Index

A

Accountability, see Democratic accountability

Ad Hoc Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, 50, 65-66, 104, 105, 209.

See also Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality

Ad Hoc Committee on Professional Ethics, 66, 209

Administrative agencies, 2, 18, 30, 40

Administrative procedures, 2, 18-19, 141

archiving, 174-176, 177, 225

data protection, 3, 4, 12, 203-205

for disclosure limitation, 10-11, 86-87, 152, 154, 155

informed consent, 9, 69-71, 75, 219

nongovernment data access, 7, 97, 99-100, 221

public information activities, 10, 88, 220

see also Restricted access

Administrative records, 1, 4-5, 17, 24, 27-28, 34, 40-41, 47, 48, 67, 68, 74, 172, 173, 178

historical use, 47, 48

and notification, 63, 65, 70, 71-75, 77-80, 220

public views on statistical uses, 61, 83-85

risk of privacy violations, 9, 88

statutes on, 50, 110, 114-115, 135

see also Continuous Work History Sample;

Interagency data sharing;

Linkages of records;

Lists of respondents;

Tax records;

Vital statistics

Advisory agency, 13, 50-51, 79, 214-215, 217, 227.

See also Review boards and mechanisms

Advocacy groups, 17, 36, 92

and privacy violations, 10, 86-87, 89, 221

Agencies, see Administrative agencies;

Administrative procedures;

Interagency data sharing;

names of specific agencies

Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 78

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 86-87

American Society for Access Professionals, 209

American Statistical Association (ASA), 46, 50, 65-66, 87, 97, 104 , 105, 206, 209-210

fellowships, 94, 101, 165-166, 200



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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Index A Accountability, see Democratic accountability Ad Hoc Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, 50, 65-66, 104, 105, 209. See also Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality Ad Hoc Committee on Professional Ethics, 66, 209 Administrative agencies, 2, 18, 30, 40 Administrative procedures, 2, 18-19, 141 archiving, 174-176, 177, 225 data protection, 3, 4, 12, 203-205 for disclosure limitation, 10-11, 86-87, 152, 154, 155 informed consent, 9, 69-71, 75, 219 nongovernment data access, 7, 97, 99-100, 221 public information activities, 10, 88, 220 see also Restricted access Administrative records, 1, 4-5, 17, 24, 27-28, 34, 40-41, 47, 48, 67, 68, 74, 172, 173, 178 historical use, 47, 48 and notification, 63, 65, 70, 71-75, 77-80, 220 public views on statistical uses, 61, 83-85 risk of privacy violations, 9, 88 statutes on, 50, 110, 114-115, 135 see also Continuous Work History Sample; Interagency data sharing; Linkages of records; Lists of respondents; Tax records; Vital statistics Advisory agency, 13, 50-51, 79, 214-215, 217, 227. See also Review boards and mechanisms Advocacy groups, 17, 36, 92 and privacy violations, 10, 86-87, 89, 221 Agencies, see Administrative agencies; Administrative procedures; Interagency data sharing; names of specific agencies Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 78 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 86-87 American Society for Access Professionals, 209 American Statistical Association (ASA), 46, 50, 65-66, 87, 97, 104 , 105, 206, 209-210 fellowships, 94, 101, 165-166, 200

