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Page 253 7 Interventions and Treatment Examples of intervention in child maltreatment include the investigation of child abuse reports by state child protection agencies, clinical treatment of physical and psychological injuries, family counseling, self-help services, the provision of goods and services such as homemaker or respite care, legal action against the perpetrator, and removal of the child or the offender from the home. This chapter reviews interventions that occur after suspected child maltreatment has been reported to child protection agencies. These treatment interventions are viewed by some as a form of tertiary prevention, for they are often designed not only to remedy whatever harm may have occurred, but also to prevent future occurrences of child maltreatment and to minimize the negative consequences of child maltreatment experiences for children and their families. Some observers believe that the concept of treatment, in the field of child maltreatment studies, should be restricted to interventions that are therapeutic in nature, thus distinguishing such programs from social and legal efforts to investigate or prosecute reports of child abuse and neglect. However, the panel believes that therapeutic programs should be viewed within a broader social context that includes interventions by social and legal agencies. Access to therapeutic care is often determined by social service or law enforcement personnel, and the availability of medical or psychological services is significantly uneven in different social sectors. As a result, only a small percentage of victims have access to the services that they need (McCurdy and Daro, 1993). Thus, in the panel's view,
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Page 254 ''treatment" should include the processes by which child maltreatment reports are assessed, investigated, and substantiated. In this review, treatment approaches are categorized by the systems and developmental levels for which they are designed. Many studies of interventions for victims of child maltreatment distinguish between different types of abuse, particularly sexual abuse. However, victims of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment often experience similar psychological effects (e.g., fearfulness, aggression, low self-esteem, and depression) (Erickson and Egeland, 1987; Conte and Berliner, 1988). In addition, although treatment programs may be targeted to victims of a specific form of maltreatment, populations served by these programs may include victims of multiple forms of abuse. For example, increased awareness of emotional or psychological maltreatment has suggested that this form of child abuse may be an underlying factor in all forms of child victimization, although few treatment programs focus on it directly.1 Historical, empirical, organizational, and social factors complicate an understanding and analysis of intervention systems for child maltreatment. Multiple agencies have responsibility for determining policies that guide interventions in child abuse and neglect and coordinating human and financial resources to fulfill these objectives. Research that describes or evaluates the methods and mechanisms used to identify or confirm cases of child maltreatment; to assess the severity of child and family dysfunction, personal and social resources, and family strengths; and to match clients to appropriate treatments is minimal. Although project evaluations that assess the benefits and limitations of treatment evaluations are often required by federal and state sponsors, problematic methodological issues characterize research in this area. Such issues include the following: the research generally does not include controlled experiments, has limited sample size, uses questionable measures to assess performance, and common assessment strategies have not been used across different interventions, making it difficult to know what works for whom. These issues need to be addressed to improve the use of research evaluations in the development of services and programs, Furthermore, it is difficult to isolate factors specifically associated with child abuse and neglect in programs that often include families with multiple problems. Research on service delivery and accessibility is complicated by ethical, legal, and logistical problems. Researchers in this area have limited resources to collect compatible data, and the results of project evaluations are rarely published in the professional literature. In addition, clinicians who provide treatment services in child abuse and neglect cases may lack time, resources, and skills to develop systematic research evaluations. Despite these limitations, a few significant outcome evaluations of treatment
