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Index A Ad libitum feeding, 64-65, 128, 129, 130 Aging studies, 64, 130-140 Albino animals, 55-57, 104 Alleles, 24-25, 131 American Association for Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care, 86 American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 11 American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine, 114 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), 8, 106 Anesthesia and analgesia, see Pain alleviation Animal care ethical issues in, 3-4, 6, 10 fluid-replacement therapy, 104-105 for diabetes mellitus, 142-147 for pregnant or lactating females, 143- 144 postoperative, 104-105 preventive medicine, 85-90 resuscitation, 102-103 see also Pain; Quarantine Animal collectors' permits, 128 161 Animal facility design, 114-118 centralization, 115-116 ergonomics, 13 security issues, 9, 116, 119-120 waste disposal, 70 see also Ventilation Animal housing, 3, 38, 44-49; see also Cages Animal husbandry, 1, 10, 14, 31, 97-98, 117, 135-136 Animal research, 1-3 alternatives to, 10, 16 value of, 3~ Animal restraint, long-term, 3, 8, 100 Animal stabilization, 87-89, 137 Animal survival surgery, 7, 10, 72, 100-105 Animal Welfare Act, 2 Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs), 1, 6 7, 9, 85-86, 103 Animal Welfare Standards, 114 Antibiotics, 73-74, 96-97 Anxiety, interspecies, 90 Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 62 AWRs, see Animal Welfare Regulations (AWRs) Axenic animals, 28-29, 62, 65, 124

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162 B Back-crossing, 19-20 Bacteria, see Infectious agents Bar-code identifiers, 71 Barrier facilities, 119, 142, 148 Barrier-maintained animals, 28-29, 86 B edding, 14, 45, 51, 65-66, 125 Biosafety in microbiologic and biomedical laboratories, 2, 6? 119 see also Hazardous agents Biosafety In the Laboratory, 1 19 "Blindness" of studies, ensuring, 32 Blood products, human, 15 C Cages, 44-46; see also Animal housing, Bedding; Food; Water autoclaving of, 69, 88 extra, 68 filter-top, 46-47, 51, 86-87, 91, 122 123, 148 floor construction, 45-46. 73, 75-76 identification cards, 71 irradiation of, 69 mechanical washing of, 68-69 racking systems, 46 space recommendations, 47-49 Caloric-restriction feeding, 64, 131 Cannibalization, 74 Carcass disposal, 14, 70 Caring for animals. See Animal care Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 87 Chemical hazards, see Hazardous agents Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger), 76 Circadian regulation, 57 Circular and circular-paired mating systems, 40 Cleaning of animal facilities, 66-69, 122 Climate-controlled passageways, 115 Closed-circuit television, 120 Coisogenic strains, 19, 23 Color-coding, 70-71 Common ancestral branch, 37 Compliance, 1, 3, 7, 9- 11, 71 Compromised-immune-status animals, 66, 69 Computer-controlled security systems, 120 Congenic strains, l9, 23 Containment facilities, 116 INDEX Continuing education, 11 Conventionally maintained animals, 29 "Core" agents monitored, 91 Cryopreservation, 37-38' 40-42, 151 D Defined-flora animals, 29 Degus (Octodon degas), 128 Deprivation, 3, 8 Detergents, see Cleaning of animal facilities Diabetes mellitus, 142- 147 Diabetes-prone or diabetes-resistant strains, 140-147 Disease agents, see Infectious agents Disinfectants, 87; see also Cleaning of animal racllltles Distress, see Pain Drinking Water, see Water E Education, public, 4; see also Training programs Electrophoretic typing of isoenzymes, 31 ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 89 Embryo cryopreservation, 40-42 Emergencies, planning for, 96 Environment enrichment, 48; see also Microenvironment Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2, 114 Ethical issues in animal care, 3-4, 6, 10 Euthanasia, 3, 8, 10, 97, 105-107, 137-138 Expansion colonies, 38-39 Expedited review, 8 Experimental design factors, 31-32 F F1 hybrids. 18, 23 Facility design, see Animal facility design Feral animals, 127-130 Fighting, 48, 74-75. 135 Filtration of incoming air. 53, 91 Food. 58-64, 125 autoclaving of. 62-63, 125 diets, 59-62 ethylene oxide -fumigation of, 63

