hetherington, eds., Handbook of Child Psychology: Socialization, Personality, and Social Development. New York: John Wiley and Sons. MacLean, P. 1985 Brain evolution relating to family, play and the separation call. Archives of General Psychiatry 42:405-417. Main, M. 1983 Exploration, play, and cognitive functioning related to infant mother attachment. Infant Behavior and Development 6:167-174. Marshall, W.L. 1989 Pornography and sex offenders. Pp. 185-214 in D. Zillmann and J. Bryant, eds., Pornography: Research Advances and Policy Considerations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press. Mash, E.J, C. Johnston, and K. Kovitz 1983 A comparision of the mother-child interactions of physically abused and nonabused children during play and task situations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 12:337-346. Mason, J.O. 1989 The Harm of Pornography. Address to the Religious Alliance Against Pornography. October 26. McCormick, K.F. 1992 Attitudes of primary care physicians toward corporal punishment. Journal of the American Medical Association 267(23)(June 17):3161-3165. Meisels, S.J., and J.W. Plunkett 1988 Developmental consequences of preterm birth: Are there long-term effects? Pp. 87-128 in P.B. Baltes, D.L. Featherman, and R.M. Lerner, eds., Life-span Development and Behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Melnick, B., and J.R. Hurley 1969 Distinctive personality of child-abusing mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 33(December):746-749. Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L. 1974 Aggression, and androgens, and the XYY syndrome. Pp. 433-453 in R.C. Friedman, R.M. Richart, and R. Vande Wiele, eds., Sex Differences in Behavior. New York: John Wiley.

OCR for page 106
Page 155 Milner, J.S., and C. Chilamkurti 1991 Physical child abuse perpetrator characteristics: A review of the literature. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 6(3)(September):345-366. Monti, P.M., W.A. Brown, and M.A. Corriveau 1977 Testosterone and components of aggressive and sexual behavior in man. American Journal Psychiatry 134:692-694. Morgan, P. 1982 Alcohol and family violence: A review of the literature. In National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, Alcohol Abuse, Alcohol Consumption and Related Problems. (Alcohol and Health Monograph 1) Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Murphy, S., B. Orkow, and R.M. Nicola 1985 Prenatal prediction of child abuse and neglect: A prospective study. Child Abuse and Neglect 9(2):225-235. National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect 1981 National Study of the Incidence and Severity of Child Abuse and Neglect. 81-30325. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [NIS-1] 1988 Study Findings: Study of National Incidence and Prevalence of Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [NIS-2] National Research Council 1990 Who Cares for America's Children? Panel on Child Care Policy, Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Oates, K. 1986 Child Abuse and Neglect: What Happens Eventually? New York: Brunner Mazel. Oates, R.K., A.A. Davis, M.G. Ryan, and L.F. Stewart 1979 Risk factors associated with child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect 3:547-553. Ogbu, J. 1981 Origins of human competence: A cultural-ecological perspective. Child Development 52:413-429. Orme, T.C., and J. Rimmer 1981 Alcoholism and child abuse. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 42:273-287. Panton, J.H. 1978 Personality differences appearing between rapists of adults, rapists of children, and non-violent sexual molesters of children. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior 3(4):385-393. Parke, R.D., and C.W. Collmer 1975 Child abuse: An interdisciplinary analysis. Pp. 509-590 in E.M. Hetherington, ed., Review of Child Development Research 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Parmalee, A.H., Jr. 1975 Neurophysiological and behavioral organization of premature infants in the first months of life. Biological Psychiatry 10:501-512. Patterson, G.R. 1982 Coercive Family Processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Co. Patterson, G.R., J.B. Reid, and T.J. Dishion 1992 Antisocial Boys. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Co.

