Page 161

5
Prevention

In the field of child maltreatment, the goals of preventive interventions are to reduce risk factors associated with child abuse and neglect, to improve the outcomes of individuals or families exposed to such risk factors, and to enhance compensatory or protective factors that could mitigate or buffer the child from the effects of victimization.

Overview

Building on the discussion in Chapter 4, the panel reviewed research on child maltreatment prevention within a framework that considers individual and family behaviors within a broader context, including the consideration of community, society, and developmental factors. This ecological, developmental model emphasizes the importance of interactive processes in the development of behaviors that lead to child abuse and neglect. In the past, the literature has been dominated by an orientation that emphasizes perceived weaknesses or problem behaviors that require correction and ignores protective factors that may influence outcomes. In recent years, some researchers have begun to examine variables that foster healthy relationships or reduce risk for child maltreatment (Cicchetti and Rizley, 1981; Rosenberg, 1987). The developmental perspective of the panel encourages consideration of significant research areas from the field of child development, such as attachment, autonomy and social relationships, peer competency, parental styles, and so forth, in the evaluation of preventive efforts for child



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 161
Page 161 5 Prevention In the field of child maltreatment, the goals of preventive interventions are to reduce risk factors associated with child abuse and neglect, to improve the outcomes of individuals or families exposed to such risk factors, and to enhance compensatory or protective factors that could mitigate or buffer the child from the effects of victimization. Overview Building on the discussion in Chapter 4, the panel reviewed research on child maltreatment prevention within a framework that considers individual and family behaviors within a broader context, including the consideration of community, society, and developmental factors. This ecological, developmental model emphasizes the importance of interactive processes in the development of behaviors that lead to child abuse and neglect. In the past, the literature has been dominated by an orientation that emphasizes perceived weaknesses or problem behaviors that require correction and ignores protective factors that may influence outcomes. In recent years, some researchers have begun to examine variables that foster healthy relationships or reduce risk for child maltreatment (Cicchetti and Rizley, 1981; Rosenberg, 1987). The developmental perspective of the panel encourages consideration of significant research areas from the field of child development, such as attachment, autonomy and social relationships, peer competency, parental styles, and so forth, in the evaluation of preventive efforts for child

OCR for page 161
Page 162 maltreatment. The interaction between risk and protective factors is the approach that the panel believes holds much promise for future prevention research. The panel examined evidence of what appear to be promising prevention programs, such as home visitation, parental education, and child sexual abuse prevention curriculums. We also examined research on interventions not designed specifically for child maltreatment prevention but that may reduce such behavior by improving the welfare of families that are characterized by multiple problems or by reducing the use of violence in general. The research is organized by the system that is targeted—the individual, the family, the exosystem, or the macrosystem—as outlined in earlier chapters. The framework adopted by the panel in our review of these programs highlights the areas of strength and weakness in current knowledge about prevention strategies. Table 5.1 summarizes the broad range of major prevention programs by developmental period identified in 1988. Many of these interventions are discussed in this chapter. The availability of such programs, in terms of their accessibility by diverse populations, is not certain. As noted in Chapter 4, a variety of interactive models has been proposed in recent years to describe different systems that influence the causes and consequences of child maltreatment. The interactive models seem particularly useful to guide prevention efforts because they suggest that intervention should take place on every level of the system and they offer a range of interventions that are sensitive to diverse cultural values affecting family life and parental practices. This approach assumes that the transactions between these levels of risk—for example, living in an at-risk neighborhood and in a family at high stress—are major influences on the occurrence of maltreatment rather than the presence of single risk factors. Therefore, the reduction of multiple vulnerabilities and the development of compensatory behaviors are emerging goals of child maltreatment prevention. Although many advocates of the prevention of child abuse and neglect have encouraged the need for a continuum of services (Helfer, 1982), research on maltreatment prevention efforts has generally focused on a single type of maltreatment (physical or sexual abuse, neglect, or emotional maltreatment); a single intervention (such as family preservation programs or maternal-child health programs); or a single risk factor (poverty, alcohol, or harsh parenting). The approach of the panel in preparing a research agenda for the prevention of child maltreatment seeks to encourage the development of interactive research analyses by focusing on the processes by which multiple risk factors coexist in the family system and the family environment. Our approach differs from that of the traditional public health model for prevention, which considers primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of pre-

OCR for page 161
Page 163 TABLE 5.1 Types of Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Type of Program Perinatal Toddler and Preschool Years Elementary School Years Junior and Senior High School Years Before Birth Infancy PROGRAMS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE           Home visitor           Professional who visits X X X     Lay visitors X X X     Extended postpartum contact and rooming-in   X       Central-location parent education and counseling X X X     "Total push" programs, which involve services (e.g., home visitor, parental education) X X X     Respite nursery or day care   X X     Child-targeted sex abuse prevention programs     X X X Latch-key demonstration and education for children in self-care after school       X   Programs for pregnant and parenting teenagers         X Telephone hotlines or "warm lines" for parents and children   X X X X Media campaigns   X X X X (table continued on next page)

OCR for page 161
Page 164 TABLE 5.1 (continued) Type of Program Perinatal Toddler and Preschool Years Elementary School Years Junior and Senior High School Years Before Birth Infancy PROGRAMS NOT AVAILABLE (NA) OR INSUFFICIENTLY AVAILABLE (IA)           Father or stepfather-targeted abuse prevention NA NA NA NA NA Pedophile or perpetrator-targeted sex abuse prevention     IA IA IA Education and counseling for parents of older children       IA NA After-school day care for school-age children; i.e., so-called latchkey child care       IA   SOURCE: Mueller and Higgins (1988:32).