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INDEX introduction of new, 72 irradiation of, 63, 125 pasteurization of, 62-63 sample testing, 62 supplementation of, 72, 74, 139 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2, 114 Foundation colonies, 38, 141-142 Funding agencies, 1, 6 G Genetic drift, 36, 132 heterogeneity, 37 locus symbols, 25-26 mapping studies, 20 material, introducing, 147 monitoring, 30-31 nomenclature, 24-26 uniformity, maximizing, 36-37 Genetically defined stocks, 18-20, 35-39 F1 hybrids, 18 inbred strains, 18 purity of, 30-31, 40-42 Genetically engineered animals, see Transgenic strains Gerbil, Mongolian (Meriones unguiculatus), 17, 75, 94, 140-141 Gerontologic studies, 64, 130-140 Gloves protective, 127 Gnotobiotic animals, 29 Good Laboratory Practice Standards, 2, 114 Grouping experimental animals, 31, 48; see also Fighting Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1, 15, 47-48, 53, 74, 85 86, 90, 97-100, 103, 116-119, 125 Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), 17-18, 68, 72-73, 91-94, 96, 104, 107, 138 139 H Hamsters 163 dwarf or Siberian or Djungarian (Phodopus sungorus), 128 Syrian or golden (Mesocricetus auratus), 17-18, 56, 68, 73-75, 91- 94, 96, 107, 139 Turkish (Mesocricetus brandti), 139 Hazardous agents? 3, 13-15 designing facilities for handling, 119 in bedding, 67 in cell cultures, 15 in excrement, 14 in exhaust air, 53 in tissue samples, 15, 70, 89 in water, 70 viral replication of, 152 zoonotic diseases, 12, 128, 152 Health Research Extension Act, 1 Heteromyid rodents, 128 Hibernating animals, 74, 127, 139 Homogeneity of experimental animals, 31 Homologous recombination, 25-26 Humidity, 50-52, 125 Hybridization heterozygous, 39-40 residual, 21 segregating, 19 uniform, 18 homozygous, 19-20, 150 Hybrids, 18, 23 Hypothermia for neonate anesthesia, 102 Hysterectomy-derived animals, 86, 88 Hystricomorph rodents, 128 I Chinese (Cricetulus barabensis [griseus]), 128, 140 common or black-bellied or European (Cricetus cricetus), 128 IACUC, see Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) "Ideal" body weight (IBW), 143-144 Identification devices, 71-72, 152 IFA, see Testing, immunofluorescence assay (IFA) Illinois cubicle, 46 Illumination effects, 55-57 Immune-compromised animals, 93, 119, 121-126, 148 Immune survivors, 97 Immunology studies, age-related, 131 Inbred strains, 18, 21-23, 40 Infectious agents, 14-15, 27-30, 53, 91-94, 137

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64 Bordetella bronchiseptica, 45-46, 73, 94 cilia-associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus, 93-94, 96 Corynebacterium kutscheri, 88, 94 culturable bacterial pathogens, 94 ectromelia virus, 96 hantaviruses, 12, 88, 95 Hymenolepis nana, 12 Junin virus, 88 in exhaust air, 53 Lassa fever virus, 88, 128 lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus, 12, 88-89 Machupo virus, 88 mouse hepatitis virus, 91, 93, 97 mouse orphan parvovirus (MOPV), 92 93 Mycoplasma pulmonis, 88, 93-94, 96, 133 parainfluenza virus, 92 Pasteurella pneumotropica, 88, 94 Salmonella, 12 Sendai virus, 91-93, 97 simian virus, 91-93 Streptobacillus monilifor7nis, 12, 94 treatment and control of, 96-97 see also Hazardous agents Inoculation of blood or tissue