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Analysis, see Policy and program analysis; Statistical disclosure limitation Anonymization, 142, 145 Archiving procedures, 174-176, 177, 225 Association for Public Data Users, 17, 97, 210 Attribute disclosure, 23-24, 143-144 Australia, 194 Authorization, see Informed consent and notification Autonomy, see Individual autonomy B Baldridge v. Shapiro, 119-120 Behavioral Sciences Research Group, BLS, 82 Bellagio principles, 104, 105 Bias, 30, 147 Birth certificates, 96, 163 Blurring, 146. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Boskin initiative, 49, 181, 196 Burden on data providers, 32, 36, 75, 219 and barriers to interagency data sharing, 6, 98-99, 221 and data linkage, 41, 53 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 21, 128, 164, 170, 171, 191, 192, 194 Bureau of Environmental Statistics, 132, 188 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 15, 20, 39, 40, 137 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2, 15, 20, 21, 29, 40, 165 cognitive research, 55, 82 and Current Population Survey, 94, 159 data policies and statutes, 183, 188 organizational data, 129-131, 191, 192-193, 194, 198 Bureau of the Census, 1-2, 4, 20, 21, 41, 109, 113, 118-121, 136, 183 address lists, 37, 95-96, 119-120, 134, 191 administrative data use, 96, 140n, 162-163 archived material, 175-176 cognitive research, 55, 82 confidentiality statutes, 37, 41 Current Population Survey, 94, 159, 160-162, 175, 181 disclosure limitation procedures, 86-87, 98, 146, 148, 205, 206 Exact Match Study, 160-162 external user access, 38, 39, 165 history of, 46-47, 48 and IRS, 127, 128, 162-163 microdata releases, 120-121 organizational data, 183, 191-194, 198 and public opinion, 35, 83, 86-87 reimbursable surveys, 120-121 special sworn employees, 38, 101, 119, 159, 164, 166 waiver use, 68-69, 73, 198, 199 Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 20, 131-132, 140n, 188 Businesses, see Organizations C Canada, 46, 194-195, 211, 213-214 CD-ROM data releases, 87, 92, 102 encrypted formats, 7, 94, 123, 167-168, 200 Cell suppression, 98, 144, 148. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Census Bureau, see Bureau of the Census Censuses, 1, 17 nonstatistical uses, 5-6, 8-9, 33-34, 71 see also Decennial censuses Center for Economic Studies, 200-201 Central state planning board, 31 Certificates of research, 215 Child support data, 159-160 Cognitive research, 9, 30, 52, 55, 82, 85-86, 220 Committee on Privacy and Confidentiality, 87, 209 Communications technology advances, 52, 150 Computer-assisted surveys, 70 Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act, 111, 160

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, 17 Computer technology, 15, 17, 52, 93, 149-151 data base access, 56, 144-145, 150-151 Concentration rule, 147, 148. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Conferences, for data users, 35, 36, 54 Confidentiality definition of, 22-23 historical overview, 47, 48-49 violations of, 7, 38, 100, 101, 119, 138, 223 Congress, 16, 21, 30 Congressional Budget Office, 21 Constitutional Convention of 1787, 45 Constitutional empowerment, 2, 3, 18, 26-27, 29, 33, 78 Consultation, 11, 157, 224 Consumer Expenditure Survey, 21 Consumer Price Index, 30 Continuous Work History Sample, 95, 128, 169-171, 173, 191, 200 Cooperation, see Voluntary survey participation Costs of data collection, 29-30, 32 and data linkage, 41 Cotton gin reports, 198 Council of Economic Advisers, 21, 48, 49 Council of Professional Associations on Federal Statistics, 97-98 Criminal records, 74 Current Industrial Reports, 198, 199 Current Population Survey (CPS), 94, 159, 160-162, 175, 181 D Data protection, definition of, 23 staff training for 12, 215-216, 226 Death information, 68, 172, 178n Decennial censuses, 29, 30, 36, 72, 87-88, 98 address lists, 119-120 history of, 45-47, 48 use of administrative data, 40, 83, 84, 96, 162-163 Declaration on Professional Ethics, 66, 210 Definitions, 22-24 of records, 24, 113, 139n Democratic accountability, 2, 3, 18, 25-26, 29, 31-33, 36, 78 Denials of user requests, 95, 98, 158, 169-173 monitoring of patterns, 7-8, 96, 100, 222 Department of Agriculture, 48 Department of Defense, 159-160 Department of Health and Human Services, 112, 114, 159-160 Department of Justice, dispute with Energy Information Administration , 34, 129, 185-188 Department of the Treasury, 128, 164 Disclosure risk, 88, 136-137, 223. See also Attribute disclosure; Identity disclosure; Inferential disclosure; Restricted access; Restricted data; Statistical disclosure limitation definition, 23-24 notification of, 8, 66, 76, 136, 156, 220 Dissemination, see Disclosure risk; Microdata files; Restricted access; Restricted data; Statistical disclosure limitation; Tabulations; Users of federal data E Economic data, 181, 189-190 Economic Policy Working Group, 49 Economic Research Service, 21, 201 Economics of data and data collection, 26-27, 29-30, 43n, 184 Education data, 31, 121-123 Education statistics, see National Center for Education Statistics Electronic data formats, 92 archiving of, 175-176, 177, 225 see also CD-ROM data releases; Microdata files; On-line data access Employer Identification number, 170, 190 Employment data, 129-131, 169-171, 173, 182, 184, 200