OCR for page 161
Page 165 vention. Although the public health model might be useful in the child maltreatment prevention field, we have not adopted it for the following reasons. First, although most child maltreatment prevention programs (with the exception of child sexual abuse programs) fall into the category of secondary prevention, the programs vary significantly by the type of maltreatment and interactional processes that are the focus of the program, the context of the prevention effort, the nature of the risk assessment process, and the developmental stage of the child. Second, adapting the public health model to child maltreatment research is difficult because many prevention programs are hybrids in terms of this framework. For example, treatment interventions often represent tertiary prevention programs for families that have been reported to child welfare authorities, but such interventions may also offer counseling for the child to mitigate the damaging consequences of maltreatment and to prevent maladaptive behaviors that could influence future parenting styles. Such interventions thus serve as a source of secondary intervention for the child who may become a future parent. In this chapter, we will review research on prevention programs highlighting theoretical frameworks (where they exist) that guide the development of such programs, illustrating programs that have been evaluated in the professional literature, reviewing the state of current knowledge about the role of prevention in child maltreatment research, and identifying gaps as well as promising opportunities in constructing a research agenda for this area. This review focuses on promising prevention strategies that incorporate multiple factors that are believed to be most likely to be successful in reducing child maltreatment. Most preventive interventions focus on one particular system within the panel's framework of analysis, as outlined in Chapter 4. Examples include programs designed to improve the parental skills and cognitive knowledge of high risk mothers (individual system); interventions designed to establish good interactions between parents and children, particularly infants (family microsystem); curriculum-based efforts that seek to develop skills for parenting, conflict resolution, and sexual abuse prevention in school-age populations, ranging from elementary to college students (exosystem); and legislative efforts or public campaigns designed to reform child welfare programs or the use of violence in the media and children's programming (macrosystem). Programs for sexual offenders (discussed in Chapter 7), including incarceration and various forms of treatment services, seek to prevent the reoccurrence of abusive behaviors, but systematic evaluations of these programs are rare. Although various advocacy organizations have urged that systemic change become part of the child maltreatment prevention movement, research on system-based factors has been limited.

OCR for page 161
Page 166 Risk Factors and Preventive Interventions Risk factors are elements that predispose an individual to a dysfunction, although being at risk does not mean that the dysfunction is inevitable. Risk factors can be environmental or individual (including biological) or reflect an interaction between the individual and the environment. Many prevention efforts seek to modify particular risk factors in order to reduce an individual's vulnerability to the disorder (Felner et al., 1991). As noted in Chapter 4, the etiology of child maltreatment is not yet well understood, but the existing state of knowledge about risk and protective factors can guide the development of future prevention research (Cicchetti et al., 1988; Kazdin, 1989; Willis et al., 1992). Examinations of single risk factors thought to play significant roles in pathways to child maltreatment (such as poverty, substance abuse, and childhood history of abuse) need to move toward studies of the interactions of multiple factors in a situational and developmental context. The transition from single causes to multiple interactions complicates the design of prevention research, and many prevention programs are characterized by an absence of theory demonstrating the etiological factors that the program seeks to change. To be effective, prevention research needs to establish a clear link between a reduction in selected risk factors and an ultimate decrease in abuse. Until recently, the primary or even sole focus in designing preventive interventions was the identification and modification of problematic or damaging parental practices associated with child maltreatment, such as excessive physical discipline, failure to provide children with basic necessities and care, and mismatches between a parent's expectations and a child's ability (Daro, 1992). As noted by Daro (1992), this singular focus on parental roles was altered with the recognition of the prevalence of sexual abuse in the late 1970s. Research on victims of sexual abuse suggested that risk factors with respect to perpetrator characteristics, victim characteristics, and sociodemographic variables are far more heterogeneous than physical abuse or neglect victims (Melton, 1992). As a result, prevention advocates had limited information for formulating effective prevention strategies targeted to potential perpetrators or communities in response to sexual abuse. In the area of sexual abuse, prevention advocates focused on ways to strengthen potential victims to reduce the occurrence of child sexual abuse (Finkelhor, 1984). These efforts, generally identified as part of child assault prevention—or child safety education—provide classroom-based instruction for children of all ages on how to protect themselves from sexual assault and ways to deal with the experience of actual or potential abuse. The primary focus of the school-based programs is to strengthen a child's

OCR for page 161
Page 167 ability to resist assault, although these programs often include information sessions for parents and school personnel. The child assault prevention approach has been supplemented in recent years by an emphasis on violence prevention programs, designed to equip students to develop nonviolent methods of conflict resolution in peer relations. Although the generalizability of these programs to the field of child maltreatment has not been systematically assessed, they are included in this review because such programs represent a promising direction for future research. This belief is based on the following assumptions: maltreating families are often characterized by a syndrome of multiple problems (including violence), the use of violence against children may be linked to other types of violent behavior, and efforts to reduce the use of violence in resolving individual conflicts may lead to a reduction of child maltreatment. Summary Most studies of prevention of risks for maltreatment have sought to isolate the relative significance of risk factors within the family, including poverty, social isolation, age and education of the mother, unrealistic parental expectations, and prior history of child maltreatment. In designing preventive interventions, researchers have given very little attention to interactions among multiple variables in the determination of risk status for subsequent child maltreatment. Efforts to target a single risk factor are not likely to be as effective in preventing maltreatment as programs based on an ecological developmental model, particularly one focused directly on the family. The Family Microsystem We begin with a review of parenting education programs because they represent the bulk of existing prevention efforts. The panel believes that exciting research developments exist at other levels of the framework used in this analysis, which convey new insights into the value of a multiple-level approach. These are discussed later in the chapter. Parental practices in families with young children are a major focus of research on prevention strategies for child maltreatment. Young children spend most of their time in familial settings—even with the increase in maternal employment and the use of child care services, families still provide the bulk of child care (Baydar and Brooks-Gunn, 1991; Hayes et al., 1990). For most abuse and neglect, or the punitive or rejecting parental behavior associated with abuse and neglect, cases of young children are less likely to come to the attention of service providers than are cases of older children and youth, since infants and preschoolers are not in any universal

