Page 379

Index

A

Abandonment, 60, 63

Academic performance, 2, 17, 39, 41, 138, 174-175, 198n, 212

Accidents, 68, 73n

Addiction, see Substance abuse

Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF), 304, 306-308, 356-357

Administrative records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350

Adolescents, 58, 124-125, 217-223

as sexual abuse offenders, 18-19, 84, 139, 260

see also Juvenile delinquency; Teenage pregnancy

Adult survivors, 18, 87, 224-226, 228, 229, 258-259, 335

recall bias, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225

Advisory organizations, 27, 313

Advocacy organizations, 24, 165, 315

African Americans, 67, 88, 98n, 130-131, 136, 175, 185, 371

Age, 15, 58, 66, 113, 124-125

parental, 7, 122-123, 133, 220

see also Adolescents; Developmental stages; Infants

Aggression, 51, 61, 119-121, 128, 212, 215-216, 371

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 19, 266, 303

Alcoholism, 2, 16, 39, 220-221, 223

parental, 7-8, 17, 118-119, 141, 221

of sexual abusers, 114

American Bar Association, 61

American Humane Association (AHA), 79-80, 98n

American Medical Association, 72n, 86

American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 294

Amphetamines, 114

Anatomical dolls, 280n

Anger, 8, 109, 215-216

Animal models and studies, 119-122, 144n

Antipoverty programs, 12, 19-20, 182-183, 266

Antisocial behavior, 215-216, 226

parental, 7, 111-112, 117, 128

personality disorder, 7, 16, 113, 119, 223

Anxiety, 61, 111-112, 124, 128, 213, 224

Archives and databases, 23, 25, 97, 298, 299-300



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Page 379 Index A Abandonment, 60, 63 Academic performance, 2, 17, 39, 41, 138, 174-175, 198n, 212 Accidents, 68, 73n Addiction, see Substance abuse Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF), 304, 306-308, 356-357 Administrative records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350 Adolescents, 58, 124-125, 217-223 as sexual abuse offenders, 18-19, 84, 139, 260 see also Juvenile delinquency; Teenage pregnancy Adult survivors, 18, 87, 224-226, 228, 229, 258-259, 335 recall bias, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225 Advisory organizations, 27, 313 Advocacy organizations, 24, 165, 315 African Americans, 67, 88, 98n, 130-131, 136, 175, 185, 371 Age, 15, 58, 66, 113, 124-125 parental, 7, 122-123, 133, 220 see also Adolescents; Developmental stages; Infants Aggression, 51, 61, 119-121, 128, 212, 215-216, 371 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 19, 266, 303 Alcoholism, 2, 16, 39, 220-221, 223 parental, 7-8, 17, 118-119, 141, 221 of sexual abusers, 114 American Bar Association, 61 American Humane Association (AHA), 79-80, 98n American Medical Association, 72n, 86 American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 294 Amphetamines, 114 Anatomical dolls, 280n Anger, 8, 109, 215-216 Animal models and studies, 119-122, 144n Antipoverty programs, 12, 19-20, 182-183, 266 Antisocial behavior, 215-216, 226 parental, 7, 111-112, 117, 128 personality disorder, 7, 16, 113, 119, 223 Anxiety, 61, 111-112, 124, 128, 213, 224 Archives and databases, 23, 25, 97, 298, 299-300

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Page 380 Asian Americans, 98n, 128, 138 Attention disorders, 15, 212 Attitudinal factors, parental, 7, 115-116 Automotive safety technology, 69 Autonomy, of research subjects, 29, 36, 326, 329, 333, 361 Aversive behavior, 125, 129, 144n B Background checks, 183 ''The Battered Child Syndrome," 43, 60, 98n, 187 Beatings, 59, 64, 67 Behavioral function and disorders, 2, 15-16, 32, 39, 208, 212-216 see also Antisocial behavior; Cognitive function; Juvenile delinquency; Mental health and illness; Parenting styles and behaviors; Sexuality and sexual dysfunction; Violent behavior Belittlement, 60, 94, 214 "Best interests of the child," 22, 274 Bias in research case report analysis, 69-70, 73n, 80, 95 clinical samples, 45 respondent recall, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225 Biological factors, 114, 119-122 Black population, see African Americans Bone fractures, 60, 68, 71 Brain damage, 15, 68, 121-122, 129, 210 Budgets, see Funding of research Burns and scalding, 59, 64, 68, 73n Bystander behavior, 13, 188 C Cases of maltreatment, see Epidemiological studies; Incidence; Reporting of cases Castration, 273 Categories of maltreatment, 4, 43-44, 59, 98n co-occurrence among, 5, 44, 106-107, 142 definitions, 58, 62-63, 71, 85, 345 and etiology, 106, 141-142 and interventions, 254, 351 in research, 4-5, 31, 32, 44, 49, 51, 54, 347 Cause-and-effect models, 7, 53, 107 Center-based programs, 11, 169, 173-174, 175 Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), 65 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 36, 310- 311, 319, 359 Dentral nervous system damage, 15, 68, 121-122, 129, 210, 211, 212 Certificates of confidentiality, 337-338, 361 Chemical intervention, for sexual offenders, 19, 260 Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption and Family Services Act, 81 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, 43, 60, 79 Child Abuse Prevention Challenge Grants, 178-179, 306 Child Assault Prevention (CAP), 180 Child development, see Developmental delay and disability; Developmental stages Child-oriented research framework, 4, 49-50, 54 Children's Bureau, 308 Children's Initiative, 174 Children's Justice Act, 306 Chlamydia, 69 Chronic maltreatment, 4, 6, 8, 49-50, 65, 94, 107, 127, 129, 232 Classification, 58, 61, 62-63. See Definitions; Instrumentation Classroom-based instruction, see School-based programs Clearinghouses, 299-300