homogenates, intracranial, 89 Institute of Laboratory Resources (ILAR) Animal Models and Genetics Stocks Data Base, 127 Committee on Preservation of Laboratory Resources, 41 Committee on Transgenic Nomenclature, 25 laboratory registry, 22 Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC), 2-3, 6-15, 49, 71, 98- 101, 106 Interagency Research Animal Committee, 3 International Airline Transport Association (IATA), 86-87 International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, 17n. 21 International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, 21 International Index of Laboratory Animals. 127 INDEX International Rat Genetic Nomenclature Committee, 21 Interspecies anxiety, 90 Investigations involving animal use, 2, 6-7 involving disease outbreaks, 96 Isogeneity, 18-19 Isolating infected animals, 54 Isolator-maintained animals, 28, 47, 119, 123-124, 126, 148 K "Knockout" mutations, 25, 146 L Laboratory codes, 22-23 Laboratory recordkeeping, 12-13, 42, 71-72, 136, 150-151 Lactation, 143- 144 LCM, see Infectious agents, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus Life span, 130-132 Life tables for mouse strains, 132 Light intensity, 55-57, 135 M Macroenvironment, 50 MAP, see Testing, mouse antibody- production (MAP) Mice deer (Peromyscus maniculatus), 130 four-striped grass (Rhabdomys pumilio), 129 grasshopper (Onychomys sp.), 128 laboratory, 2, 6, 17n, 17-18 Swiss, 131 white-footed (Peromyscus leucopus), 129, 138 Microbiologically associated animals, 28-29, 62, 119, 123 Microenvironment, 49-51, 54 Mineral concentrations in drinking water, 65 Monitoring breeding stock, 30-31, 141 - 142 confidence levels in 95 drug interactions 105 ectoparasites and endoparasites, 92-93

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INDEX facilities, 87-97, 116, 118, 137 motion, 120 sampling errors, 94-96 Moribund appearance, 137-138 Mouse Genome Database (MOD), 21 Multiple-gene systems, 20 Mus, see Mice Mutant alleles, 25 animals, 36, 121-122 N National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), 132-134 National Institute on Aging (NIA), 130, 113-134 National Research Council (NRC), 10, 58, 114 National Safety Council, 70 National Sanitation Foundation, 69 Necropsies, 94, 97, 131 Neonates anesthesia, 102 Neurobiologil studies of aging, 133 Neuromuscular blocking agents. See Pain alleviation No-contaminant animals, 29 Noise? 57-58. 119 Nongenetically defined stocks, 20, 39-40 Noninbred populations, 20 Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, 146-147 Nucleus colonies, 38 Nutrient analysis, 61-62 o Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 26 Observation, periodic, 11, 90, 94 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 12 Odors, masking, 67 Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR), 2 Outbred populations, 20, 27 p Pain, 3, 7, 10, 98-100, 102, 105 Parental strains, 21, 23, 36 Patent law, 152 165 Pathogen-free animals, 29 Pedigree management, 35-38, 41 Personnel allergies, 13 prophylactic immunization, 12-14, 128 qualifications, 8-11 records, 13 safety and health concerns, 12-14, 88 serum-banking for, 13-14, 152 tetanus shots for, 13, 128 training, 6, 9-11 Pest control, 70-71, 91 Pets, rodents as, 91 Phenotype preservation, 141-142 Pheromones, 67, 128 Photoperiod control, 55-56 PHS Policy, see Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals Pododermatitis, 45 Polygenic-trait analysis, 132, 146 Population dynamics, 47 Pregnancy, 143- 144 Presbycusis, 139 Preventative medicine. 85-90 Procurement, 85-87 Production colonies, 39 Protective wear, 13, 127 Protocol review, 7-9 Public accountability, 1 Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 1-2, 6-7, 9, 85, 106 Q Quarantine during disease outbreak, 96 of newly arrived animals, 54, 86-89, 91, 137 regulations, 40-41, 152 R Radioisotope use, 14-15 Randomization, structured, 39 Random-mated populations, 20 Rat Genome, 21 Rats black (Rattus rattus), 127