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Encryption, 143 CD-ROMs, 7, 94, 123, 167-168, 200 End uses of data, 92 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 20, 38 data policies and statutes, 205, 206 dispute with Justice Department, 34, 129, 185-188 proprietary data collection, 34, 129, 185, 191, 193 Environmental Protection Agency, 43n Epidemiology, 40, 95, 128, 171-173 Equifax, Inc., 83, 87 Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice, 66 Ethical principles for agencies, 2-3, 18-19, 25-29 for data users, 105-107, 222 Evaluation studies, 70-71, 92 Exact Match Study, 160-162 Experimental research, 1, 17-18, 63, 107 Export data, 183 F Face-to-face interviews, 62, 80-81 False statements, to data providers, 8, 76, 220. See also Informed consent and notification Farm Costs and Returns Survey, 201 Federal Aviation Administration, 2, 18 Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology, 11, 143 Federal-state cooperative arrangements, 18 Federal Trade Commission, 33-34 Fellowship programs, 94, 96, 101, 165-166, 200 Financial data, 76, 116-117, 182, 184 Finland, 194, 195 Fish and Wildlife Service, 20-21 Follow-up interviews, 8, 76, 220 Food and Drug Administration, 116 Food Security Act, 135 Food Stamp program, 4-5, 78, 149 Foreign trade data, 183 Framework for Planning U.S. Federal Statistics for the 1980's, 51, 72-73 France, 195, 211-212 Freedom of Information Act, 4, 27, 37, 98, 109, 111, 112-113, 115-117 and organizations, 116-117, 130, 182-183 Functional separation, 4-6, 34-35, 50, 53-54, 73, 134, 135, 223 advisory body promotion of, 13, 217-218, 227 and organizational data, 189, 225 Future use of data, notification on, 9, 76, 220. See also Informed consent and notification G General Accounting Office, 113 General Education Provisions Act, 121, 122 General-purpose data sets, 1-2, 17 Geocoding, 87-88, 149 Germany, 211, 213 Grantees, statistical activities, 18 Great Depression, 48 Great Society programs, 48 Guidelines for Federal Statistical Activities, 208, 217, 227 H Hawkins-Stafford amendments, 121, 122, 137 Health and Retirement Study, 69 Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), 18 Medicare lists, 172, 178n How the Census Bureau Keeps Your Information Strictly Confidential , 86 I Identity disclosure, 23, 143-144, 145, 153. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Illegal behavior, 76 Income tax, 47 Income Tax Act, 47 Independent advisory agency, 13, 50-51, 79, 214-215, 217, 227. See also Review boards and mechanisms