OCR for page 161
Page 168 societal institution such as the school system. In the early years, the only time that virtually all children came into contact with a service organization is at birth. Although the majority of children in the United States receive immunizations within the first year of life, not all children have repeated contact with a regular health care provider. From a prevention perspective, targeting young children and families is critical. The transition to parenthood is a period in which marital conflict, depression, and social isolation can occur, in addition to the inevitable realignment of roles inside and outside the home (Belsky, 1991; Cowan and Cowan, 1988; Deutsch et al., 1988; Egeland and Erickson, 1991; Entwhisle and Doering, 1981; Ruble et al., 1990). Parents may be particularly responsive to interventions during this life transition, given their experience of simultaneous changes, their often limited knowledge about parenting, and their desire to be effective parents. Not surprisingly, then, the majority of primary prevention programs for child abuse and neglect focus on this transition, beginning either prenatally or just after the child's birth and continuing through part or all of the first year of life or even through the second and third years. Pathways to Parental Practices Prevention strategies have built on individual, familial, and community-level risk and protective factors that contribute directly to both parental practices and to child well-being. This research foundation has provided the basis for identifying families that are at risk for parental practices associated with child abuse and neglect. Generally, groups have been targeted for prevention efforts by either individual or familial risk factors. In some cases, communities (or hospitals) with a high incidence of families with biological or other individual risk factors are chosen as the site of a prevention effort, with further targeting of at-risk individuals within these already high-risk communities. Increasingly, communities are becoming the target of early intervention programs, as the importance of offering comprehensive, coordinated services is recognized (Schorr, 1988). The dimensions of prevention services focusing on families with young children vary by delivery setting (home, school, community center, clinic), primary target (family, parent, child), timing of onset (prenatal, infant, toddler, school-age, adolescent), intensity (amount of programming per week), scope and length of program, uniformity of services to client, number of services offered, training of service provider, and curriculum content. While many prevention programs focusing on parental practices have been developed and implemented over the past decades, only a handful have been evaluated in the scientific literature, often measuring outcomes such as the acquisition of cognitive or behavioral skills and observational studies of

OCR for page 161
Page 169 parent-child interactions. Very few parenting programs have been evaluated in terms of their effects on child maltreatment. Incidents of child maltreatment may be difficult to identify in the aftermath of preventive interventions (unless such incidents are reported to government authorities). Therefore, improvements in intermediate or surrogate measures are often viewed as indicators of reduced risk status. But here again, uncertainty remains as to whether such measures are correct proxies for child abuse and whether a parent's improved knowledge of childrearing skills is a sufficient measure of effectiveness given the multiple pathways that may result in child maltreatment. While many child maltreatment prevention programs have the reduction of abuse and neglect as a goal, most programs focus on intermediate or surrogate outcomes, such as parenting behavior, childrearing attitudes, maternal mental health, maternal problem-solving and use of health and social services, subsequent fertility, maternal employment, job training, and school completion (Benasich et al., 1992; Clewell et al., 1989; Olds, 1990). As research reviewed in Chapter 4 indicates, certain types of parenting styles or indicators of maternal well-being are associated with abuse and neglect, suggesting that home visiting and center-based programs with a parental focus can help prevent child abuse and neglect. Indeed, almost all programs aimed at enhancing child competence employ parent-oriented strategies.1 As we discuss in Chapter 4 and Chapter 6, we still know very little about pathways for the development of maltreating behaviors in parents, and the sequelae of physical and sexual abuse, parental rejection, parental emotional unavailability, and parental neglect are poorly understood. Important developmental challenges that occur in early childhood have been a focus for prevention because of the recognition of parents' (or more generally, the caregiver's) role in facilitating child well-being. Models of risk and vulnerability as well as family systems and ecological models speak to various factors that promote or restrain development (Bronfenbrenner, 1989; Garmezy and Rutter, 1983; Hinde and Stevensen-Hinde, 1988; Reiss, 1981; Werner and Smith, 1982). Prevention Programs for Families with Young Children Four major types of prevention strategies have been developed for families with young children (defined as the prenatal period through age 8) who are at risk of significant social or health problems: (1) comprehensive programs, often including home visitor services that vary widely in both scope and content, (2) center-based programs that include a family support component, parent information services, and early childhood education services, (3) community-based organizations, including voluntary and grass roots services,

OCR for page 161
Page 170 and (4) hospital-based interventions. Most of these programs have focused on multiple risk factors, and the evaluations of program outcomes focus primarily on child health measures. Only a few have been evaluated in terms of their impact on child maltreatment. Comprehensive Home Visitation Programs The majority of home visiting models or short-term, neonatal nursery-based interventions have been developed for children at biological risk of a host of poor outcomes, but they were not developed specifically for child abuse and neglect (Bennett, 1987; Brooks-Gunn, 1990). Home visiting programs initially focused almost exclusively on low-birthweight and preterm children, providing services only in the home environment. A notable exception is the Infant Health and Development Program, which combined home visiting and center-based programming for low-birthweight, premature infants and toddlers and their parents (Brooks-Gunn et al., 1992; Infant Health and Development, 1990; Ramey et al., 1992). Programs for children exposed to drugs in utero are being initiated across the country, but the majority of prior prevention programs in the field of substance abuse have not been guided by empirical data (Kumpfer, 1989). Home visiting programs designed to provide universal services for all new mothers were popular earlier in this century and continue in many European countries. In the United States, a resurgence of interest in home visitation occurred in the last decade, and the audience for such programs has expanded from children solely at biological risk (from low-birthweight or pre-term births) to children who are at risk because of poverty or child maltreatment. Approaches based on a variety of models that have been initiated and evaluated in the last 10 years include a parent education model (Dunst et al., 1989), a public health model (Olds et al., 1986a,b, 1988), a social support model (Barnard et al., 1988), a mental health model (Greenspan et al., 1987), a parenting education and problem-solving model (Wasik, 1984), and an interactional attachment model (Egeland and Erickson, 1991, in press). Overlaps among these models exist (for example, the public health model includes social support and parenting as program components). Olds (1990) has reviewed a number of home-based programs. Generally, home visitation programs start during a woman's pregnancy and continue through the first or second years of her child's life (a few begin postnatally). Many home visitors come to the mother's home weekly, others less than once or twice a month. Almost all programs focus on the mother, rather than on other caregivers such as the father or the grandmother. Programs are likely to focus on environmentally at-risk parents: those who are poor, are young, are single, and have low education. These factors