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Page 255 interventions do exist in the research literature on child maltreatment. In 1987, Cohn and Daro reviewed four major studies of multiple site program evaluations funded by the federal government since 1974.2 These four studies, collectively, represented over $4 million invested in child maltreatment research over a 10-year period, involving 89 different demonstration treatment programs for which the government spent about $40 million and collected data on 3,253 families experiencing abuse and neglect problems (Cohn and Daro, 1987). Although these studies demonstrated how to provide direct services to both adults and children, documented improved client outcomes in individual and family functioning, and indicated reduced propensities for sexual abuse in families, the analysis of these studies provided significant cause for concern, concluding that treatment efforts in general were "not very successful" (p. 440): Child abuse and neglect continue despite early, thoughtful, and often costly intervention. Treatment programs have been relatively ineffective in initially halting abusive and neglectful behavior or in reducing the future likelihood of maltreatment in the most severe cases of physical abuse, chronic neglect, and emotional maltreatment. One-third or more of the parents served by these intensive demonstration efforts maltreated their children while in treatment, and over one-half of the families served continued to be judged by staff as likely to mistreat their children following termination. Given this pessimistic assessment of the benefits that have been obtained through federally funded treatment interventions, much effort has been directed toward programs that will improve the treatment of victims or eliminate the potential for child abuse and neglect behavior.3 In this chapter, the panel reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different types of interventions, identifying gaps in knowledge and highlighting areas in which research can lead to the development of improved programs. This review is not comprehensive, but it is intended to reflect the general state of research in this area. The interventions discussed here include those commonly classified as treatment (such as family counseling or self-help services) for both the victim and the perpetrator, the administrative and legal processing of reported child abuse cases, the assessment of families, and foster care placement. In keeping with a process-oriented approach, the panel has included discussions of child protective services, law enforcement, and medical responses to reports of child maltreatment because of their potential to exacerbate or diminish the negative consequences of child maltreatment and influence the provision and effectiveness of treatment. It should be noted, however, that this review is selective. The fragmentary nature of research on the intervention process and the absence of research reviews and controlled studies inhibited the panel's ability to evalu-
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Page 256 ate the strengths and limitations of this field of work. Furthermore, we did not have sufficient time to evaluate the full spectrum of case handling and legal procedures associated with reports of child maltreatment. We have thus focused our attention on those areas in which important theoretical and data collection efforts have been achieved in identifying future research priorities for studies of the intervention processes. A broad range of topics germane to the study of child maltreatment, such as the recidivism records of child molesters, the reliability of child witness testimony, and the relationship of child maltreatment reports to child custody disputes, are not addressed here because the panel did not have a sufficient scientific research record on which to evaluate the quality of the reported findings. Treatment Efforts At The Individual Level Treatment of Child Victims As discussed in Chapter 6, the form of a child's response to maltreatment may be influenced by their age and developmental level. The panel has incorporated a developmental perspective into this review of treatment programs for individuals in order to assess the efficacy of treatment both in reducing the negative effects of maltreatment at different developmental stages and also in improving the victim's functioning during such critical developmental milestones as attachment, peer competency, and parenting styles. Despite the large literature on the detrimental effects of child maltreatment that Chapter 6 outlines, the majority of treatment programs do not provide services directed at the psychosocial problems of the abused child. Children's involvement in treatment programs has generally occurred in the context of family-based services in which they have received direct programmatic attention4 (Kolko, in press). The multiple therapeutic components of such programs make it difficult to determine the specific contribution of child treatment to outcomes. Some treatment studies have examined the benefits of day or residential treatment/care programs for very young children, many of which use play or art therapy techniques (Azar and Wolfe, 1989). Studies of physically maltreated youngsters who have participated in specialized day care or residential programs have generally included diverse therapeutic activities for children as well as other parent or family-based services (e.g., counseling, homemaker and family and individual therapy and support groups) (Culp et al., 1987a,b, 1991; Elmer, 1977; Parish et al., 1985; Sankey et al., 1985). Therapeutic day care can address problems with attachment, self-concept, emotional behavior problems, and physical problems in abused and neglected children (Daro, 1988). In a recent study of physically abused