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Page 381 Clinical studies, 53, 71 bias in, 45 and definitions of maltreatment, 5, 44, 58 Cocaine, 114, 119 Cognitive appraisal of events, 16, 228 Cognitive function, 15, 16, 17, 32, 67, 198n, 208, 211-212, 227, 235-236n parental, 7, 115-116 Cohort studies, 90, 97 Coining, 67 Collaborative research, 4, 23, 27, 35-36, 42, 54, 313, 357-359 Colposcope, 267 Community-based programs evaluations, 13, 14, 20, 34, 191, 195, 352-353 intervention, 20-22, 266-274 prevention, 12-13, 168-170, 174-176, 178-188, 195 see also School-based programs Comprehensive Crime Control Act, 178 Condylomata, 69 Confidentiality and privacy, 21, 22, 136 in research studies, 29, 36, 92-93, 96, 325, 329, 332, 333, 337-338, 339, 361 Conflict resolution, 11, 12, 13-14, 35, 167 Conflict Tactics Scales, 64-65, 83, 98n 130, 133 Consequences and outcomes, 15-17, 28, 32, 38, 39, 44, 46, 208-210, 212, 232 for adolescents, 217-223 and definitions, 4, 5, 57 and development, 15, 51 of emotional abuse, 209, 211, 232 of interparental violence, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 216-217, 224 of interventions, 3, 21, 22, 33, 40 long-term, 209, 224-226 of neglect, 209, 210-211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 232 of physical abuse, 15, 209-216 passim of sexual abuse, 15, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214-215, 219, 220, 222 see also Behavioral function and disorders; Cognitive function; Injuries; Intergenerational abuse; Mental health and illness Consortia, 36, 319, 320, 358, 359, 360 Contextual factors and maltreatment definitions, 5, 58, 64-65 and outcomes, 15, 209, 234 and treatment, 263-264 Continuum of behavior, 107, 108, 130, 142, 347 cultural acceptability, 137 sexual abuse, 113, 179 Control studies, 17, 46, 47, 90 ethical issues, 29, 36, 329, 332-333, 339, 361 of treatment programs, 276-277 Co-occurrence of maltreatment types, 5, 44, 94, 106-107, 142, 254 consequences, 15, 17, 32, 232, 234 Coordinated research approaches, 3-4, 43 Corporal punishment, see Discipline and punishment Cost-effectiveness 3, 40 Costs of services, 1, 21, 34, 38, 92, 277 long-term, 2, 39-40 Counseling services, 20, 23, 27, 40, 92, 277 Court Appointed Special Advocates, 273, 280n Courts, see Legal system Covenant to Care, 186-187 Crime and criminal justice, see Criminal sanctions; Juvenile delinquency; Legal system Criminal sanctions, 13-14, 33, 190, 197 Culpability, 66 Culture and ethnicity, 4, 9-10, 110, 136-138, 142 and alcoholism, 8, 114, 119, 141 categories of race, 98n and definitions of abuse, 58, 61, 63, 66-67, 70, 71

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Page 382 discrimination, 10, 16, 41, 137, 226, 258 and disproportionate representation, 87-88, 137-138 and parenting behaviors, 5, 8, 57, 66-67, 128-129, 130-131, 138, 142, 189-190 and prevention, 13-14, 188-190 and research, 24, 28, 31, 32, 41-41, 47, 53, 69, 72n, 97n, 316, 331, 332-333, 345, 347, 348, 349, 358 and sexual abuse, 138 Curriculum-based programs, see School-based programs Custody issues, 22, 63, 272, 274 D Data collection and sources, 6, 24, 28, 43 archives, 23, 25, 97, 298, 299-300 case reports and records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350 comparability, 17, 21, 24, 33, 44, 59, 65 dissemination, 23, 25, 26, 28, 299-301 national, 25, 26, 36, 96-97, 304 state, 27, 34, 95, 306, 354, 360 see also Instrumentation; Methodology; Samples and sampling Day care services, 20, 256-257 workers identification of abuse, 12-13, 183 Deaths, 1, 15, 38, 52, 82, 89, 93, 98n, 210, 235n misclassification of, 79, 88-89, 210 Debriefing and desensitization, of research subjects, 29, 36, 327, 329, 333-334, 339, 361 Deception, of research subjects, 29, 324, 327, 329, 330-332 Definitions, 6, 29, 30, 44, 47, 59, 344 development of, 4-5, 31, 44, 57-63, 345 emotional abuse, 44, 60, 61, 62, 72n legal, 60-61, 62, 70 medical-diagnostic, 60, 67-69, 72n neglect, 59-66 passim, 82 operationalization of, 31, 61-62, 63-67, 70-71, 85, 123, 345 physical abuse, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64-65 for research, 60, 61-63, 70, 345 sexual abuse, 44, 59, 62 sociological, 60, 61 standardization, 5, 21, 57-59, 70, 95 Degrees, advanced, 24, 295 Dehydration, 73n Delinquency, see Juvenile delinquency Delivery of services, 17-18, 21, 23, 33, 34, 45, 254, 276 Demographic factors, 122-123. See also Age; Culture and ethnicity; Gender; Household composition and density; Poverty Demonstrable harm, 5, 57, 64 Demonstration projects, 25, 26, 33, 43, 255, 279n, 303, 318, 350 Department of Defense, 25, 301, 303, 312 Department of Education, 25, 301, 303, 312 Department of Health and Human Services, 25, 26, 301, 303-311, 328 Department of Justice, 25, 36, 301, 311-312, 319 Department of Transportation, 25, 301, 312 Depression, 2, 39, 61, 65, 111-112, 124, 128, 214, 222, 224, 236n Deprivation, see Neglect Design of studies, 6, 89-91 Detachment, 8, 127, 213 Detection, see Identification of abuse Developmental delay and disability, 2, 39, 73n, 173, 211, 212, 353 treatment costs, 40 Developmental stages, 4, 14, 15, 50-52, 118, 124-125, 209 and definitions of abuse, 64-65, 66, 70, 345