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66 fat sand (Psammomys obesus), 128 kangaroo (Dipodomys spp.), 128 laboratory (Rattles norvegicus), 2, 6, 17-18, 107, 132-134 white-tailed (Mystromys albicaudatus), 128 Reciprocal hybrids, 18 Recombinant DNA, 14 Recombinant strains cogenic, 20, 131-132 inbred (RI), 19-20, 131 Regulatory Enforcement and Animal Care (REAC), 2 Regulatory issues, 1-3, 10 Reproductive performance, 36, 38-39 Resuscitation, 102- 103 "Ring tail," 51 Risk assessment, 12 Rodent pathogens, see Infectious agents Rodent pets, prohibiting, 91 Rodents in laboratory research advantages of, 17-18 quality considerations, 27-31 S Safety procedures, 13; see also Hazardous agents Sanitation, 45~6, 66-71 Security systems, 120 Sedation, see Pain alleviation Segregating inbred strains, 19, 23 Seizures, audiogenic, 58 Self-regulation by institutions, 2 Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM), 132 Sentinel animals, 96-97, 126, 137, 148 virus-free, 89 Seroconversion, 96 Social requirements of rodents, 48 Sound-induced stress, 57-58 Space recommendations for animals, 47-49 for facility, 6, 116- 117 Species selection, 7, 16-32 Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) animals, 29-30, 62, 65, 86, 88, 119, 130-133, 139, 146 Splenocyte treatment, 144-146 Statistical design, 32 Sterilization in surgery, 101-104 INDEX Stock selection, 18-20, 35-40 Subclinical infections, 94-95, 101 Subjective evaluation, 32 Subline divergence, 19, 37 Substrains, 21-23 Superovulation, 148-149 Surgery, see Animal survival surgery Survival curves, 131, 133-134 T Tamperproof security systems, 120 TBASE registry of transgenic strains, 26 Teaching uses of animals, 6 Television, closed-circuit, 120 Temperature effects, 50-51, 124-125, 136, 145 Testing bacteriologic, 92-94 complement-fixation, 89 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 89 glycosuria, 142, 146 hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), 92 immunofluorescence assay (IFA), 89. 92 mouse antibody-production (MAP), 89 neutralization, 89 parasitologic, 88 pathologic, 94 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, 149- 151 serologic, 88, 93 Southern blotting analysis, 148-149 toxicologic, 8 Timing devices, 56 Toe-clipping, 71 Toxicologic studies, 8, 59-60, 63-65 Training programs, 11, 14; see also Education, public Tranquilization, see Pain alleviation Transgenic strains, 19, 25-26, 119, 147-152 Transponder identification device, subcutaneous, 152 Transportation, 86-87, 126, 136-137, 145, 151-152 Trauma studies, see Pain alleviation Trio matings, 39 Tumor growth, 8

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INDEX U Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 55 Unauthorized animal use, see Investigations, involving animal use Universal warning signs, 15 U.S. Code, 1-2 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2, 85-87 USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 2 V Vaccinations, prophylactic, 13-14 Vandalism at animal-research facilities, 4 Ventilation, 50-54 airlocks, 117-1 1 8 high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration, 53, 124 of cages, 54, 123 167 Veterinary care, 3, 6, 11, 90, 96, 98 Viral replication. See Hazardous agents Viruses, see Infectious agents Visitor control, 91 Vocalizations, 57 Voles (Microtus spp.), 128 W Water, 46, 64-65, 125-126 Wild animals, 127-130 Woodchucks (Marmota monox), 127, 129 130 z Zoonotic diseases, see Hazardous agents