OCR for page 161
Page 171 often co-occur in families, making it unlikely that programs have been offered only to one group of poor mothers (the one exception are programs specifically targeting teenage mothers) (Clewell et al., 1989; Klerman, 1991). In a few instances, at-risk communities are being targeted, as in the Hawaii Healthy Start initiative (Fuddy, 1992). The training and experience of home visitors vary across programs—the public health models use public health nurses, whereas other models employ social workers, early childhood educators, and, in some cases, paraprofessionals. Home visitors often expand the participant's knowledge about available services and the participant's ability to obtain these services. Home visitors also refer their families for social, educational, welfare, and health services, but such referrals are often not documented even though they may make a large impact on families. For example, Olds (1986a,b) reports that mothers who received home visiting completed more education than those in a control group. Brooks-Gunn and colleagues (in press, b) report that mothers with more educational experience who received home visiting were more likely to receive Medicaid-reimbursed health insurance and Aid to Families With Dependent Children than similarly educated mothers who did not receive home visiting services (presumably these mothers were eligible for these service but were unaware of their eligibility). The most scientifically rigorous program evaluation of a comprehensive prevention program documented in the literature is the Prenatal/Early Infancy Project conducted by Olds and associates (1980, 1982, 1984, 1986a,b, 1990, 1992). One significant feature of this secondary prevention program is the use of nurse home visitation services for expectant mothers and their families in Elmira, a rural section of upstate New York. Elmira County was part of the standard metropolitan statistical area rated the worst in the United States in 1980 in terms of economic conditions (Boyer and Savageau, 1981), and it had the highest rates of reported and verified case of child abuse and neglect in New York State from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s (Olds, 1992). Of 400 women registered for the study, 90 percent were white, and all of the major findings reported by Olds apply only to this group (Olds, 1992). The Prenatal/Early Infancy Project is characterized by the use of professionally trained nurses as home visitors as well as a rigorous evaluation methodology that includes random assignment of subjects to four treatment groups.2 The project evaluated prenatal, birth, and postnatal outcome variables, including length of gestation, infant birthweight, quality of maternal interactions with the child, disciplinary behaviors, child maltreatment reports, and postnatal emergency room visits. The major finding of the project was that nurse home visitation services significantly reduced the number of subsequent child maltreatment reports, compared with the control population. The reduction was especially significant among fami-

OCR for page 161
Page 197 opers should describe the processes that they believe lead to child abuse and neglect. One challenge facing prevention researchers is deciding which combinations of risk and protective factors, and which combinations of interactive systems, have the greatest potential to both influence outcomes and be effectively modified through intervention. Recommendation 5-5: Research should be conducted on values and attitudes within the general public that contribute to, or could help discourage, child maltreatment. The role of the media in reinforcing or questioning cultural norms in areas important to child maltreatment, such as corporal punishment, deserves particular attention. Important lessons can be learned from the role of the media in fostering healthy or unhealthy behaviors involving the use of alcohol, smoking, drug use, and condoms or safe sex practices. Research is needed that can identify significant pathways in addressing key factors and behaviors that affect child maltreatment, such as parental styles, the use of corporal punishment, alternatives to the use of violence in conflict resolution, and young children's relationships with strangers and abusive caretakers. Rather than focusing solely on the sensational aspects of abusive cases, the media can play an important role in raising questions about the values that should be fostered in family relationships and the protection of children. Research is needed on whether specific advice to avoid corporal punishment and specific discussion of alternatives contribute to the effectiveness of prevention programs (see Appendix B, Supplemental Views). This includes home visitation programs, early childhood intervention programs, and violence prevention programs for schoolchildren. In connection with the latter, it should be noted that schoolchildren are much more likely to be victims of violence, such as slapping and hitting with objects, by parents than by peers. If school-based programs can teach children to voluntarily use time out to avoid violence, research is needed on whether the same can be done for parents. There is also a need for empirical research to determine the degrees to which criminal sanctions deter child abuse and the degree to which removal of children protects them from abuse, especially in cases of mild to moderate maltreatment. Research involving case-control designs, which investigate the effect on families and children of mediation versus the use of criminal sanctions in cases of spouse abuse (Sherman, 1992) shows that field experiments can be done within an ethically acceptable framework. Since the relative effectiveness of punitive compared with helping approaches could be different for physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect, each of these types of abuse may be analyzed distinctly.