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Page 383 parental knowledge of, 116, 178 and prevention programs, 196 and research, 23, 44, 325 and self-inflicted injury, 68 and severity of acts, 64-65 sexual, 29, 72, 73n, 337 and treatment, 23, 51-52, 276-277 see also Adolescents; Infants Diagnosis of abuse, see Health care services Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 58 Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines Concerning Child Abuse and Neglect, 72n Diagnostic systems, 58, 60 Difficult children, 7, 115-116, 124-125, 211 Directories, 25, 294, 358, 360 Disabled children, 84, 123, 306 Discipline and punishment, 8, 29, 59, 83, 128, 129-131, 144n cultural differences, 67, 130-131 media promotion of appropriate, 13, 35 prevention strategies, 11, 13-14, 189-190, 197 Discrimination and bias, 16, 226 and research, 41-42, 43, 69, 87-88, 91 Dissemination of research, 17-18, 23, 28, 29, 33, 36, 336, 350-351, 355, 360 federal, 25, 26, 299-312 passim states, 27, 36, 95, 319, 360 Documentation, of research, 24, 28, 36, 63, 66, 304. See also Substantiation of case reports Domestic violence, see Spousal conflict and violence Drug abuse, see Substance abuse Duration of abuse, 5, 44, 70, 232, 345 Dwarfism, 210-211 Dysfunctional families, see Family functioning E Early childhood education, 11, 173-174, 198n Early intervention programs, 11-12, 177-178 home visitation, 11, 34, 169, 170-173, 178, 191-193, 351 hospital-based, 11, 170, 176-177 Earnings losses, of abused children, 2, 40 Eating disorders, 18, 224 Ecological development models, 4, 14, 49-52, 109-111, 161, 190-191 Education, see Academic performance; Educational services, for parents; Media roles and programs; School-based programs; Training Educational services, for parents, 12, 20, 182-183 Education levels, parental, 123, 124, 175 Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy Project, 171-172, 174 Emotional abuse, 4, 6, 43-44, 61, 67, 69, 114 incidence, 81, 82, 94, 98n outcomes, 209, 211, 232 Endangerment, 5, 57, 64, 81, 92 Environmental factors, 4, 8-9, 10, 16, 23, 25, 110, 132-136, 371 and consequences, 15, 234, 348-349 and definitions, 5, 57 see also Culture and ethnicity; Family functioning Epidemiological studies, 6, 31, 44, 45, 69, 346 methodological problems, 6, 78-79, 85-93 use of case reports, 79-83 see also National incidence studies Episodic maltreatment, 4, 49-50, 65 Ethical and legal research issues, 23, 28-30, 36, 42, 324-334, 337-340, 361 sexual abuse studies, 72, 328 validity, 29, 327, 334-336

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Page 384 Ethnic groups, see Culture and ethnicity Etiology and etiological studies, 4, 5, 28, 30, 32, 40-41, 44, 46, 106-107, 139-142, 143n, 344, 347, 349 biological factors, 114, 119-122 child factors, 123-125, 227-228 cultural factors, 4, 9-10, 110, 136-138, 142 demographic factors, 122-123 emotional abuse, 114 environmental factors, 4, 8-9, 10, 16, 23, 25, 110, 132-136, 371 family functioning, 8, 25, 110, 126-132 models, 6-7, 10, 31-32, 107-111, 140, 346-347 neglect, 112, 115, 125, 128, 135 parenting behaviors, 4, 13, 17, 26, 29, 35, 46-47, 57, 128-130, 333 physical abuse, 111-112, 115-116, 137 and prevention, 3, 14, 40, 166 sexual abuse, 11, 112-114, 126-127, 139, 195 Evaluations, 32-34, 48, 336, 350-353 community-based programs, 13, 14, 20, 34, 191, 195, 352-353 demonstration projects, 25, 33, 255, 279n early intervention services, 11, 177-178 family preservation, 33, 277, 279n, 351 family services, 261-262, 265 home visitation services, 34, 171-173, 192-193 intervention services, 17-18, 22, 23, 30, 32-34, 254-256, 344, 350-353 of media programs, 187 offender treatment, 18-19, 19, 278 parenting programs, 168-169, 262-263 protective services, 20-21, 27, 34, 53, 275-276, 353 school-based programs, 12, 180-181, 184-185, 191, 196-197, 352-353 sexual abuse prevention, 193-194, 352 treatment programs, 22-23, 34, 44, 45, 254-256, 276-277 Evolutionary theory, 122 Exhibitionism, 84 Exosystem, see Environmental factors Experimental studies, see Control studies F Failure to thrive, 73n, 125, 210-211 Fair Start, 174 Falls, 68. See also Injuries Family functioning, 8, 25, 110, 126-132 and chronic neglect, 8, 127, 129 composition and size, 7, 8, 61, 123, 127, 144n, 236n interaction with other factors, 7, 141 research, 4, 29, 46-47 see also Discipline and punishment; Parenting styles and behaviors Family preservation, 22, 40, 52, 230, 263-265, 271 Family services, 10, 18, 19, 25, 137, 167-178, 262-266 center-based programs, 11, 169, 173-174, 175 hospital-based, 11, 170, 176-177 Family Support Act, 183 Family systems treatment, 19, 263 FAST Track, 185 Fatalities, see Deaths Fathers, 116, 126-127, 134, 141 Federal Government, 43 cooperation with states, 27, 178-179, 306, 308 information dissemination, 25, 26, 299-312 passim research funding, 6, 25-26, 28, 35-36, 43, 93, 96, 255, 294, 295, 301-312, 318-320, 343, 355-357, 359 research regulations, 326-328 Female sexual abuse offenders, 113 Follow-up services, 21, 52, 192