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Page 257 children, therapeutic day care resulted in significant pre- and post-test gains (compared with controls) in all tested developmental areas, including fine and gross motor skills, cognitive development, social and emotional functioning, and language development (Culp et al., 1987a,b). A series of studies focused on samples of preschool physically abused children have found limited improvements in social behavior and peer relations. Although sample sizes were small, these studies are notable for their use of objective and repeated measures, experimental designs, and clearly described intervention procedures (Fantuzzo et al., 1987, 1988). Case studies and clinical anecdotes offer glimpses of psychodynamic, insight-oriented and behavioral methods employed in individual and group treatments of sexually abused children (Becker et al., 1982; Gagliano, 1987; Gilbert, 1988; Van Leeven, 1988). Clinical literature on the treatment of child sexual abuse tends to emphasize the importance of expression and exploration of feelings, alteration of attributions of responsibility, and reduction of fear and anxiety (Berliner and Wheeler, 1987). To the panel's knowledge there are minimal outcome data on the comparative effectiveness of group and individual treatments for sexually abused children. Treatment interventions for child victims of abuse and neglect draw extensively from approaches for treating other childhood and adolescent problems with similar symptom profiles (Bonner and Walker, 1991). Empirical evaluations of programs that address child or adolescent problems in the areas of depression (Kolko et al., 1988; Lewinsohn et al., 1990), anxiety (Kendall et al., 1992), aggression or antisocial behavior (Kazdin, 1989; Kazdin et al., 1987; Pepler and Rubin, 1991), and social or peer disturbances (Kolko et al., 1990) have reported positive outcomes.5 Replication of this work to determine the effectiveness of these treatment approaches with victims of child abuse and neglect would be extremely helpful. Empirical evidence indicating a sustained reduction in the sequelae of abuse over time is not available from programs that directly and consistently involve abused or neglected children. Experimental designs and standardized outcome assessments, including adequate follow-ups, have rarely been used to evaluate interventions designed for maltreated children (Bonner and Walker, 1991; Browne and Finkelhor, 1986; Wheeler and Berliner, 1988). Five experimental treatment outcome investigations were funded in 1990 by the National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect to examine individual and group interventions for sexually and physically abused children in clinical settings, but the results of these studies are not yet known. With few exceptions, detailed descriptions of treatment protocols that would facilitate replication are not available. Therapeutic interventions for child victims of maltreatment are limited in part because the psychological effects of abuse have not been well formulated in terms of theoretical constructs that can provide a basis for inter-
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Page 258 vention (Wheeler and Berliner, 1988). Treatment approaches also rarely address the cumulative impact of victimization on children who may have additional experiences of racial or ethnic discrimination. Treatment of Adult Survivors The treatment of adult survivors of childhood sexual victimization is a newly emerging field; the first programs appeared in the late 1970s (Forward and Buck, 1978; Giaretto, 1976; Herman and Hirshman, 1977; Meiselman, 1978). Adult survivors are seen in various health centers (for somatic complaints, depression, or anxiety) and clinics for weight reduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and family planning. In contrast, few, if any, treatment programs or studies are available for adult survivors of physical or emotional abuse or child neglect. Research on the treatment of adult survivors is submerged in the literature on adult psychological disorders such as addiction, eating disorders, borderline personality disorders, and sexual dysfunction (Alpert, 1991). It is difficult to isolate information specifically about the treatment of adult victims of child abuse from other adult patients because many adult survivors of child abuse do not identify themselves as such. However, a small but growing literature is beginning to address the treatment of adults abused as children. Most research focuses on female survivors of sexual abuse, particularly incest, but studies of the treatment of male victims of sexual abuse are expanding (Vander May, 1988). Although a variety of individual and group approaches