OCR for page 161
Page 198 Notes 1. Sustained effects of early intervention programs are partly, but not primarily, due to alternations in cognitive functioning; for example, differences in intelligence and verbal ability test scores between children who did or did not receive early intervention services tend to dissipate by the middle of elementary school (Lazar et al., 1982; Brooks-Gunn, 1990; Zigler, 1992). Later reductions in school failure and juvenile delinquency are hypothesized to be based on changes in parental commitment to and encouragement of their young children as well as familial functioning more generally (Zigler, 1992), as Bronfenbrenner predicted almost 15 years ago (1979). 2. The four treatment groups are: (1) a control group that did not receive services but participated in the collection of evaluation data; (2) a minimal intervention group that received transportation assistance to attend medical appointments; (3) a group that received extensive nurse home visitors prenatally and transportation services; and (4) a group that received extensive nurse home visitors both prenatally and postnatally as well as transportation assistance. The nurses provided parent education, made efforts to enhance family and other informal social supports, and initiated linkages with professional helpers in the community (Olds et al., 1986a). 3. The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect awarded a major evaluation study for the Hawaii Healthy Start program to the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse in late 1993. The evaluation is expected to be completed in 1994. 4. These curricula included Child Assault Prevention, Children's Self-Help, Talking About Touching, Touch Safety, Child Abuse Prevention Intervention and Education, the Youth Safety Awareness Project, and SAFE—Stop Abuse Through Family Education. References Abrahams, N., K. Casey, and D. Daro 1992 Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Child Abuse and Neglect 16:229-238. Azar, S.T. 1988 Methodological considerations in treatment outcomes research in child maltreatment. Pp. 288-298 in G.T. Hotaling, D. Finkelhor, J.T. Kirkpatrick, and M.A. Straus, eds., Coping with Family Violence: Research and Policy Perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Barnard, K.E., C.L. Booth, S.K. Mitchell, and R. Telzrow 1988 Newborn nursing models: A test of early intervention to high-risk infants and families. Pp. 63-81 in E. Hibbs, ed., Children and Families: Studies in Prevention and Intervention. Madison, CT: International Universities Press. Baydar, N., and J. Brooks-Gunn 1991 Effects of maternal employment and child-care arrangements on preschoolers' cognitive and behavioral outcomes: Evidence from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Developmental Psychology 27(6):932-945. Belsky, J. 1985 The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development 55(1)(February):83-96. 1991 Psychological maltreatment: Definitional limitations and unstated assumptions. Development and Psychopathology 3:31-36. Benasich, A.A., J. Brooks-Gunn, and B.C. Clewell 1992 How do mothers benefit from early intervention programs? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 13:311-362.

OCR for page 161
Page 199 Bennett, F.C. 1987 The effectiveness of early intervention for infants at increased biological risk. Pp. 79-112 in M.J. Guralnick and F.C. Bennett, eds., The Effectiveness of Early Intervention for At-Risk and Handicapped Children. New York: Academic Press. Berrick, J.D. 1988 Parental involvement in child abuse prevention training: What do they learn? Child Abuse and Neglect 12:543-553. Bierman, K., J. Coie, K. Dodge, M. Greenberg, J. Lochman, and R. McMahon in press A developmental and clinical model for the prevention of conduct disorders: The FAST Track program. Development and Psychopathology. Binder, R.L., and D.E. McNiel 1987 Evaluation of a school-based sexual abuse prevention program: Cognitive and emotional effects. Child Abuse and Neglect 11(4):497-506. Boyer, R., and D. Savageau 1981 Places Rated Almanac. Pp. 336-337. New York: Rand McNally. Bradley, R.H., P.H. Casey, P. Barrett, B. Caldwell, and L. Whiteside in press Enhancing the home environment of low birthweight premature infants. In R.T. Grors and D. Spiker, eds., The Infant Health and Development Program. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. Bridgeman, B., J.B. Blumenthal, and S.R. Andrews 1981 Parent Child Development Center: Final Evaluation Report. Office of Human Development Services. April. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services. Bronfenbrenner, U. 1979 Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues. Annals of Child Development 6. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc. Brooks-Gunn, J. 1990 Promoting health development in young children: What educational interventions work? Pp. 125-145 in D.E. Rodgers and E. Ginzberg, eds., Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. (An abbreviated version appeared as Brooks-Gunn, J. 1990. Enhancing the development of young children. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 2(5):873-877.) Brooks-Gunn, J., R.T. Gross, H.C. Kramer, D. Spiker, and S. Shapiro 1992 Enhancing the cognitive outcomes of low-birth-weight, premature infants: For whom is this intervention most effective? Pediatrics 89(8):1209-1215. Brooks-Gunn, J., M. McCormick, S. Shapiro, A.A. Benasich, and G. Black in press-a Effects of early education intervention on maternal employment, public assistance, and health insurance. American Journal of Public Health. Brooks-Gunn, J., P.K. Klebanov, F. Liaw, and D. Spiker in press-b Enhancing the development of low-birth-weight, premature infants: Changes in cognition and behavior over the first three years. Child Development. Bush, B.J. 1991 The Role of the Religious Community in Addressing a National Disaster. Testimony before the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, September 14, Denver, CO. Chase-Lansdale, P.L., and J. Brooks-Gunn, eds. in press Escape from Poverty: What Makes a Difference for Poor Children. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chase-Lansdale, P.L., J. Brooks-Gunn, and E. Zamsky in press Young multigenerational families in poverty: Quality of mothering and grandmothering. Child Development.

OCR for page 161
Page 200 Cicchetti, D., and R. Rizley 1981 Developmental perspectives on the etiology, intergenerational transmission, and sequelae of child maltreatment. New Directions for Child Development 11:31-55. Cicchetti, D., S. Toth, and M. Bush 1988 Developmental psychopathology and incompetence in childhood: Suggestions for intervention. In B.B. Lahey and A.E. Kazdin, eds., Advances in Clinical Child Psychology Vol. 11. New York: Plenum Press. Clarke-Stewart, K.A., and G.G. Fein 1983 Early childhood programs. Pp. 918-999 in P.H. Mussen, ed., Handbook of Child Psychology, 4th Edition, Vol. 4. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Clewell, B.C., J. Brooks-Gunn, and A.A. Benasich 1989 Evaluating child-related outcomes of teenage parenting programs. Family Relations 38:201-209. Committee for Children 1983 Talking about touching: A personal safety curriculum. Seattle, WA: Committee for Children. Conte, J.R. 1992 School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs. Position paper prepared for the National Research Council's Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. Conte, J.R., and L.A. Fogarty 1990 Sexual abuse prevention progams for children. Education and Urban Society 22(3):270-284. Conte, J.R., C. Rosen, L. Saperstein, and R. Shermack 1985 An evaluation of a program to prevent the sexual victimization of young children. Child Abuse and Neglect 9(3):319-328. Conte, J.R., C. Rosen, and L. Saperstein 1986 An analysis of programs to prevent the sexual victimization of children. Journal of Primary Prevention 6(3):141-155. Conte, J.R., S. Wolfe, and T. Smith 1989 What sexual offenders tell us about prevention strategies. Child Abuse and Neglect 13(2):293-301. Cowan, P.A., and C.P. Cowan 1988 Changes in marriage during the transition to parenthood: Must we blame the baby? In G.Y. Michaels and W.A. Goldberg, eds., The Transition to Parenthood: Current Theory and Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. Daro, D. 1988 Prevention Programs: What Do Children Learn? Unpublished manuscript, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. 1992 Risk Factors as They Relate to Prevention. Position paper prepared for the National Research Council's Panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. Daro, D., J. Duerr, and N. LeProhn 1987 Child Assault Prevention Instruction: What Works with Preschoolers. Paper presented at the Third National Family Violence Research Conference, University of New Hampshire, Durham. Davis, P.W. 1991 Stranger intervention into child punishment in public places. Social Problems 38(2):227-246. Deutsch, F.M., P.N. Ruble, A. Fleming, J. Brooks-Gunn, and C. Stangor 1988 Information-seeking and self-definition during the transition to motherhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55(3):420-431.