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Page 385 Fondling, 59 Food assistance, 19-20, 266 Forms of abuse, see Categories of maltreatment Foster care placement, 21, 40, 52, 270-272, 274 evaluation studies, 27, 33, 277-278, 308, 351 maltreatment in, 60, 123, 230 and outcomes, 15, 16-17, 226, 229-231 Fractures, 60, 68, 71 Frequency of abuse, 4, 49-50, 65, 70, 96, 107 Funding of research, 27-28, 30, 39, 41, 298 constraints, 1-2, 6, 23, 25, 28, 35-36, 41, 48, 320, 359-360 federal, 6, 25-26, 28, 35-36, 43, 93, 96, 255, 294, 295, 301-312, 318-320, 343, 355-357, 359 instrumentation, 6, 25, 96, 317-319 interdisciplinary, 25-27, 315, 318-320, 357-359 methodology development, 6, 24, 129 private foundations, 27, 313-314 state, 26-27, 28, 312-313, 319 training of researchers, 24, 25, 27, 293-296, 316-317 G Gender, 15, 16, 58, 123, 124, 125, 209-210, 234-235 and sexual abuse, 84, 113, 210, 222 Genetic diseases, 71-72 Genital herpes, 69 Genitalia, 68, 72, 72n, 73n Geopolitical area studies, 90-91 Gonorrhea, 73n, 211 Government services and agencies, see Antipoverty programs; Federal Government; Protective services and agencies; Social services and agencies; State governments; names of specific federal agencies Graduate training programs, 24, 27, 293-296, 321n, 358 Grassroots volunteer groups, 175-176 Group therapy, 259, 278 sexual offenders, 19, 260 Growth retardation, 210-211 Guardian ad litem services, 273, 280n Guidelines for research, 327, 330, 331, 333, 361 H Hawaii, 173 Head Start, 19, 34, 174, 175, 266, 303, 308 Head trauma, 71 Healing of injuries, 67, 71 Health care services, 20, 23, 25, 168, 267-268 deprivation of, 60, 63, 67, 73n, 306 identification and reporting of abuse, 5, 20, 44, 67-69, 71-72, 72-73n, 86, 267 preventive, 10, 137 see also Hospital-based interventions Healthy Beginnings, 174 Healthy People 2000, 52, 59, 311 Healthy Start, 173, 174 Hispanic population, 67, 98n, 128, 131 Home-based services, 263-264 Homebuilders program, 264 Home visitation services, 11, 34, 169, 170-173, 178, 191-193, 351 Homicides, 36, 98n, 218, 371 Homosexuality, 143n Hormones, 114, 120, 121-122, 144n Hospital-based interventions, 11, 170, 176-177 Household composition and density, 7, 8, 61, 123, 127, 144n, 236n Housing assistance, 20, 266 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 211, 267-268, 333 Human subjects research ethics, 28-29, 325, 326-329 Hygiene deficiencies, 73n, 129