have been used in the treatment of adult survivors (including self-support techniques, building affect-regulation skills, cognitive interventions, exploration of desensitization of trauma, and emotional processing) (Briere, 1992), studies of the efficacy of these treatments are minimal. Most empirical research involves consumer evaluations of therapy (Jehu, 1988), changes in measures of mood disturbance (Alexander and Follette, 1987; Jehu, 1988; Roth and Newman, 1991; Roth et al., 1988), social adjustment and interpersonal problems (Alexander and Follette, 1987; Jehu, 1988), self-esteem (Alexander and Follete, 1987; Herman and Schatzow, 1984), sexual dysfunction (Jehu, 1988), guilt and assertiveness (Cole, 1985; Herman and Schatzow, 1984; Tsai and Wagner, 1978), and psychological well-being and overall sexual functioning (Wyatt et al., in press). Studies have examined predictors associated with positive treatment outcomes in adult survivors. Factors considered in these studies include the existence of a support system (Goodman and Nowack-Schibelli, 1985; Herman and Schatzow, 1984), motivation and expectations (Herman and Schatzow, 1984), education, experience of "lesser" sexual abuse (Follette et al., 1991),
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Page 259 and involvement in individual therapy while attending group therapy (Follette et al., 1991; Goodman and Nowack-Scibelli, 1985). To the panel's knowledge, only one controlled outcome study of the treatment of adult survivors has been conducted (Alexander et al., 1987, 1991; Follette et al., 1991). This study used a randomized design to demonstrate that group therapy was significantly effective relative to a waiting-list control condition for adult survivors of incest and that treatment gains were maintained at a six-month follow-up. Differential benefits of different types of group therapy were also identified, with the more structured format providing more anxiety relief and the less structured interpersonal groups providing more opportunities for interpersonal learning and improved social adjustment (Alexander et al., 1991). Future research on the treatment of adult survivors should pay particular attention to operationally defining moderating and mediating variables, clearly describing treatment methods, employing a broad range of outcome measures, using control or comparison groups, and administering follow-up assessments (Alpert, 1991). A developmental approach also needs to be integrated in such research, as the value of particular forms of therapy may vary at different stages of recovery (Alpert, 1991). Treatment for Adult Sex Offenders The treatment of child molesters is a controversial issue. Treatment programs are frequently offered to adult and adolescent offenders as part of plea bargaining negotiations in criminal prosecutions. The traditional assumption has been that children and society are better protected by offender treatment than by traditional prosecution and incarceration if the treatment service is effective (Finkelhor et al., 1988). However, there is currently considerable debate about whether child molesters can be effectively treated. The most common approaches to treating child molesters are comprehensive treatment programs aimed at simultaneously treating multiple aspects of deviant sexual behavior. These programs usually incorporate educational approaches, behavior therapy, and relapse prevention (Prentky, 1990). Group therapy, widely used in the treatment of pedophiles, allows patients with similar problems to share experiences, confront their behaviors, and understand motivations that govern sexual acts against children (Langevin, 1983). Its primary purpose is to identify and confront cognitive distortions, rationalizations, excuses for offending, and behaviors that signal potential reoffending (Salter, 1988). However, the lack of controlled studies, the difficulties of comparisons between studies using different and sometimes contradictory techniques, and the lack of replication complicate assessment of the value of group therapy in treating child molesters (Crawford, 1981).
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Page 260 Relapse prevention, which includes a variety of techniques including stress management training, cognitive restructuring, and victimization therapy (Prentky, 1990), is also a frequent component of offender treatment programs. First developed in the treatment of addictive behaviors, such as substance abuse, relapse prevention was adapted for use with sex offenders to reduce the risk of re-offending (Marques, 1988; Laws, 1989; Pithers, 1990). Although many different approaches to the treatment of sexual offenders have been tried (including group therapy, family systems treatment, chemical interventions, and relapse prevention), scientific data indicating sustained reductions in recidivism are not available (Becker, 1991). Most studies follow offenders only for one year after treatment, and it is not known if treatments are effective in eliminating molestation behavior beyond that period. Adolescent Sex Offenders Until recently, adolescent sexual