OCR for page 106
Page 156 Pelton, L.H. 1978 Child abuse and neglect: The myth of classlessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 48:608-617. 1981 The Social Context of Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Human Sciences Press. 1989 For Reasons of Poverty. New York: Praeger. Pernanen, K. 1991 Alcohol in Human Violence. New York: Guilford Press. Peters, J.J. 1976 Children who are victims of sexual assault and the psychology of offenders. American Journal of Psychotherapy 30(3):395-421. Pianta, R.C., and B. Egeland 1990 Life stress and parenting outcomes in a disadvantaged sample: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction project. Special Issue: The stresses of parenting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 19(4):329-336. Pianta, R., B. Egeland, and M.F. Erickson 1989 The antecedents of maltreatment: Results of the Mother-Child Interaction Research Project. Pp. 203-253 in D. Cicchetti and V. Carlson, eds., Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press. Polansky, N.A., R. Borgman, and C. DeSaix 1972 Roots of Futility. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Polansky, N.A., M.A. Chalmers, E.Buttenweiser, and D.P. Williams 1981 Damaged Parents: An Anatomy of Child Neglect. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Polansky, N.A., J.M. Gaudin, and A.C. Kilpatrick 1992 Family radicals. Children and Youth Services Review 14:19-26. Pollock, V.E., J. Briere, L. Schneider, J. Knop, S.A. Mednick, and D.W. Goodwin 1990 Childhood antecedents of antisocial behavior: Parental alcoholism and physical abusiveness. American Journal of Psychiatry 147:1290-1293. Powell, G.F., and J.L. Low 1983 Behavior in non-organic failure to thrive. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 4:26-33. Powell, G.F., J.L. Low, and M.A. Spears 1987 Behavior as a diagnostic aid in failure to thrive. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 8:18-24. Prentky, R.A. 1990 Sexual Violence. Paper prepared for the Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior. Washington, DC: National Research Council. Rada, R.T., D.R. Laws, and R. Kellner 1976 Plasma testosterone levels in the rapist. Psychosomatic Medicine 38:257-268. Reid, J.B., K. Kavanagh, and D.V. Baldwin 1987 Abusive parents' perceptions of child problem behaviors: An example of parental bias. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15:457-466. Rines, J.P., and F.S. Vom Saal 1984 Fetal effects on sexual behavior and aggression in young and old female mice treated with estrogen and progesterone. Hormones and Behavior 18(2):117-129. Robins, L.N., and D.A. Regier, eds. 1991 Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. New York: Free Press.

OCR for page 106
Page 157 Robins, L.N., J.E. Helzer, M.M. Weissman, H. Orvaschel, E. Gruenberg, J.D. Burke, and D.A. Regier 1984 Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in 3 sites. Archives of General Psychiatry 41(10):949-958. Rosenbaum, A., and K.D. O'Leary 1981 Children: The unintended victims of marital violence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 51:692-699. Rosenberg, M.S. 1987 New directions for research on the psychological maltreatment of children. American Psychologist 42:166-171. Runyan, D.K., C.L. Gould, D.C. Trost, and F.A. Loda 1981 Determinants of foster care placement for the maltreated child. American Journal of Public Health 71(July):706-711. Russell, D.E.H. 1986 The Secret Trauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women. New York: Basic Books. Rutter, M. 1987 Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57(3):316-331. Sameroff, A.J., and M. Chandler 1975 Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. Pp. 187-244 in F. Horowitz, ed., Review of Child Development Research 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Scheper-Hughes, N., ed. 1987 Child Survival: Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children. Boston: Kluwer. Schetky, D.H. 1988 Child pornography and prostitution. Pp. 153-165 in D.H. Schetky and A.H. Green, eds., Child Sexual Abuse: A Handbook for Health Care and Legal Professionals. New York: Brunner/Maxel. Shosenberg, N. 1980 Self-help groups for parents of premature infants. Canadian Nurse (July-August):30-33. Smith, D.E., M.D. King, and B.G. Hoebel 1970 Lateral hypothalamic control of killing: Evidence for a cholinoceptive mechanism. Science 167:900-901. Spinetta, J.J., and D. Rigler 1972 The child abusing parent: A psychological review. Psychological Bulletin 77:296-304. Sroufe, L.A. 1983 Infant-caregiver attachment and patterns of adaptation in preschool: The roots of maladaptation and competence. Pp. 41-83 in M. Perlmutter, ed., Minnesota Symposium in Child Psychology 16. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press. Stark, R., and J. McElvoy, III 1970 Middle class violence. Psychology Today 4:52-65. Starr, R.H., Jr., ed. 1979 Child abuse. American Psychologist 34(10):872-878. 1982 Child Abuse Prediction: Policy Implications. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. 1992 Physical abuse of children. In V.B. Van Hasselt et al., eds., The Handbook of Family Violence. New York: Plenum Press.