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Page 386 I Identification of abuse, 5, 11, 26, 51, 71 by health professionals, 5, 20, 44, 67-69, 71-72, 72-73n, 86, 267 sexual abuse, 20, 68-69, 71, 72 by teachers, 12-13, 183-184 training in, 12-13, 183-184 Impulse control, 111, 112, 113, 121 Incest, 59, 113, 126-127, 143n, 222, 224 Incidence, 1, 5-6, 38, 52, 78-79, 81, 82, 93, 97-98n and definition standards, 4, 59, 62, 70 of emotional abuse, 81, 82, 94, 98n of endangerment, 81 of neglect, 6, 79, 81, 82, 93-94 of physical abuse, 6, 81, 82, 94 and prevalence, 86-87, 94 of sexual abuse, 6, 79, 81, 82, 94 see also Epidemiological studies Income maintenance, see Antipoverty programs Indian Health Service, 311 Individual factors, 7-8, 10, 16, 110, 111-123 of children, 123-125, 227-228 Infant Health and Development Program, 170, 174, 175 Infants, 68, 124, 125, 129, 210-211 Information, see Dissemination of research Informed consent, 29, 36, 91, 92-93, 326, 327, 329, 330-332, 339, 340n, 361 Injuries, 1, 15, 17, 32, 38, 68, 208, 210-211 as indicators of abuse, 60, 61, 64, 65, 71-72, 310 and medical treatment, 17, 20, 67-68, 71-72 Institutional review boards (IRBs), 328, 340, 361 Instrumentation, 6, 23, 24-25, 28, 29, 30, 46, 47, 91, 297-298, 321n, 344 and definitions, 5, 31, 63, 70-71, 345 and developmental stages, 66 evaluations, 33, 350 and researcher training, 24-25, 63, 71, 297 standardization, 24, 25, 63, 70, 91, 95-96, 297 Intelligence, see Cognitive function Intensity of abuse, 5, 15, 44, 209 Intent to harm, 66 Interactive models, 7, 47, 50, 54, 107-109, 139-140, 162, 347 Interdisciplinary research, 4, 23, 25, 26, 35, 43, 292-296, 315-316 and definition development, 31, 70, 345 government support, 25-27, 315, 318-320, 357-359 Intergenerational abuse, 7, 8, 10, 52, 68, 116-118, 132, 140-141, 143-144n, 223-224, 226, 233-234, 347 and discipline, 130, 371 sexual, 113, 118 International Classification of Diseases, 98n International comparisons, 84-85, 130, 371 International Society for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse, 294, 298 Interventions, 17-18, 22-23, 46, 52, 253, 274-275. See also Community-based programs; Prevention; Protective services and agencies; Treatment programs Intimacy, 219-220, 224 Isolation, social, 8, 9, 10, 68, 107, 112, 120, 127, 135-136, 224 J Justice system, see Legal system Juvenile delinquency, 4, 14, 15-16, 26, 38, 39, 40, 51, 127, 174, 217-218, 223, 226, 227, 236n justice system, 16, 52, 226, 273 Juvenile Justice Standards Project, 60-61

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Page 387 K Kempe, C. Henry, 43, 60, 98n, 187, 294 Kinship care, 21, 270 L La Leche League, 175 Latinos, see Hispanic population Laws, see Legislation Leadership needs, 28, 30, 35, 314-315, 343, 355, 357-359 Legal system, 17, 21-22, 25, 27, 47, 61, 272-274, 280n and definitions of maltreatment, 5, 58 discrimination against victims, 16, 226 family members involvement, 14, 190 and offender treatment, 18, 22, 190, 259, 272-273 and parental rights, 22, 274 see also Criminal sanctions; Ethical and legal research issues Legislation, 60, 62, 165, 183, 187 on data collection, 43, 79, 81, 307-308 see also Mandatory reporting Literacy, 62, 66 Literature, see Publication of research London Secondary School Intervention Project on Violence, 184-185 Long-term studies, 27, 42, 45, 53, 90, 97 of consequences, 17, 232-233, 348 ethical issues, 28, 334-335, 339, 361 intergenerational abuse, 117-118, 141, 233-234 Louisville Child Behavior Checklist, 297 Low birthweight, 123, 124, 125, 170 Low self-esteem, 15, 16, 213, 214, 228 of offenders, 10, 111, 112 M Malnutrition, 71, 125, 129, 210-211 Mandatory reporting, 67, 72n, 73n, 79, 87, 98n, 267 by researchers, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335 Marital conflict, see Spousal conflict and violence Marital status, 7, 123 Mass media, see Media roles and programs Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 311, 356 Measures and measurement, see Instrumentation; Methodology Media roles and programs, 13, 35, 48, 165, 187-188, 197, 334, 336, 354-355 and research findings, 29, 334, 336 Medical research, 23, 24, 25, 292, 293, 295 Medical services, see Health care services Mental health and illness, 2, 6, 15, 17, 18, 25, 39, 111, 208, 209, 212-215 of adult survivors, 224-226 diagnostic classification, 58, 63 physiology of, 121-122 services, 18, 20, 52, 63, 256-258 see also Cognitive function; Depression; Emotional abuse; Personality disorders Mental retardation, 211 Methodology, 29, 96, 235 intervention evaluation, 23, 254 problems in, 6, 14, 24-25, 26, 78-79, 85-93, 116 and research ethics, 339 see also Definitions; Documentation, of research; Instrumentation; Samples and sampling Minority groups, see Culture and ethnicity Misclassification bias, 91 Models and modeling animal, 119-122, 144n cause-and-effect, 7, 53, 107 ecological development, 4, 14, 49-52, 109-111, 161, 190-191 etiological, 6-7, 10, 31-32, 107-111, 140, 346-347 interactive, 7, 47, 50, 54, 107-109, 139-140, 162, 347