offenders have been neglected in clinical and research literature, and empirically tested models to explain why adolescents commit sexual crimes or develop deviant sexual interest patterns are minimal (Becker, 1991). The components and goals of treatment for adolescent sex offenders are similar to those involved in the treatment of adult sex offenders. In general, the treatment of adolescent sex offenders focuses more on family contexts and less on behavioral and chemical techniques such as aversive conditioning and chemical interventions (Knopp et al., 1986). Preliminary outcome data on the treatment of juvenile sex offenders show positive outcomes (Kavoussi et al., 1987). However, the National Adolescent Perpetrator Network (established in 1983) has called attention to the lack of substantive research in the field and the lack of consensus regarding basic principles of treatment (National Adolescent Perpetrator Network, 1988). Studies that employ standardized measures of treatment outcomes and long-term follow-ups on homogeneous samples are likely to be revealing about the effectiveness of treatment for this population (Kavoussi et al., 1987). Self-Help Services for Abusive Adults Self-help support and treatment programs are based on the premise that individuals can benefit from learning about the victimization experiences of others. These programs have attracted popular support in a wide range of health services, including the treatment of alcoholism, weight loss, and rape counseling programs, and they have also been applied in the treatment of both physically and sexually abusive adults. Parents Anonymous, a self-
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Page 261 help group for physically abusive parents that started in the early 1970s, currently provides free, confidential group services to approximately 30,000 families each year in 1,200 chapters across the United States. A self-help component has also been integrated into treatment programs for intrafamilial sexual abuse (Giaretto, 1982). Parents United had 135 active chapters in the United States and Canada in 1988, which included self-help groups for the incest offender, the nonoffending spouse, children, and adults molested as children. Other groups similar to Parents Anonymous and Parents United are continually being formed. Few empirical studies with reliable outcome measures have been used to evaluate the effectiveness of individual self-help programs or to identify the characteristics of individuals who are most likely to benefit from such efforts. A comparison study of self-help groups conducted by Berkeley Planning Associates found that self-help groups and lay therapists were reliable predictors for reduced recidivism (Cohn, 1979). One evaluation of Parents Anonymous, conducted by Behavior Associates, found that physical abuse stopped after one month of attendance and verbal abuse showed a significant decrease after two months of attendance (Ehresman, 1988). Microsystem Approaches: Family-Oriented Interventions Most treatment interventions for physical abuse, child neglect, and emotional abuse seek to change parents or the home environment. Only recently have treatment services begun to incorporate empirical findings that build on ecological, developmental models of child maltreatment and examine the interactions of family members, abusive parents' perceptions of their children, behavioral characteristics that may restrict parenting abilities, and emotional reactions to stressful childrearing situations (Wolfe, 1992:9). Contemporary parent training programs focus on improving cognitive-behavioral skills and usually adapt behavioral methods designed originally to assist non-abusive families with behaviorally disturbed children (Wolfe, 1992:10). Family systems treatments target the psychodynamic interplay in relationships in families. Intensive home-based services and family preservation services directly correspond to ecological, developmental theories of maltreatment and provide services directed at the overall needs of abusive families. A lack of consensus still exists regarding the effectiveness of a wide range of treatment services for maltreating families (Azar and Wolfe, 1989; Isaacs, 1982). Outcome studies have indicated positive behavioral and attitudinal changes as a result of family or parent treatment, but few studies have examined the effects of such interventions on subsequent reports of child abuse and neglect beyond one year. Definitive conclusions about the