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Individual autonomy, 2, 3, 18, 27-29, 33, 46-47, 58, 78 Individually identifiable data, see Administrative records; Disclosure risk; Interagency data sharing; Statistical disclosure limitation; Tax records Individual Master File, 162 Infant formula data, 115 Inference channel, 150-151 Inferential disclosure, 24, 144, 145, 151 Informational privacy, 22 Informed consent and notification, 8-9, 113, 115, 134, 135, 204, 223 administrative data, 36, 62, 63, 65, 70, 71-75, 74, 77-80, 220 definitions of, 23, 63 guidelines, 63-69, 75-77, 219-220 and interagency data sharing, 6, 99, 112, 221 methods of data collection, 62 for nonstatistical uses, 5-6, 8-9, 76-77, 133, 220 proxy procedures, 74, 203 research on, 9, 52, 55, 80-82 routine-use exemption, 113-115, 133 survey participants, 8-9, 52, 56-57, 65 see also Waivers Institutional Brokers Estimate System (IBES), 44n Institutional review boards, 107 Interagency data sharing, 6, 21, 40-41, 58, 74, 92, 93, 94, 98-99, 101, 111-112, 113, 158-165, 176, 203, 221, 224 administrative records, 6, 48, 58, 73, 74, 83-84, 94, 98-99, 159-163, 221 barriers, 6, 37, 98-99, 100, 111-112, 134, 158, 221 business lists, 191, 195-196, 225-226 statutes, 6, 98, 99 Interagency technical cooperation, 10, 11, 216-217 Intercensal surveys, 96, 162-163, 191, 198 Intermediate uses of data, 92, 93, 101 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, 131, 188 Internal Revenue Service (IRS), 2, 18, 21 data policies and statutes, 41, 94, 117, 127-128 organizational data, 191-193 and public opinion, 35, 55, 82, 83-85 taxpayer lists, 161-163, 164, 172 International Statistical Institute (ISI), 65, 66-67, 210 Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, 39 J Japan, 194 Jefferson, Thomas, 45 Joint Economic Committee, 48 L Lawyers, 16-17 Legislation, 4-6, 36-38, 50, 51, 98, 109-111, 135. See also Freedom of Information Act; Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act ; Income Tax Act; Paperwork Reduction Act; Privacy Act; Public Health Service Act; Tax Reform Act agency-specific, 117-136 on data sharing, 6, 98, 99, 192 on external use, 7, 114-115 on organizational data, 182-183, 189, 196, 225, 226 Licensing agreements, 7, 38-39, 94, 96, 100, 101, 102-104, 123, 200 microdata, 168-169 Linkages of records, 8, 40-41, 52, 53-55, 74, 111, 159-163 and informed consent, 9, 65, 67, 70-71, 76, 220 in microdata files, 94 Lists of respondents, 37, 95-96, 119-120, 171-173 business, 6, 95, 128, 190-196, 203, 225-226 Local government, 21, 182, 183 Longitudinal Research Database, 38, 154 Longitudinal Retirement History Survey (LRHS), 68-69, 73, 96, 206 Lotus Marketplace: Households, 87 Louis Harris and Associates, surveys, 55, 82-83 Luxembourg Income Study, 150, 166-167

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics M Mail surveys, 37, 62 Management, see Administrative procedures Mandatory disclosure, 4-5, 33-34, 36 Mandatory participation, 23, 28-29, 56-57, 61, 62 and notification, 63, 67, 71-75 by organizations, 184 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey, 38 Maryland Motor Vehicles Administration, 27-28 Masking of data, see Statistical disclosure limitation Matching, see Linkages of records Matrix masking, 152 Media, 17, 21, 92 Medical records, 40 Medicare, 78, 178n Microdata files, 48, 52, 64, 92, 94, 97, 107, 119, 124-125, 157, 203, 222 denied use of, 95 disclosure limitation, 7, 10, 11, 12, 101-102, 104, 141-142, 144-146, 148-149 and informed consent, 65, 68-69 licensing agreements, 168-169 Luxembourg Income Study, 166-167 organizational data, 184, 200-201 Microdata Review Panel, Census Bureau, 48, 97, 148, 205 Misleading statements, to data providers, 8, 76, 220. See also Informed consent and notification Multiple imputation, 153 Multipurpose statistical programs, 1-2, 18, 29-30 N National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), 20, 21, 94, 164 data policies and statutes, 41, 110, 134, 135, 164, 165-166 organizational data, 191, 194, 197-199, 201 National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 113, 174-176, 177, 225 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 121 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2, 15, 20, 21, 31 , 40, 110, 121-123 CD-ROM encryption, 94, 167, 201 data policies and statutes, 136, 137, 205, 206 restricted access, 38-39, 102, 165, 168-169 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 15, 20, 21, 30-31, 43n, 70, 95-96, 172 cognitive research, 55, 82 data policies and statutes, 4, 28, 110, 123-127, 204-205 informed consent procedures, 70 National Death Index, 68, 172 National Educational Longitudinal Study, 40 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 95-96 National income accounts, 29, 170 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 128, 164, 172 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 165 National Institute on Aging (NIA), 68-69, 96, 206 National Institutes of Health, 43n, 107 National Justice Data Archive, 39 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 102 National Science Foundation (NSF), 38-39, 206 fellowships, 94, 101, 165-166, 200 Needs-tested entitlement programs, 74, 78 Netherlands, 194, 195 New Zealand, 194 Noise introduction, 144, 152, 178n. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Nonresponse, 80, 81 North, S.N.D., 46 Notification, see Informed consent and notification O Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards (OFPS), 49, 51, 73 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 8, 21, 32, 111, 192-193, 196 , 207-209, 211, 217, 227