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Page 388 longitudinal studies, 339 public health, 162, 164 transactional, 108, 123-124 Moral development, 60 Mothers, 7, 115-116, 123, 124-125, 126-127, 169, 175 Multiple abuse, see Co-occurrence of maltreatment types Multiple personality disorder, 224 Multisystem community prevention programs, 13, 185 Munchausen by proxy, 59 N National Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN), 36, 43, 79, 80, 81, 95, 293, 307-308, 319, 356, 359 data systems, 299-300 funding, 25, 36, 301, 304, 306, 359 graduate support, 295, 296 peer review system, 307, 309 National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), 81-82, 306 National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect, 299 National Clearinghouse on Family Violence, 299 National Commission on Children, 52 National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA), 82 National Criminal Justice Reference Services, 300 National Data Archive of Child Abuse and neglect, 298, 321n National Family Violence Survey, 86 National Health Interview Survey on Child Health, 96, 346 National incidence studies (NIS), 59, 64, 78, 80-81, 86, 87, 88, 89, 98n, 306, 307 National Information Clearinghouse on Infants with Disabilities and Life Threatening Conditions, 299 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 36, 303, 310, 319, 356, 359 National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 300, 312 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 36, 95, 98n, 309-310, 319, 356, 359 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child Supplement, 96, 346 National Research Council Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, 49 National Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 299 National Resource Center on Child Sexual Abuse, 299 National Survey of Children, 96, 346 Native Americans, 138 Navy, 303 Neglect, 4, 43-44, 115, 278 chronic, 6, 8, 94, 127, 129, 232 etiology, 112, 115, 125, 128, 135 identification of, 67, 69, 73n, 210 incidence, 6, 79, 81, 82, 93-94 outcomes, 209, 210-211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 232 and poverty, 9, 12, 66, 88, 133, 182 prevalence, 60, 94 prevention, 11, 12, 177 treatment programs, 264 Neighborhoods, 8, 9, 14, 134-136, 144n New Chance, 183 Noncontact sexual abuse, 84, 94 Norplant, 273 O Office for Protection from Research Risks, 328 Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 311 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 300, 311-312 Ontogenic factors, see Individual factors Opiates, 114 Oral stimulation, excessive, 73n

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Page 389 Origins of maltreatment, see Etiology and etiological studies; Risk factors Outcomes, see Consequences and outcomes P Pacific Islanders, 98n Parent-Child Development Centers (PCDC), 174 Parenting styles and behaviors, 4, 13, 17, 26, 29, 35, 46-47, 57, 128-130, 333 and emotional abuse, 72n interaction with other factors, 7-8, 10, 108-109 interventions, 11-12, 19, 22, 165, 166, 167-178, 191-193, 262-263 and stress, 8, 9, 15, 19, 35, 109, 112, 120, 131-132, 144n, 168 see also Discipline and punishment; Intergenerational abuse Parents Anonymous, 260-261 Parents United, 261 Parricide, 218 Pathogenic model, 53-54 Pediatrics, 23, 292 Pedophilia, see Sexual abuse Peer relations, 12, 15, 125, 128, 167, 184, 216 Peer review systems, 307 Personality disorders, 18, 224 antisocial, 7, 16, 113, 119, 223 of offenders, 7, 111-115 Physical abuse, 4, 12, 43-44 and corporal punishment, 14, 128, 130, 132, 136 etiology, 111-112, 115-116, 137 identification of, 67-68, 71 incidence, 6, 81, 82, 94 offender treatment, 260-261, 262-263 outcomes, 15, 209-216 passim and poverty, 88, 133 prevalence, 83, 86 Physical discipline, see Discipline and punishment Physiology, 71-72, 119-122 parental hyperreactivity, 115 Pilot screening studies, 71 Placement, see Foster care placement Plea bargaining, 18, 259 Poisoning and ingestions, 64, 73n Policy decisions and planning, 2-3, 22, 23, 27-28, 39, 40, 57 family services, 10, 137 by multiple agencies, 17, 254 research, 29, 30, 33, 35-36, 40-43, 45, 52-53, 314-315, 320, 344, 355-357 Population-based studies, 69, 83-85, 95-97 Pornography, 59, 139 Positive Adolescents Choices Training (PACT), 185 Postpartum services, see Home visitation services; Hospital-based interventions Post-traumatic stress disorder, 215, 224, 236n Poverty, 7, 9, 10, 17, 41, 88, 89, 107, 109, 123, 126, 133-135 and abuse definitions, 61 antipoverty programs, 12, 19-20, 182-183, 266 and center-based programs, 173-174 and community-based programs, 174-175 disproportional representation, 9, 69, 87-88, 133 and ethnicity, 10, 137 and family functioning, 128 and low birthweight, 124 and research studies, 47, 69 Predatory behavior, 44 Pregnancy drug use during, 119, 170 unplanned, 115, 224 see also Teenage pregnancy Prematurity, 123, 124, 125, 170 Preservation of family, see Family preservation Prevalence, 4, 93, 94 methodological problems, 6, 86-87