OCR for page 161
Page 201 Downer, A., ed. 1984 Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse: A Trainer's Manual. Seattle, WA: Seattle Institute for Child Advocacy. Drotar, D. 1992 Prevention of neglect and nonorganic failure to thrive. Chapter in D.J. Willis, E.W. Holden, and M. Rosenberg, eds., Prevention of Child Maltreatment. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Duncan, G.J. 1991 The economic environment of childhood. In A. Huston, ed. Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dunst, C.J., S.W. Snyder, and M. Mankinen 1989 Efficacy of early intervention. Pp. 259-294 in M.C. Wang, M.C. Reynolds, and H.J. Walberg, eds., Handbook of Special Education: Research and Practice: Vol. 3. Low Incidence Conditions. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. Egeland, B., and M.F. Erickson 1991 Rising above the past: Strategies for helping new mothers break the cycle of abuse and neglect. Zero to Three 11(2):29-35. in press Attachment theory and findings: Implications for prevention and intervention. In S. Kramer and H. Parens, eds., Prevention in Mental Health: Now, Tomorrow, Ever?. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, Inc. Entwhistle, D.R., and S. Doering 1981 The First Birth: A Family Turning Point. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Feindler, E., R. Hammond, and J. Becker 1992 Prevention and Clinical Interventions for Youth Perpetrators and Victims of Violence. Unpublished manuscript. Felner, R.D., M.M. Silverman, and R. Adix 1991 Prevention of substance abuse and related disorders in childhood and adolescence: A developmentally based, comprehensive ecological approach. Family and Community Health 14(3):12-22. Finkelhor, D. 1984 Child Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research. New York: Free Press. 1986 Prevention: A review of programs and research. Pp. 224-254 in D. Finkelhor with S. Araji, L. Brown, A. Browne, S. Peters, and G. Wyatt. A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. 1993 Victimization Prevention Programs: A National Survey of Children's Exposure and Reactions. Paper presented to the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, California. January. Finkelhor, D., Williams, L.M., with N. Burns 1988 Nursery Crimes. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Fryer, G.E., S.K. Kraizer, and I. Miyoshui 1987a Measuring actual reduction of risk to child abuse: A new approach. Child Abuse and Neglect 11:173-179. 1987b Measuring children's retention of skills to resist stranger abduction: Use of the simulation technique. Child Abuse and Neglect 11:181-185. Fuddy, L. 1992 Hawaii's Healthy Start's Success Shared at the Ninth International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. Unpublished paper. Garbarino, J. 1987 Children's response to a sexual abuse prevention program: A study of the Spiderman comic. Child Abuse and Neglect 11:143-148.

OCR for page 161
Page 202 Garmezy, N., and M. Rutter 1983 Stress, Coping and Development in Children. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gelles, R.J., and M.A. Straus 1988 Intimate Violence. New York: Simon and Schuster. General Accounting Office 1991 Child Abuse Prevention: Status of the Challenge Grant Program. May. GAO:HRD91-95. Washington, DC. Gil, D.G. 1970 Violence Against Children: Physical Child Abuse in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Gilbert, N. 1988 Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evlauation of Educational Materials for Preschool Programs. Unpublished manuscript, Family Welfare Research Group, School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Goldstein, A. 1992 School Violence: Its Community Context and Potential Solutions. Testimony presented May 4 to the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education, Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives. Gray, J., C. Cutler, J. Dean, and C. Kempe 1979 Prediction and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Social Issues 35:127-139. Gray, E.B. 1983 Final report: Collaborative research of community and minority group action to prevent child abuse and neglect. Vol. I: Perinatal Interventions. Chicago: National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse. Greenspan, S.I., Weider, A. Leiberman, R. Nover, R. Lourie, and M. Robinson., eds. 1987 Clinical Infant Reports: No. 3: Infants in Multirisk Families: Case Studies in Preventive Intervention. New York: International Universities Press. Greven, P. 1991 The Child: The Religious Roots of Punishment and the Psychological Impact of Physical Abuse. New York: Alfred Knopf. Hammond, W.R., and B. Yung 1991 Preventing violence in at-risk African American youth. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2(3):359-373. Hawkins, J.D., R. Catalano, D. Morrison, J. O'Donnell, R. Abbott, and L.E. Day 1992 In J. McCord and R. Tremblay, eds., The Prevention of Antisocial Behavior in Children. New York: Guilford. Hayes, C.D., J.L. Palmer, and M.E. Zaslow, eds. 1990 Who Cares for America's Children? Child Care Policy for the 1990s. National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Helfer, R. 1982 A review of the literature on the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect 6(3):251-261. Hinde, R., and J. Stevenson-Hinde 1988 Relationships Within Families: Mutual Influences. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Holden, E.W., D.J. Willis, and M.M. Corcoran 1992 Preventing child maltreatment during the prenatal/perinatal period. Chapter in D.J. Willis, E.W. Holden, and M. Rosenberg, eds., Prevention of Child Maltreatment. New York: John Wiley. Howing, P.T., J.S. Woderski, D.P. Kurtz, and J.M. Gaudin 1989 Methodological issues in child maltreatment research. Social Work Research and Abstracts 25(3):3-7.