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics confidentiality rulings, 69, 73, 96, 198, 199 disclosure limitation research, 11, 155, 224 Off-site data access, 96, 100, 102, 123, 168-169 Oil company data, 34, 129, 185-188 On-line data access, 7, 92, 166-167, 200 On-site data access, 7, 96, 101, 173 Organizations, 16, 21, 52, 54, 62, 181-182 access to data on, 7, 51, 57, 116-117, 199-202, 226 and confidentiality, 2, 5, 18, 23, 51, 57, 62, 64, 75, 182, 188-190, 219, 225 as data collectors, 15 informed consent of, 8, 184, 197 lists of, 6, 95, 128, 190-196, 203, 225-226 proprietary data, 57, 116-117, 182-183, 184 related legislation, 182-183, 189, 196, 225, 226 waivers, 197-199, 226 P Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 102 Paperwork Reduction Act, 4, 109, 111 Passive consent, 77, 78, 80, 81, 203 Permanent Census Act, 46 Personal Privacy in an Information Society, 50 Personal records, see Administrative records Pledges of confidentiality, 5, 10, 34, 37, 40, 55, 66 and data users, 104, 105 interpretation of, 80-82 Policy and program analysis, 3, 15-16, 25-27, 32, 92, 96, 99 and data quality, 26-27, 31, 56 historical overview, 48 by outside researchers, 52, 53, 97, 99 and subject notification, 74, 78, 79-80 President's Reorganization Project for the Federal Statistical System , 48, 140n Privacy, definition of, 22 Privacy Act, 4, 24, 35, 37, 41, 48, 62, 109, 111-115, 132-133, 135 , 137, 139n, 211 informed consent under, 8, 64-65, 69-70, 75, 219 and organizations, 122, 135, 182 Privacy Protection Study Commission, 5, 35, 49, 50-51, 140n Private sector data collection, 15, 29-30, 31, 35 government maintenance of, 115-116 risk of privacy violations, 9, 87-88 use of government data, 87-88 Professional organizations, 17, 65-67, 97-98, 105, 107, 209-210, 222 Project Metropolitan, 54-55, 212-213 Proprietary data, 57, 116-117, 182-183, 184 EIA collection of, 34, 129, 185, 191, 193 Protected enclaves, 51, 73 Providers of data, 9, 16, 20-21, 22, 28-29, 35, 35-36, 46, 56-57, 57, 61-62, 62-63 See also Cognitive research; Informed consent and notification; Mandatory participation; Organization; Pledges of confidentiality; Proxy respondents; Voluntary survey participation; Waivers Proxy respondents, 22, 74, 203 Public Health Data, 43-44n Public Health Service Act, 28, 124 Public information activities, 36, 56, 88, 220 about privacy violations, 10, 86-89, 221 Public opinion on data activities, 35, 55, 61, 82-86, 206, 220 Public-use microdata files, see Microdata files Q Quality improvement initiative, 49, 181, 196 Query restriction, 151, 200 Questionnaires, notification statements, 70