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Page 390 of neglect, 60, 94 of physical abuse, 83, 86 of sexual abuse, 44, 83-84, 94 studies of, 31, 69, 83-85, 97, 346 Prevention, 5, 10, 52, 161-165 community-based programs, 12-13, 168-170, 174-176, 178-188, 195 corporal punishment, 11, 13-14, 189-190, 197 and cultural factors, 13-14, 188-190 evaluation studies, 34, 190-191, 336 Federal aid to states, 178-179 and maltreatment definitions, 5 parenting interventions, 11-12, 165, 166, 167-175, 178, 191-193 see also Family services; School-based programs Preventive health care services, 10, 137 Privacy, see Confidentiality and privacy Private foundations, 27, 313-314 Productivity losses, of severely abused children, 2, 40 Professional societies, 294, 315, 327 Project 12-Ways, 262-263 Prospective studies, see Long-term studies Protective factors, 10, 14, 31-32, 109, 140 and intergenerational abuse, 117-118 and outcomes, 16-17, 226-231, 234-235 Protective services and agencies, 17, 20-21, 22, 52, 268-270 administrative records, 59, 61-62, 69-70, 73n, 79-83, 87, 90-91, 345, 350 evaluations, 20-21, 34 federal funding, 306 investigations, 17, 20-21, 23, 34, 71, 78, 268-269, 354 rates of substantiation, 78, 81, 82, 89, 279n and research subjects, 329-330 resource and staff, 21, 88, 268, 279n staffing, 21, 268, 279n Protocols, 327, 361 Psychology, 23, 25, 292 Psychometrics, 25, 96, 297, 298 Psychopathology, see Mental health and illness; Personality disorders Puberty, 72 Publication of research, 17-18, 25, 26, 33, 45-47, 68, 294, 298, 299-301, 307-308, 328, 350-351 Public awareness campaigns, see Media roles and programs Public health model, 162, 164 Public Health Service, 52, 308-311 Punishment, see Discipline and punishment; Legal system R Racism, 10, 41, 137, 226, 258 Recall bias, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 224-225 Recidivism, 261, 263, 351 sexual offenders, 19, 259-260 Recruitment of research subjects bias in, 44 ethical issues, 29, 36, 329-330, 339, 361 Referrals to services, 20, 21, 23, 34, 253, 269-270, 279-280n, 354 by home visitors, 171 by researchers, 30, 71, 345-346 Regional variations, 69-70 Regulation of research, 326-328 Relapse, see Recidivism Reliability of definitions, 60 of instrumentation, 31, 63, 298, 345 of research findings, 6, 29 Religion, 135-136, 186-187 Rent subsidies, 19, 266 Replication of research, 336 Reporting of cases, 5, 20, 44, 52 and apparent increase in abuse, 6, 78-79, 88-89, 93 bias in, 144n, 354 by children, 194 and definitions, 57, 62, 70, 71 discretionary, 92, 267 mandatory, 6, 42, 67, 72n, 73n, 79, 87, 91-93, 96, 98n, 267, 325, 335

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Page 391 and poverty, 9, 87-88, 133 by researchers, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335 unsubstantiated, 78, 79, 80 Research, see Bias in research; Data collection and sources; Definitions; Dissemination of research; Ethical and legal research issues; Funding of research; Interdisciplinary research; Methodology; Models and modeling; Research centers; Researchers; Samples and sampling; Status of research Research centers, 23, 24, 36, 294, 295, 318, 358-359 federal support, 25, 26, 304 Researchers, 53, 293-294, 313, 315-316, 358 mandatory case reporting, 6, 42, 71, 91-93, 96, 325, 335 referrals to services, 30, 71, 345-346 training of, 23-28, 35, 71, 292-296, 297, 316-318, 358 Retrospective studies, 8, 116-117, 144n, 224-225, 233, 335, 348 bias in, 6, 8, 44, 45, 90, 209, 225-226 Revictimization, 220, 224, 267 Rights, of children and parents, 22, 274 Risk factors, 5, 39, 108, 140 assessment of, 21, 23, 86-87, 140-141 interactions among, 7, 10, 14, 16, 31-32, 38, 54, 108-109, 140-141, 166, 167, 226-231, 346-347, 348 and prevention, 10-11, 166-167 see also Culture and ethnicity; Discipline and punishment; Environmental factors; Etiology and etiological studies; Family functioning; Individual factors; Intergenerational abuse; Poverty; Protective factors; Spousal conflict and violence Rituals, sexual, 59 Runaways, 15, 219, 236n S Samples and sampling, 6, 29, 46, 47, 69, 89-90, 96 case reports, 70 clinical studies, 45, 53 epidemiological studies, 97 Scalding, see Burns and scalding Scales of severity, 64-65, 83 Scars, 86 School-based programs, 13, 165, 178, 191, 352-353 sexual abuse prevention, 11, 12, 127, 179-182, 194 violence prevention, 11, 12, 13, 167, 184-186, 196-197 School lunch programs, 19, 266 Seattle Project, 185 Self-destructive behavior, 16, 213, 222, 224 Self-help services, 17, 260-261, 278 evaluation studies, 33, 351 Self-inflicted injury, 68 Sensational abuse cases, 183, 197 Sensitivity of topics, 21, 43, 55n and research, 29, 325, 334, 336-338 Separation from caregiver, 61, 230-231 Severity of abuse, 64-65, 70, 83, 107, 232, 345 Sex, see Gender Sexism, 41 Sexual abuse, 4, 11, 43-44, 72, 84, 133, 138, 143n, 194, 195, 273 adolescent offenders, 18-19, 84, 139, 260 adult survivors, 18, 224-225, 228 etiology, 11, 112-114, 126-127, 139, 195 female offenders, 113 identification of, 20, 68-69, 71, 72 incidence, 6, 79, 81, 82, 94 medical diagnosis, 20, 68-69, 71, 72, 72-73n, 267 offender treatment, 18-19, 165, 190, 259-260, 261, 278 outcomes, 15, 209, 210, 211, 212, 214-215, 219, 220, 222