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Page 262 generalizability of the findings from studies of family-oriented programs in reducing subsequent maltreatment are difficult to develop because the participants in these programs often present varied types of parental dysfunction. Research in this area is dominated by single-case studies. Group studies that have been used are often characterized by a lack of random assignment to treatment conditions, small sample sizes, and inappropriate comparison groups (Kaufman, 1991). Parental Enhancement Most parental enhancement programs focus on training abusive parents in child management (e.g., effective discipline), childrearing (e.g., infant stimulation), and self-control skills (e.g., anger control). Programs for neglectful parents typically focus on areas such as nutrition, homemaking, and child care. Parental enhancement programs may help some families who experience child management problems when a sexually abusive father is removed from the home. In these cases, child management skills help develop positive child-parent interaction in sexually abusive families. The efficacy of parent-training approaches for physically abusive parents has been supported by various single-case studies, one study using repeated measures, and group design studies (Azar and Twentyman, 1984; Crimmins et al., 1984; Gilbert, 1976; Jeffrey, 1976; Reid et al., 1981; Szykula and Fleischman, 1985; Wolfe et al., 1981a,b, 1982). Studies of multiple approaches and diverse populations have provided consistent evidence that parents can acquire behavioral skills and use them in interactions with their children, at least in clinical settings (Golub et al., 1987). Some evidence suggests that training has reduced parental distress or symptomatology and, in some instances, improved child functioning (Wolfe et al., 1988) and reduced the likelihood of child placement (Szykula and Fleischman, 1985). Efforts to expand the scope of parental enhancement programs have fostered attention to parents' cognitive-attributional and affective repertoires (see Azar and Siegel, 1990). Therapeutic directions highlight the need to incorporate diverse skills and to evaluate the effectiveness of individual approaches (see Azar and Wolfe, 1989). Project 12-Ways is an intervention program for high-risk abusive and neglectful parents based on an ecobehavioral approachthat is, an approach that includes attention to environmental as well as individual and family factors. Following an in-depth assessment, parents participate in customized programs including the use of groups, behavioral methods, and parental aides to offer specialized services including parent-child relations, home safety, nutrition and health maintenance, assertiveness training, job placement and vocational skills training, stress reduction training, alcoholism
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Page 263 treatment, and financial planning (Lutzker, 1984). Positive findings from single-subject case reports, reports of clients attaining treatment goals in the majority of cases, and lower recidivism rates for program clients compared with controls for a five-year period of program evaluation support this approach to family treatment (Lutzker, 1984; Luztker and Rice, 1987). However, no comparison data were collected, and client assignment to Project 12-Ways was not random. Evidence also suggests that treatment gains are not maintained when compared with a comparison group (Wesch and Lutzker, 1991). At present, few definitive studies demonstrate the efficacy of parent training in reducing re-abuse. Evaluations of the clinical impact of intervention on subsequent re-abuse (recidivism) rates and child and family functioning are needed (Kolko, in press). The severity of family dysfunction evident in some cases of abuse or neglect may also limit the applicability of parent-training methods. Family Systems Treatment Family systems treatment, commonly used in the treatment of intrafamilal sexual abuse, seeks to change the psychosocial interactions among family members. Clinical descriptions of family therapy combined with individual and group therapy suggest its potential usefulness for families who are highly dysfunctional, although controlled evaluations of family therapy in child sexual abuse have not been conducted (Alexander, 1990; Bentovim and Van Elburg, 1987; Giaretto, 1976, 1978; Ribordy, 1990; Sgroi, 1982; Walker et al., 1988). Some programs have indicated a recidivism rate as low as 3 percent (Anderson and Shafer, 1979). Home-Based Services and Family Preservation Services Home-based services and family preservation services address the overall needs of families, include both children and parents, and focus directly on contextual factors, such as poverty, single parenthood, and marital discord, that increase stress, weaken families, and elicit aggressive behavior (Kolko, in press). These programs target functional relationships among diverse individual, family, and systemic problems by combining traditional social work with various therapeutic counselling approaches. The use of home-based services has been advocated in response to the multiple problems found among abusive and neglectful families, difficulties in providing services in a traditional format, and interests in reducing the number of children placed in foster care. The breadth of potential family dysfunction has encouraged hands-on approaches that address risk factors at