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics R Race and ethnicity, 9, 86-87, 96, 163 Random digit dialing, 15 Random error, 144, 152 Randomized responses, 82 Records, see Administrative records; Definitions of records; Linkages of records ; Tax records Reidentification problem, 162, 168 Reimbursable surveys, 120-121 Respondents, see Providers of data Response modification, 151 random error, 144, 152 Restricted access, 7, 32, 38-39, 92-93, 94-97, 99-102, 141, 142, 165-169, 177, 221, 224-225 archived materials, 174-176, 177-178 conditions of, 100-101, 104, 106, 157-158, 222 Restricted data, 141-142. See also Statistical disclosure limitation Retention of survey data notification on, 9, 76, 220 Revenue Act, 47 Review boards and mechanisms, 36, 73, 78-79, 107, 214-215, 216, 217 , 227 for disclosure limitation, 10-11, 97, 148-149, 205-206 foreign, 211-214 Routine-use exemption, 113-115, 133 S Sampling frames, 6, 40, 92, 95-96, 99, 221 business, 190-191 Scope of Federal statistical system, 1-2, 17-18 Security classification, 150-151 Sensitive data items and disclosure-avoidance policies, 12, 156 and notification, 8, 75-76, 80-81, 219 Signature requirements, 80, 81 Simulated data, 146, 153, 154 Sixteenth Amendment, 47 Small-area data, 87-88, 163 Small business, 184, 191 Small Business Administration (SBA), 191, 193 Social Security Administration (SSA), 96, 205 administrative lists, 68, 172, 173 see also Continuous Work History Sample; Exact Match Study Social Security data, 6, 30, 71-72, 74, 78, 84, 88 Social Security numbers, 9, 67, 69, 70, 76, 96, 161-162, 163, 169, 220 Software, 11, 93, 157, 224 Special sworn employees, 38, 101, 119, 121, 159, 164, 166 St. Regis Paper Company, 33-34 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), 190, 191, 193 Standard Statistical Establishment List (SSEL), 37, 191-192, 193 State governments, 21, 182, 183 cooperation with federal government, 6, 18, 96, 164, 196, 198, 225 vital statistics data collection, 46, 125, 126-127 Statistical disclosure limitation, 10-12, 39, 66, 147-149, 178n, 209 techniques, 144-149, 151-153, 179n user impacts, 11, 12, 99, 155-157, 209 Statistical Policy Office, OMB, 21, 196, 207-209 disclosure limitation research, 11, 155, 225 Statistical records, definition, 24, 113, 139n Statistics Canada, 46, 194-195, 213-214 Statistics of Income Division, IRS, 82, 94, 127 Statistics Sweden, 54, 212 Statutes, see Legislation Summary tape files, 98 Surveillance, 3, 27 Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Related Recreation, 20-21 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 149 Surveys and Privacy, 87 Swapping techniques, 146, 153. See also Statistical disclosure limitations

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Private Lives and Public Policies: Confidentiality and Accessibility of Government Statistics Sweden, 54, 194, 211, 212-213 Synthetic data, 146, 153, 154 T Tabulations disclosure limitation, 7, 10, 12, 48, 144, 146-147, 148 of early census data, 46, 48 organizational data, 197-198 Tax-exempt organizations, 57 Taxpayer Opinion Survey, 83-85 Tax records, 40, 47, 48, 62, 71, 83-85, 95, 127-128, 161, 164 and notification, 70 Tax Reform Act, 48, 95, 110, 117, 127-128, 164, 170-171, 172 Telemarketing, 15 Telephone surveys, 37, 62, 70, 81, 204 Topcoding, 144, 162 Training of researchers, 105, 107, 222 U United Kingdom, 194 Unlawful disclosure, see Violations of confidentiality Users of federal data, 7-8, 16, 21, 35, 46, 91-93 denials, 7-8, 95, 96, 98, 100, 222 government interaction with, 35-36, 51, 52, 53, 58, 91, 97-98 legal and ethical responsibilities, 100-107, 222 sanctions against for misuse, 7, 57, 100, 101, 104 and statistical disclosure limitation, 11, 12, 39, 98, 99, 101, 155 -157, 209, 224 V Violations of confidentiality penalties, 4, 7, 38-39, 57, 100, 102, 104, 112, 135, 137-139, 157, 223 and public opinion, 8, 9-10, 87, 88, 138, 221 Vital statistics, 46, 96, 125-127, 172, 181 Voluntary survey participation, 28, 50, 52, 54-55, 57, 61, 62 and informed consent, 8-9, 36-37, 56, 63, 67, 71 Voting records, 71 W Waivers, 37, 68-69, 77-80, 96, 196, 197, 203, 220 by organizations, 197-199, 226 Watergate scandal, 48 World Almanac, 21