OCR for page 161
Page 203 Huston, A.C. 1991 Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Infant Health and Development Program Staff 1990 Enhancing the outcomes of low birth-weight, premature infants: A multisite randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 263(22):3035-3042. Jaffe, P., M. Suderman, and D. Reitzel in press Primary prevention of wife assault: The development of school-based programs. Journal of Family Violence. Jaffe, P., M. Suderman, D. Reitzel, and S. Killip 1990 Evaluation of a Secondary School Primary Prevention Programme on Violence in Intimate Relationships. Unpublished manuscript. London, Ontario, University of Western Ontario. Kadushin, A., and J.A. Martin 1981 Child Abuse: An Interactional Event. New York: Columbia University Press. Kazdin, A.E. 1989 Developmental psychopathology: Current research, issues, and directions. American Psychologist 44(2):180-187. Kempe, C.H., F.N. Silverman, B. Steele, W. Droegemueller, and H.R. Silver 1962 The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association 181(1):17-24. Kenning, M.K. 1987 Child assault prevention: program evaluation. Unpublished dissertation. U. South Dakota. Dissertation Abstracts International 47(8-B)3527. 134 pages. Kleemeier, C., and C. Webb 1986 Evaluation of a School-Based Prevention Program. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. Klerman, L.V. 1991 The association between adolescent parenting and childhood poverty. In A.C. Huston, ed., Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolko, D.J. 1988 Educational programs to promote awareness and prevention of child sexual victimization: A review and methodological critique. Clinical Psychology Review 8(2):195-209. Korbin, J.E. 1993 Sociocultural Factors in Child Maltreatment. Background paper prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. Kraizer, S., S.S. Witte, and G.F. Fryer, Jr. 1989 Child sexual abuse prevention programs: What makes them effective in protecting children? Children Today (September/October):23-27. Kumpfer, K.L. 1989 Children, Adolescents and Substance Abuse: Review of Prevention Strategies. Paper presented to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Institute on Substance Abuse, New York. October 13. Lazar, I., R. Darlington, H. Murray, J. Royce, and A. Snipper 1982 Lasting effects of early educations: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development 47(203, Serial No. 195). Lee, V., J. Brooks-Gunn, and E. Schnur 1988 Does Head Start ''close the gap?" A comparison of children attending Head Start, no preschool, and other preschool programs. Child Development 61:495-507.

OCR for page 161
Page 204 Leventhal, J.M. 1987 Programs to prevent sexual abuse: What outcomes should be measured? Child Abuse and Neglect 11:169-171. Liaw, F.R., and J. Brooks-Gunn in press Patterns of low birth weight: Children's cognitive development and their determinants. Developmental Psychology. Meisels, S.J., and J.P. Shonkoff, eds. 1990 Handbook of Early Childhood Intervention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Melton, G. 1992 The improbability of prevention of sexual abuse. In D. Willis, E. Holden, and M. Rosenberg, eds., Prevention of Child Maltreatment. New York: John Wiley. Miller-Perrin, C., and S. Wurtele 1988 The child sexual abuse prevention movement: A critical analysis of primary and secondary approaches. Clinical Psychology Review 8:313-329. Mueller, D.P., and P.S. Higgins 1988 Funders' Guide Manual: A Guide to Prevention Programs in Human Services, Focus on Children and Adolescents. First Edition. April. St. Paul, MN: Amherst H. Wilder Foundation. National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect 1990 Public Attitudes and Action Regarding Child Abuse and Its Prevention, 1990. Chicago: The National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse. Nelson, B. 1984 Making an Issue of Child Abuse: Political Agenda Setting for Social Problems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. O'Connor, S., P.M. Vietze, K.B., Sherrod, H.M., Sandler, and W.A. Altemeier 1980 Reduced incidence of parenting inadequacy following rooming-in. Pediatrics 66:176-182. O'Connor, S., P.M. Vietze, K.B. Sherrod, H.M. Sandler, S. Gerrity, and W.A. Altemeier 1982 Mother-infant interaction and child development after rooming-in: Comparison of high-risk and low-risk mothers. Prevention in Human Services 1:25-43. Ohlin, L., and M. Tonry 1989 Family Violence. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Oldenburg, D. 1992 When abuse goes public. The Washington Post, Tuesday, October 6:B5. Olds, D.L. 1980 Improving formal services for mothers and children. Chapter in J. Garbarino and S.H. Stocking, eds., Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect: Developing and Maintaining Effective Support Systems for Families. San Francisco: Joseey-Bass. 1982 The prenatal/early infancy project: An ecological approach to prevention of developmental disabilities. Chapter in J. Belsky, ed., In the Beginning. New York: Columbia University Press. 1984 Case studies of factors interfering with nurse home visitors' promotion of positive care-giving methods in high risk families. Early Childhood Development and Care 16:149-166. 1990 Can home visitation improve the health of women and children at risk? Pp. 79-103 in D.L. Rogers and E. Ginzberg, eds., Improving the Life Chances of Children at Risk. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1992 What Do We Know About Home-Visitation as a Means of Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect? Testimony prepared for the House Select Committee on Children and Families: Keeping kids safe—Exploring public/private partnerships to prevent abuse and strengthen families. April 2.