OCR for page 106
Page 158 Steele, B. 1976 Violence within the family. Pp. 3-24 in C.H. Kempe and A.E. Helfer, eds., Child Abuse and Neglect: The Family and the Community. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger. Steele, B.F., and C.B. Pollock 1968 A psychiatric study of parents who abuse infants and small children. Pp. 89-133 in R.E. Helfer and C.H. Kempe, eds., The Battered Child. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Steinberg, L., R. Catalano, and D. Dooley 1981 Economic antecedents of child abuse and neglect. Child Development 52:975-985. Steinberg, L., S.M. Dornbusch, and B. Brown 1992a Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective. American Psychologist. Steinberg, L., S.D. Lamborn, S.M. Dornbusch, and N. Darling 1992b Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development 63:1266-1281. Straus, M.A. 1980 Stress and physical child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect 4:75-88. Straus, M.A., and R.J. Gelles 1986 Societal change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family 48(August): 465-479. Straus, M.A., and S. Lauer 1993 Corporal Punishment and Crime in Ethnic Group Context. Paper presented at the 1992 meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Durham, NH. Straus, M.A., and C. Yodanis 1994 Paths from Corporal Punishment to Physical Abuse in a Nationally Representative Sample of American Parents. Chapter 6 in Murray A. Straus, ed., Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment by Parents and Its Effects on Children. Boston: Lexington/Macmillan. (forthcoming) Suomi, S.J. 1978 Maternal behavior by socially incompetent monkeys: Neglect and abuse of off-spring. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 3(1):28-34. Suomi, S.J., and C. Ripp 1983 A history of motherless mother monkey mothering at the University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory. Pp. 49-78 in M. Reite and N.G. Caine, eds., Child Abuse: The Nonhuman Primate Data. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc. Tharp, R.G. 1991 Cultural diversity and the treatment of children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 59(6):799-812. Trickett, P.K., J.L. Aber, V. Carlson, and D. Cicchetti 1991 The relationship of socioeconomic status to the etiology and developmental sequelae of physical child abuse. Developmental Psychology 27(1):148-158. Trickett, P.K., and L. Kuczynski 1986 Children's misbehaviors and parental discipline strategies in abusive and nonabusive families. Developmental Psychology 22:115-123. Trickett, P.K., and E.J. Susman 1988 Parental perceptions of child-rearing practices in physically abusive and nonabusive families. Developmental Psychology 24:270-276. Tuteur, W., and J. Glotzer 1966 Further observations on murdering mothers. Journal of Forensic Studies 11:373-383.

OCR for page 106
Page 159 Twentyman, C.T., and R.C. Plotkin 1982 Unrealistic expectations of parents who maltreat their children: An educational deficit that pertains to child development. Journal of Clinical Psychology 38(3):497-503. U.S. Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on Investigations 1986 Child Pornography and Pedophilia. Report, October 9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Wahler, R.G., and J.E. Dumas 1986 ''A chip off the old block": Some interpersonal characteristics of coercive children across generations. Pp. 49-86 in P. Strain, M. Guralnick, and H. Walkee, eds., Children's Social Behavior: Development, Assessment, and Modification. New York: Academic Press. Weiger, W.A., and D.M. Bear 1988 An approach to the neurology of aggression. Journal of Psychiatric Research 244:160-166. Weiss, B., K.A. Dodge, J.E. Bates, and G.S. Petit 1992 Some consequences of early harsh discipline: Child aggression and a maladaptive social information processing style. Child Development 63(6):1321-1335. Weller, S.C., A.K. Romney, and D.P. Orr 1987 The myth of a subculture of corporal punishment. Human Organization 16(1):39-47. West, D.J., C. Roy., and F.L. Nichols 1978 Understanding Sexual Attacks. London: Heinemann. Whipple, E.E., and C. Webster-Stratton 1991 The role of parental stress in physically abusive families. Child Abuse and Neglect 15:279-291. Widom, C.S. 1989 Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychological Bulletin 106(1):3-28. 1991 The role of placement experiences in mediating the criminal consequences of early childhood victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 61(2):195-209. 1992 Child Abuse and Alcohol Use. Prepared for the working group on alcohol-related violence: Fostering interdisciplinary perspectives, convened by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), Washington, DC (May). Wolfe, D.A. 1985 Child-abusive parents: An empirical review and analysis. Psychological Bulletin 97(3)(May):462-482. 1991 Preventing Physical and Emotional Abuse of Children. New York: Guilford Press. Wolock, I. 1982 Community characteristics and staff judgments in child abuse and neglect cases. Social Work Research and Abstracts 18(2) Summer:9-15. Wolock, I., and B. Horowitz 1979 Child maltreatment and material deprivation among AFDC-recipient families. Social Service Review 53(June):175-194. 1984 Child maltreatment as a social problem: The neglect of neglect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 54(4)(October):530-543. Wyatt, G.E. 1985 The sexual abuse of Afro-American and white American women in childhood. Child Abuse and Neglect 9:507-519.

OCR for page 106
Page 160 Wyatt, G.E., and M. Newcomb 1990 Internal and external mediators of women's sexual abuse in childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 58(6):758-767. Wyatt, G.E., M. Newcombe, M. Riederlee, and C. Notgrass in press The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse and Psychological Functioning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Young, L. 1964 Wednesday's Children: A Study of Child Neglect and Abuse. New York: McGraw-Hill. Zeanah, C.H., and P.D. Zeanah 1989 Intergenerational transmission of maltreatment. Psychiatry 52:177-196. Zigler, E., and N.W. Hall 1989 Physical child abuse in America: Past, present, and future. In D. Cicchetti and V. Carlson, eds., Child Maltreatment Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences on Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press. Zuravin, S.J. 1987 The ecology of child maltreatment: Identifying and characterizing high-risk neighborhoods. Child Welfare League of America 66(6)(November-December):497-506. 1988 Fertility patterns: Their relationship to child physical abuse and child neglect. Journal of Marriage and the Family 50:983-993.