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Page 392 prevalence, 44, 83-84, 94 prevention programs, 34, 166-167, 193-195, 352 school-based prevention programs, 11, 12, 127, 179-182, 194 Sexuality and sexual dysfunction, 2, 18, 39, 211, 214-215, 224 among adolescents, 16, 19, 84, 125, 210, 219-220, 260 developmental, 29, 72, 73n, 337 Sexually transmitted diseases, 68-69, 73n, 211, 267-268 Shaken baby syndrome, 68, 210 Sibling relationships, 126, 216 Significant relationships, 16, 229 Single parents, 123, 126-127, 174 Single-theory models, 7, 10, 140 Skin injuries, 68, 211 Skull fractures, 68. See also Injuries Sleeping arrangements, 138 Social isolation, 8, 9, 10, 68, 107, 112, 120, 127, 135-136, 224 Social networks, 9, 135-136, 141 Social Security supplemental income, 19, 266 Social services and agencies, 2, 5, 44-45, 62, 135 costs, 1, 21, 34, 38, 92, 277 interagency relations, 17, 21, 23, 27, 34 and poverty, 9, 69, 87-88, 133 research, 3, 27, 34, 41, 49, 354 see also Antipoverty programs; Community-based programs; Protective services and agencies; Referrals to services Social work, research, 23, 25, 292 Societal neglect, 10, 137 Socioeconomic status, 16, 66, 69, 71, 88, 109, 128, 133. See also Poverty Somatization, 224 Spanking, 14, 131, 189. See also Discipline and punishment Speech and language problems, 211-212 Spillover effect, 13, 174-175, 186 Spousal conflict and violence, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 176, 216-217, 224 Standardization among state agencies, 34, 87, 95, 306, 354 of definitions, 5, 21, 57-59, 70, 95 of instrumentation, 24, 25, 63, 70, 91, 95-96, 297 State governments data sources, 27, 34, 95, 306, 354, 360 death investigations, 52 federal aid, 27, 178-179, 306, 308 information dissemination, 27, 36, 95, 319, 360 research funding, 26-27, 28, 312-313, 319 see also Protective services and agencies Status of research, 1-2, 3-4, 24-25, 28, 30, 45-47, 48-49, 53-54, 292-293, 343 Stepfathers, 126-127 Stranger abduction, 182 Stress, 8, 9, 15, 19, 35, 109, 112, 120, 131-132, 144n, 168 of research subjects, 29, 327 Substance abuse, 4, 7-8, 14, 16, 20, 36, 38, 39, 41, 51, 127, 221-222 by adult survivors, 18, 224 parental, 17, 118-119, 273-274 by sexual abusers, 114 see also Alcoholism Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 310 Substantiation of case reports, 5, 21, 23, 44, 71, 268-269 rates, 78, 81, 82, 89, 279n Suicide attempts, 213, 222, 223 Surveillance bias, 88 Surveys, see Epidemiological studies; Instrumentation; Samples and sampling Survivors, see Adult survivors Sweden, 130 Symbolically abusive acts, 60, 94, 214

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Page 393 Syndromes of abuse, 32, 43, 60, 63, 349 adult psychopathology, 111 shaken baby, 68, 210 Syphilis, 73n, 211 T Task forces, 36, 70, 294, 308 Teachers abuse identification by, 12-13, 183-184 relationships with, 125 Teenage pregnancy, 15-16, 174, 210, 220 Temperament, 7, 16, 123, 124, 227-228 Terrorism, 60, 94, 214 Testimony by children, 22, 273, 280n Theories, see Models and modeling Therapy, see Treatment programs Timing of abuse, 5, 15, 44, 209, 232 Toddlers, 124, 125 Training in abuse identification, 12-13, 183-184 of educators, 12-13, 181, 183-184 of health professionals, 71, 86 of parents, 12, 173-174, 181, 196-197 of researchers, 23-28, 35, 71, 292-296, 297, 316-318, 358 see also Home visitation services Transactional models, 108, 123-124 Transitional models, 107-108 Treatment programs, 17, 22, 23, 60, 92, 253-256 for adult survivors, 18, 258-259 for child victims, 18, 34, 256-258, 351-352 and definition development, 4, 57 and development, 23, 51-52, 276-277 and emotional abuse, 254 evaluations, 22-23, 34, 44, 45, 254-256, 276-277 and foster care, 272 neglect, 264 for offenders, 18-19, 22, 34, 260-261, 278, 351-352 for parents, 19, 22, 169, 262-263 Trigger behavior, 68, 211 U Unemployment, 7, 9, 10, 41, 123, 134 Universities graduate training programs, 24, 27, 293-296, 321n, 358 research programs, 24, 294, 295 Unplanned pregnancy, 115, 224 Unrelatedness, 8, 127 Unreported abuse, 86, 90, 94 U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 52-53, 189, 308 V Validity, 29, 327, 334-336 of definitions, 60 of instrumentation, 31, 63, 298, 345 Verbal abuse, 60, 94, 214, 261 Vietnamese cultures, 67 Violent behavior, 2, 15, 38 among adolescents, 218 among siblings, 126, 216 interparental, 4, 7, 13, 16, 36, 126, 144n, 176, 216-217, 224 prevention programs, 11, 12, 13, 167, 184-186, 196-197, 352 and sexual abuse, 113 societal, 9, 10, 136, 137, 371 Visitation rights, 22, 274 Visiting Nurse Associations, 175 Vocational assistance, 12, 182-183 W Welfare, see Antipoverty programs Witness, see Legal system; Testimony by children Women with Infants and Children (WIC) food supplement program, 19, 266