OCR for page 161
Page 205 Olds, D.L., and H. Kitzman 1990 Can home visitation improve the health of women and children at environmental risk? Pediatrics 86(1)(July):108-116. Olds, D.L., C.R. Henderson, R. Chamberlin, and R. Tatelbaum 1986a Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 78:65-78. Olds, D.L., C.R. Henderson, R. Tatelbaum, and R. Chamberlin 1986b Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics 77:16-28. 1988 Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. American Journal of Public Health 78:1436-1445. Pelton, L.H. 1989 For Reasons of Poverty. New York: Praeger. Polansky, N.A., R. Borgman, and C. DeSaix 1972a Roots of Futility. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Polansky, N.A., C. DeSaix, and S. Sharlin 1972b Child Neglect: Understanding and Reaching the Parent. New York: Child Welfare League of America. Polansky, N.A., M.A. Chalmers, E. Bullenweiser, and D.P. Williams 1981 Damaged Parents: An Anatomy of Child Neglect. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Polansky, N.A., J.M. Gaudin, and A.C. Kilpatrick 1992 Family radicals. Children and Youth Services Review 14:19-26. Porch, T.L., and P.A. Petretic-Jackson 1986 Child Sexual Assault Prevention: Evaluation Parent Education Workshops. Paper presented at the 94th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. August. Ramey, C.T. 1991 Chapter in Huston, ed., Children in Poverty. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Ramey, C.T., D.B. Bryant, B.H. Wasik, J.J. Sparling, K.H. Fendt, and L.M. LaVange 1992 The infant health and development program for low birth weight, premature infants: Program elements, family participation, and child intelligence. Pediatrics 89(3):454-465. Reiss, D. 1981 The Family's Construction of Reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Reppucci, N.D., and J.J. Haugaard 1989 Prevention of child sexual abuse: Myth or reality. American Psychologist 44:266-275. Reppucci, N.D., and J. Herman 1991 Sexuality education and child sexual abuse prevention programs in the schools. In G. Grant, ed., Review of Research in Education. Washington, DC.: American Educational Research Association. Rosenberg, M.S. 1987 New directions for research on the psychological maltreatment of children. American Psychologist 42:166-171. Ruble, D.N., J. Brooks-Gunn, A. Flemmin, G. Fitzmaurice, C. Stangor, and F. Deutsch 1990 Coming of age in the era of AIDS: Sexual and contraceptive decisions. Milbank Quarterly 68:59-84. Schorr, L. 1988 Within Our Reach: Breaking the Cycle of Disadvantage. New York: Anchor.

OCR for page 161
Page 206 Seigel, E., K. Bauman, E. Schaefer, M. Saunders, and D. Ingram 1980 Hospital and home support during infancy: Impact on maternal attachment, child abuse and neglect, and health care utilization. Pediatrics 66:183-190. Sherman, L.W. 1992 Policing Domestic Violence New York: The Free Press. Shonkoff, J.P., P. Hauser-Cram, M. Wyngaarden Kraus, and C. Cristofk Upshur 1992 Development of Infants with Disabilities and Their Families. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development 57(6). Shonkoff, J.P., and P. Hauser-Cram 1987 Early intervention for disabled infants and their families: A quantitative analysis. Pediatrics 80:650-658. Spiker, D., J. Ferguson, J. Brooks-Gunn in press Enhancing maternal interactive behavior and child social competence in low birth weight, premature infants: Results from the Infant Health and Development Program. Child Development. Stark, E., and A.H. Flitcraft 1991 Spouse abuse. Chapter in Rosenberg, M.L., and M.A. Fenley, eds. Violence in America. New York: Oxford University Press. Straus, M.A., and G.K. Kaufman Kantor 1994 Physical Punishment by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating. Adolescence (forthcoming). Straus, M.A., and C. Yodanis 1994 Paths from corporal punishment to physical abuse in a nationally representative sample of American parents. Chapter 6 in Murray A. Straus, ed., Beating the Devil Out of Them: Corporal Punishment by Parents and Its Effects on Children. Boston: Lexington/Macmillan. (forthcoming). Swan, H.L., A.N. Press, and S.L. Briggs 1985 Child sexual abuse prevention: Does it work? Child Welfare 64:667-674. Tharinger, D.J., J.J. Krivacska, M. Laye-McDonough, and L. Jamison 1988 Prevention of child sexual abuse: An analysis of issues, educational programs, and research findings. School Psychology Review 17(4):614-634. Tower, C.C. 1992 The role of educators in the protections and treatment of child abuse and neglect. National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. DHHS Publication (ACF) 92-30172. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect 1990 Child Abuse and Neglect: Critical First Steps in Response to a National Emergency. August. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1991 Creating Caring Communities. September. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Wasik, B.H. 1984 Coping with Parenting Through Effective Problem Solving: A Handbook for Professionals. Chapel Hill: Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center. Wasik, B.H., C.T. Ramey, D.M. Byant, and J.J. Sparling 1990 A longitudinal study of two early intervention strategies: Project Care. Child Development 61:1682-1696. Werner, E.E., and R.S. Smith 1982 Vulnerable but Not Invincible: A Longitudinal Study of Resilient Children and Youth. New York: McGraw Hill.

OCR for page 161
Page 207 Willis, D.J., E.W. Holden, and M. Rosenberg 1992 Prevention of Child Maltreatment. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Winsten, J.A. 1992 Lessons from the Designated Driver Campaign. Paper prepared for presentation at the Automobile Club of Southern California's DUI Symposium, Ontario, CA. November 17. Wolfe, D.A., T. MacPherson, R. Blount, and V.V. Wolfe 1986 Evaluation of a brief intervention for educating school children in awareness of physical and sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect 10(1):85-92. Woodhead, M. 1988 When psychology informs public policy. American Psychologist 43(6):443-454. Wurtele, S.K. 1988 Harmful Effects of Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs? Results and Implications. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychology Association, Atlanta. August. Wurtele, S.K., S.R. Marrs, and C.L. Miller-Perrin 1987 Practice makes perfect? The role of participant modeling in sexual abuse prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55(4):599-602. Wurtele, S.K., L.C. Kast, C.L. Miller-Perrin and P.A. Kondrik 1989 Comparison of programs for teaching personal safety skills to preschoolers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 57:505-511. Zigler, E.F. 1992 Early childhood intervention: A promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist 47:997-1006. Zigler, E., and N.W. Hall 1989 Physical child abuse in America: Past, present, and future. In D. Cicchetti and V. Carlson, eds., Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences on Child Abuse and Neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press.