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Page 281 References Aber, J.L. 1980 The involuntary child placement decision: Solomon's dilemma revisited. In G. Gerber, C. Ross, and E. Zigler, eds., Child Abuse: An Agenda for Action. New York: Oxford University Press. Alexander, P.C. 1990 Interventions in incestuous families. Pp. 324-344 in S.W. Henggeler and C.M. Borduin, eds., Family Therapy and Beyond: A Multisystemic Approach to Treating the Behavior Problems of Children and Adolescents. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Alexander, P.C., and V.M. Follette 1987 Personal constructs in the group treatment of incest. Pp. 211-229 in R.A. Neimeyer and G.J. Neimeyer, eds., Personal Construct Therapy Casebook. New York: Springer. Alexander, P.C., R.A. Neimeyer, V.M. Follette, and M.K. Moore 1989 A comparison of group treatments of women sexually abused as children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 57(4):479-483. Alexander, P.C., R.A. Neimeyer, and V.M. Follette 1991 Group therapy for women sexually abused as children: A controlled study and investigation of individual differences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(2):218-231. Alexander, R.C. 1990 Education of the physician in child abuse. Pediatric Clinics of North America 37(4):971-987. Alpert, J.A. 1991 Treatment of Adults Who Were Abused as Children. Background paper for the Child Abuse Treatment Working Group of the American Psychological Association. American Public Welfare Association 1989 National Conference on CPS Risk Assessment from Research to Practice. Designing the Future of Child Protective Services: Summary of Highlights. Burlington, VT, May 9-10, 1989. American Public Welfare Association, Washington, DC. Anderson, L., and G. Shafer 1979 The character-disordered family: A community treatment model for family. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 49(July):436-445. Azar, S.T., and B.R. Siegel 1990 Behavioral treatment of child abuse: A developmental perspective. Behavior Modification 14:279-300. Azar, S.T., and C.T. Twentyman 1984 An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Behavioral versus Insight-Oriented Group Treatments with Maltreating Mothers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. Philadelphia, PA. Azar, S.T., and D.A. Wolfe 1989 Child abuse and neglect. Pp. 451-493 in E.J. Mash and R.A. Barkely, eds., Treatment of Childhood Disorders. New York: Guilford. Bath, H.I., and D.A. Haapala 1993 Intensive family preservation services with abused and neglected children: An examination of group differences. Child Abuse and Neglect 17(2):213-225. Baglow, L.J. 1990 A multidimensional model for treatment of child abuse: A framework for cooperation. Child Abuse and Neglect 14:387-395.
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Page 282 Becker, J. 1991 Treatment Methods for Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse. Background paper prepared for the Child Abuse Treatment Working Group of the American Psychological Association. Becker, J.V., L.J. Skinner, and G.G. Abel 1982 Treatment of a four-year-old victim of incest. American Journal of Family Therapy 10:41-46. Bentovim, A., and A. Van Elburg 1987 Child sexual abuse: Children and families referred to a treatment project and the effects of intervention. British Medical Journal 295(6611):1453-1457. Berliner, L., and J.R. Wheeler 1987 Treating the effects of sexual abuse on children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2:415-434. Boehm, B. 1962 An assessment of family adequacy in protective cases. Child Welfare 41:10-16. 1967 Protective services for neglected children in social work practice. Proceedings of the National Conference on Social Welfare. New York: Columbia University Press. Bonner, B.L., and C.E. Walker 1991 Treatment of Abused and Neglected Children. Background paper prepared for the Child Abuse Treatment Working Group of the American Psychological Association. Briere, J. 1992 Child Abuse Trauma: Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects of Interpersonal Violence: The Practice Series. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Browne, A., and D. Finkelhor 1986 Initial and long-term effects: A review of the research. Pp. 143-179 in D. Finkelhor, ed., A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Brunk, M., S.W. Henggeler, and J.P. Whelan 1987 Comparison of multisystemic therapy and parent training in the brief treatment of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 55:171-178. Child Welfare League of America 1986 Too Young to Run: The Status of Child Abuse in America. New York: Child Welfare League of America. Cohn, A. 1979 Effective treatment of child abuse and neglect. Social Work 24(6)(November):513-519. Cohn, A.H., and D. Daro 1987 Is treatment too late: What ten years of evaluative research tell us. Child Abuse and Neglect 11:433-442. Cole, C. 1985 Group design for adult female survivors of childhood incest. Women Therapy 4(3):71-82. Conte, J.R., and L. Berliner 1988 The impact of sexual abuse on children: Empirical findings. Pp. 72-93 in L.E.A. Walker, ed., Handbook on Sexual Abuse of Children: Assessment and Treatment Issues. New York: Springer Publishing Company. Crawford, D.A. 1981 Treatment approaches with pedophiles. Pp. 181-217 in M. Cook and K. Howells, eds., Adult Sexual Interest in Children. New York: Academic Press.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: