Index

A

Access to training, 3, 64, 65, 72, 120

qualifying training, 3, 65-68, 100

retraining, 69-70

second-chance training, 3, 70-72

skills improvement training, 3, 68-69

Accountability of programs, 7, 90, 120, 131

Accreditation, see Certification (institutional)

Administrators, training of, 17, 18, 19

Adult basic education, see Basic education

Adult Education Act, 10, 52-53, 72

Age-related earnings differences associate degrees, 78-80

Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 58, 71, 85

Apprenticeship, 31, 38-40, 67, 156-158

foreign comparisons, 38, 40, 66-67, 105-106, 107, 115

Apprenticeship 2000 initiative, 40

Area vocational schools, see Vocational-technical schools

Armed Forces, see Military training

Articulation among programs, 96, 120-121

Assessment, see Evaluation and assessment

Assistance, see Federal funding

Australia, 105, 107-108, 111-117 passim

Austria, 40

B

Basic education, 2, 15, 16, 33, 36, 37, 52-54, 59, 60, 71-72, 161, 165-166

evaluation of, 10, 89-90

Basic Educational Opportunity Grants, see Pell grants

Benchmarking, 133, 135, 136

Best practices, 5-6, 8, 138

Britain, 108-110, 111, 113-114, 116

see also United Kingdom

Budgets, see Federal funding

Business Training International, 35



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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Index A Access to training, 3, 64, 65, 72, 120 qualifying training, 3, 65-68, 100 retraining, 69-70 second-chance training, 3, 70-72 skills improvement training, 3, 68-69 Accountability of programs, 7, 90, 120, 131 Accreditation, see Certification (institutional) Administrators, training of, 17, 18, 19 Adult basic education, see Basic education Adult Education Act, 10, 52-53, 72 Age-related earnings differences associate degrees, 78-80 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 58, 71, 85 Apprenticeship, 31, 38-40, 67, 156-158 foreign comparisons, 38, 40, 66-67, 105-106, 107, 115 Apprenticeship 2000 initiative, 40 Area vocational schools, see Vocational-technical schools Armed Forces, see Military training Articulation among programs, 96, 120-121 Assessment, see Evaluation and assessment Assistance, see Federal funding Australia, 105, 107-108, 111-117 passim Austria, 40 B Basic education, 2, 15, 16, 33, 36, 37, 52-54, 59, 60, 71-72, 161, 165-166 evaluation of, 10, 89-90 Basic Educational Opportunity Grants, see Pell grants Benchmarking, 133, 135, 136 Best practices, 5-6, 8, 138 Britain, 108-110, 111, 113-114, 116 see also United Kingdom Budgets, see Federal funding Business Training International, 35

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy C California, 36, 59, 86, 136 Campus-based programs, 48 Capacity building, 141-143, 160 Capital investment, 28, 68 Career academies, 9, 158 Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act, see Perkins Act Certification (institutional), 7, 51, 91, 94, 132 Certification (workers), 7, 15, 17, 94, 97, 121, 132, 139 apprenticeship, 38, 39, 40 of dislocation, 60-61, 70, 162 foreign comparisons, 111-114 national boards, 139-140, 175 two-year, 33, 52, 76-80 Classroom skills training, 37 Collaborative service delivery, 96-97 Colleges, 15, 66 four-year completions, 1, 16, 17 vocational rehabilitation, 54 see also Community colleges; Technical colleges and institutes Community-based organizations (CBOs), 15, 31, 37-38, 41, 43, 53,97 Community colleges, 15, 31-34, 43, 65-66, 97 adult basic education, 53, 54, 89 dropouts, 77 employers involvement, 94-95 evaluation of, 76-80 student aid, 45, 48, 50 Tech-Prep programs, 52 vocational rehabilitation, 54 Company training, see Employer-provided training; Skills improvement training Compensation, see Earnings and wages Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 55, 57, 86-87,91, 92 Computer programming, 22, 23, 34 Contracting for training services, 145, 147-149, 166n from community colleges, 33-34, 41, 96 for dislocated workers, 61-62 by employers, 31, 33-34, 36, 41 federal, 9, 33, 36, 41 JTPA classes, 49, 57, 96, 97, 145 by military, 43 from proprietary schools, 36 Controlled experiments, 74-75 Cooperative education, 9, 67-68, 158 Coordination among programs, 95-100, 120-121, 131, 166 Correspondence courses, 19, 154 Cosmetology, 34, 156 Counseling services, 37, 38, 54, 61 Creaming, 57, 76, 92, 102n, 134 Credentials, see Certification (workers) Curriculum development, 94-95, 140, 143n Customized training courses, 33, 36 D Default of student loans, 7, 14, 50, 92, 127, 154 proprietary school sector, 50, 63n Definitions of jobs and tasks, 23 of performance measures and standards, 133 of postsecondary education, 14-15, 16 of training, 15, 16 Degrees, 15, 148 two-year programs, 33, 52, 76-80 Delaware, 36-37 Demand for workers, 2, 3, 28, 156 and educational levels, 24, 25 see also Skill requirements Demonstration projects apprenticeship, 9, 40, 157, 158 home health training, 85-86 institutional eligibility, 9, 155-156 labor market structure, 10, 160 literacy in workplace, 42 skill standards, 139

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Denmark, 40 Department of Education, 42, 45, 139 vocational rehabilitation funding, 54 see also Student grants and loans Department of Health and Human Services, 45 Department of Labor, 44, 45, 139, 158 Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT), 39 Office of Work-Based Learning, 40 retraining programs, 60-62 see also Job Training Partnership Act Depression-era programs, 44 Design measures and standards, 133-136, 138 Deskilling, 22-23 DeVry Institutes of Technology, 35 Disability, see Vocational rehabilitation Disadvantaged workers, 44, 94, 148 community-based organization programs, 37-38 community college programs, 33 qualifying training, 66 youth programs, 3, 5, 10, 55-56, 125-126, 163-165, 167-168n see also Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program; Job Training Partnership Act; Second-chance training Dislocated workers programs, 60-62, 63n, see also Retraining Dropouts high school, 16, 17, 37 postsecondary, 77, 114 E Earnings and wages, 22, 23, 74, 75 and educational attainment, 23, 24, 102n records use in program monitoring, 9, 155 retraining impacts, 82-83 second-chance training impacts, 85-89 skills improvement impacts, 81 two-year program impacts, 78-80 Economically disadvantaged, see Disadvantaged workers training Economic competitiveness, 13 and employer-provided training, 21 and skill requirements, 22-25, 28, 131, 140, 161 Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act (EDWAA), 60, 61-62, 70, 82-84 Economic Opportunity Act, 88 Educational attainment, 1, 16-17, 24 and skills improvement training, 68 and wages, 23, 24, 102n Employer involvement, 3, 6, 24, 65, 93-95, 120, 127 foreign comparisons, 104-111 see also Employer-provided training Employer-provided training, 13, 20-21, 25, 31, 40-42, 43, 81-82,94, 160 apprenticeship, 31, 38, 39, 40, 158 contracted, 31, 33-34, 36, 41 foreign comparisons, 110-111 formal, 18, 19, 20, 31, 40-41 informal, 17, 18, 19, 20, 31, 41 and job mobility, 21, 29n, 110-111, 159 qualifying, 3, 6, 41, 66-67 at schools, 41, 69 tax subsidies, 42, 94, 146, 161 English as a second language (ESL), 33, 36, 37, 53, 60, 69 Enrollments proprietary schools, 35, 62n two-year colleges, 31-33, 34 vocational-technical schools, 36 Evaluation and assessment, 5-6, 7, 73-76, 131-132 qualifying training, 76-80, 100, 151, 155-156 retraining, 82-84 second-chance programs, 10, 73, 84-90, 162-166 skills improvement training, 80-82 see also Performance management and standards Expenditures, see Federal funding

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Experimentation, see Demonstration projects; Innovation and experimentation F Family Support Act, 58, 92, 162, 173 Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, 39 Federal Emergency Relief Program, 44 Federal employee training, 30, 41 Federal Family Education Loans (FFEL), 45, 98 Federal funding, 2, 3, 9, 15, 28, 45, 46-47, 120 adult education, 52-53 certification boards, 140 community-based organizations, 37, 43 community colleges, 32, 33, 128n Depression-era programs, 44 military training, 42-43 retraining, 60, 61, 70 short-term programs, 31 and standard-setting, 8 state and local aid, 2, 10, 11, 36, 44, 51, 52-53, 54, 121-122, 169-170, 173-174 vocational education, 36, 51-52, 128n vocational rehabilitation, 54 see also Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program; Job Training Partnership Act; Student grants and loans Federal policy, 2, 3, 4, 14, 44-45, 120-127 annual status reports, 10, 172 apprenticeship programs, 39 employer involvement, 42, 120, 127 innovative programs, 5-6 programs improvement, 4, 5-6, 9-10, 126, 142-143, 144-146 quality assurance, 4, 5, 7-9, 120, 125-126, 129-143 systemic reform, 3, 4-5, 10-11, 100, 119, 120-121, 125-127, 169-175 Federal regulations, 8-9, 138, 173-174 conflicts among, 10, 98, 170 state exemption waivers, 10, 170-171, 174, 175 see also Higher Education Act; Job Training Partnership Act; Perkins Act; names of other specific statutes Financial assistance, see Federal funding; Student grants and loans Fitzgerald Act, 39 Flexible work organization, 23, 25, 26-27 Florida, 36 Foreign comparisons, 6, 22, 66, 103-104, 116, 126 apprenticeship, 38, 40, 66-67, 105-106, 107, 115 employer involvement, 104-111 qualifying training, 105-110, 117n school-to-work transition, 114-116 skills improvement training, 110-111 standards and certification, 111-114 Formal training, see Employer-provided training France, 22 Francis Tuttle School, 37 G GAIN program, 86, 95, 162 General equivalency diploma (GED), 36, 60, 97 Germany, 22, 40, 66-67, 68, 104, 105-106, 110, 111, 112, 115, 116, 156 G.I. Bill, 23, 44 and proprietary schools, 35, 49 Global competitiveness, see Economic competitiveness Government, see Federal funding; Federal policy; Federal regulations; State governments; names of specific federal agencies and programs Grants, institutional, 146, see also Student grants and loans Guaranteed loans, 29n, 45, 49-50

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy H Harm to program participants, 7, 127, 155 Health care training, 17, 42, 52, 80, 94 Higher Education Act, 13, 29n, 45, 48-51, 151, 154, 155 institutional integrity provisions, 9, 91 High-performance workplaces, 24-25 High-risk groups, see Disadvantaged workers High school dropouts, 16, 17, 37 High schools, 14, 30 High-skill occupations, 1, 23-24, 25 Homemaker-Home Health Aide Demonstrations, 85-86 Houston Community College, 32 I Immigration, 24 Imports, 24 Incentives to training providers, 6, 8, 52, 64-65, 90, 93, 135 Indiana, 99-100 Industrial organization, 10, 23, 26-27, 28, 69, 95, 159-160 Informal training, see Employer-provided training Information systems, 4, 10 federal role, 8, 120, 141, 171 Innovation and experimentation federal role in, 5-6, 10, 124 labor market structure, 10 second-chance training, 10 workplace organization, 10, 23, 160 see also Demonstration projects Institutions, see Colleges; Community colleges; Proprietary schools; Schools; Student grants and loans; Technical colleges and institutes; Vocational-technical schools Institutions of Postsecondary Education Data Survey (IPEDS) definitions in, 14, 15 Interest subsidies, on student loans, 29n, 49, 50 Italy, 22 J Japan, 22, 66, 104, 106-107, 110-112, 115, 116, 117n Job Corps, 55, 88-89, 164 Job mobility, 21, 114-115, 121, 160 and employer-provided training, 21, 29n, 110-111, 159 and skills improvement training, 2, 15 Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program, 45, 58-60, 71, 97 community college role, 33 evaluation of, 84-86, 162-163, 165 federal matching funds, 10, 162, 163 proprietary school involvement, 36 Job search and placement assistance, 37, 38, 55, 59, 61, 161 JOBSTART, 88, 95 Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 2, 16, 54-58, 63n, 71, 96-97, 163-165 community-based organization programs, 37, 56-57 community college programs, 33, 37, 56-57 compared to JOBS, 58, 59, 60 impacts of, 84-85, 87-90 performance management system, 7, 8, 52, 57-58, 91-92, 97, 130, 134 , 137, 141-142 proprietary school involvement, 36, 56-57 see also Economic Dislocation and Worker Adjustment Assistance Act Junior colleges, see Community colleges L Labor market structure, 2, 10, 21-22, 28, 160 and employer-provided training, 21 Labor relations, policies, 21 Labor unions, 41, 68 apprenticeship programs, 31, 38, 39 La Raza, 43 Leading-edge standards, 133, 135, 136, 143

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Legislation, see Federal regulations; Higher Education Act; Job Training Partnership Act; Perkins Act; names of other specific statutes Licensing, see Certification (institutional) Life-cycle theories, of technological change, 23 Literacy programs, 42, 53, 69, 72, 89, 165-166 Loans, see Student grants and loans Local governments, 44, 121, 122, 128n, 170 community college administration, 32, 34 Low-income groups, 66 and community-based organizations, 37 and proprietary schools, 36 and student grants, 50 Low Income Opportunity Board (LIOB), 173, 174 Low-skill occupations, 21, 23, 24, 69, 95 M Malcolm Baldrige Award, 160 Managers, 23 training of, 19, 69 Manpower Development and Training Act, 44 Manufacturing and readjustment assistance, 61 skill requirements, 23, 24 Miami Dade Community College, 32 Middle-level positions, 17, 23 military training, 42 Military training, 19, 30, 42-43 apprenticeship, 38 Minimum standards approach, 9, 135-136, 143 Minimum wage, 21, 104 Minorities apprenticeships, 39 and community-based organizations, 37 community college enrollment, 33 proprietary school enrollment, 36 skills improvement training, 68 Mississippi, 59 Monitoring of training programs, 9, 155 Morrill Act, 128n N National Apprenticeship Act, 39 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 143n National Institute for Literacy, 165-166 National Institute of Standards and Technology, 42 National Literacy Act, 53, 72 National Science Foundation, 10, 174 National Supported Work Demonstration, 88 New Jersey, 99 Nonprofit institutions, 15 see also Community-based organizations North American Free Trade Agreement, 161 North Carolina, 95 North Dakota, 59 O Occupations training for specific, 3, 17-20 Office of Work Force Development, 10-11, 174-175 Oklahoma, 37 On-the-job training, see Employer-provided training; Skills improvement training Organizational patterns, see Industrial organization Outcomes of training, see Results P Parents Loans for Undergraduate Students Program (PLUS), 45

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Peer review process, 11, 175 Pell grants, 45, 49, 50, 145, 149, 150, 166n and vocational rehabilitation, 54 Performance management and standards, 5-6, 7-8, 90-93, 129-139, 171-172 adult education, 53 apprenticeship programs, 39 foreign comparisons, 6 JOBS program, 60, 92 JTPA, 7, 8, 52, 57-58, 91-92, 97, 130, 134, 137, 141-142 military, 43 Perkins Act, 2, 15, 51-52, 92, 167n, 173 Perkins loans, 45, 48 Policy, see Federal policy Private Industry Councils, 56, 97 Private schools, see Proprietary schools Problem-driven standards, 135, 136 Productivity, 22, 25 skills improvement impacts, 81-82 Professional associations, 31, 41 Professional occupations, 19, 23, 69 Proprietary schools, 15, 16, 31, 34-36, 66 employers involvement, 94 evaluation of, 76-80 retraining at, 62 and student aid, 35, 48, 49-50, 91, 151, 154 vocational rehabilitation, 54 Providers of training, see Sources of training Public schools, 15, see also Vocational-technical schools Public service occupations, 63n, 80 Public Works Administration, 44 Q Qualifying training, 2, 15, 16, 25, 28, 120 access to, 3, 65-68, 100 at community colleges, 34, 76-80 employer-provided, 3, 6, 41, 66-67 evaluation of, 76-80, 100, 151, 155-156 federal role, 9, 149-158 sources of, 3, 17-19 student aid, 50-51, 149-156 Quality of training, 3, 90 federal role, 4, 5, 7-9, 120, 125-126, 129-143 see also Performance management and standards R Racial and ethnic groups, see Minorities Random assignment experiments, 74-75, 84, 101-102n Records and record-keeping employment and wages, 9, 155, 167n by training providers, 73 Referrals, 96, 97-98 Regulation, see Federal regulations Rehabilitation Act, 54 Remedial education, see Basic education Reorganization, see Industrial organization Reputation of training programs, 6, 14, 94 Research and development corporate investment, 24, 28 skill standards, 171-172 Resources, see Federal funding Results, 3, 5, 8, 64, 73-90, 100 see also Evaluation and assessment; Performance management and standards Retraining, 2, 15-16, 60-62, 63n, 120 access to, 69-70 at community colleges, 33, 62 evaluation of, 82-84 federal role, 10, 158-162 student aid, 51 S Sanctions, against training providers, 8, 52, 91

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Schools, 17 qualifying training at, 3, 17, 65-67, 100 skills improvement training at, 19, 20, 41 see also Colleges; Community colleges; Proprietary schools; Student grants and loans; Technical colleges and institutes; Vocational-technical schools School-to-work transition, 9, 156-158 foreign comparisons, 114-116 Secondary schools, see High schools; Vocational-technical schools Second-chance training, 2, 16, 120 access to, 3, 70-72 community-based organization programs, 37, 43 at community colleges, 33 evaluation of, 10, 73, 84-90, 162-166 federal role, 10, 13, 162-166 at proprietary schools, 36 see also Adult Education Act; Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program; Job Training Partnership Act Secretary's (of Labor) Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) , 136 Selection bias, 82, 101n Serviceman's Readjustment Act, see G.I. Bill Short-term training programs, 31 Skill requirements, 95 and economic competitiveness, 22-25, 28, 131, 140, 161 standards, 7, 8, 10, 11, 52, 94, 111-114, 139-140, 171 and technological development, 1, 23, 24, 28 Skills improvement training, 2, 15, 16, 25, 28, 120 access to, 3, 68-69 evaluation of, 80-82 federal role, 10, 158-162 foreign comparisons, 110-111 formal company programs, 40-41, 68-69 sources of, 19, 20 student aid, 51 Small businesses owned by disabled, 54 skills improvement training, 68-69 Smith-Hughes Act, 44, 51, 128n Social Security Act, 44 Sources of training, 3, 17-20, 29n, 43-44 qualifying training, 3, 17-19 skills improvement, 19, 20 and standards, 7 South Carolina, 32, 95 Stafford Loan Program, 45, 49, 50, 63n Standard of living, 22, 24 Standards, see Performance management and standards; Skill requirements, standards State governments, 4, 13, 44, 121-122, 127-128n, 146 apprenticeship administration, 39-40 community college funding, 32, 34 and employer-sponsored training, 41, 82 federal aid, 2, 10, 11, 36, 44, 51, 52-53, 54, 121-122, 169-170, 173-174 institutional eligibility oversight, 51, 91, 151-154 JOBS administration, 58-60 JTPA administration, 55, 99-100 performance standards development, 52, 92, 100, 153, 154, 155-156 rehabilitation agencies, 54 short-term program funding, 31 and systemic reform, 3, 6, 99-100, 121-123, 126-127, 156, 169-171 and trade readjustment, 61 vocational school administration, 36-37, 51-52 waivers from federal rules, 10, 170-171, 174, 175 State Student Incentive Grants (SSIG), 45 Statistical data collection, proprietary schools, 35

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Stigmatization, of program participants, 6, 94 Structure of training system, see Coordination among programs; Industrial organization; Labor market structure; Systemic reform Student grants and loans, 2, 13-14, 16, 20, 29n, 35, 45, 46, 48-51, 65, 90, 120, 144-145, 149-150 default, 7, 14, 50, 92, 127, 154 Depression-era programs, 44 institutional eligibility, 15, 51, 91, 92, 151-154 proprietary schools, 35, 48, 49-50, 91, 151, 154 Student Right-to-Know Act, 92 Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants (SEOG), 45, 48 Supplemental Loan for Students Program (SLS), 45, 49, 50 Supply of workers, 2, 3, 28 Sweden, 66 Switzerland, 40 Systemic reform federal role, 3, 4-5, 10-11, 100, 119, 120-121, 125-127, 169-175 states roles in, 3, 6, 99-100, 121-123, 126-127, 156, 169-171 T Targeted Job Tax Credit, 94 Tax subsidies, 42, 94, 146, 161, 166-167n Technical assistance, 5-6, 57, 173 Technical colleges and institutes, 15, 31-32, 33, 53, 77, 80, 97 Technological development and skill requirements, 1, 23, 24, 28 Technology transfer programs, 42 Tech-Prep programs, 9, 51, 52, 156-157, 158 Teenage parents, 60 Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA), 60-61, 62, 63n, 69-70, 83, 161-162 Trade schools, see Proprietary schools; Vocational-technical schools Transferability of training, 42, 43 Trust funds, apprenticeships, 38 Two-plus-two programs, 96 Two-year colleges, see Community colleges; Technical colleges and institutes U Unemployment insurance, 44, 60-61, 70, 167n United Kingdom, 22, 66 see also Britain Universities, 15 Unskilled labor, see Low-skill occupations Upgrade of job skills, see Skills improvement training Upskilling, 22-23 Urban League, 43 U.S. Employment Service, 44, 94 U.S. Government, see Federal funding; Federal policy; Federal regulations; names of specific federal agencies and programs V Value added, in training programs, 8, 73-76, 90, 93, 135 Vocational Education Act, 36 Vocational rehabilitation, 54, 148 Vocational Student Loan Insurance Act, 49 Vocational-technical schools, 15, 31, 36-37, 97 and retraining, 62 Voucher programs, 9, 51, 144-145, 147-149, 151, 166n, 167n W Wages, see Earnings and wages Wagner-Peyser Act, 44

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Preparing for the Workplace: Charting a Course for Federal Postsecondary Training Policy Welfare-to-work programs, 85-86, 89-90, 92, 95, 134, 162 see also Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program Women, 15 apprenticeships, 39 proprietary school enrollment, 36 second-chance training, 85-89 passim, 163 skills improvement training, 68 in two-year programs, 33, 78, 79-80 Work Incentive (WIN) Program, 59, 85, 162 Workplaces, see Employer involvement; Employer-provided training; Industrial organization; Skills improvement training Works Progress Administration, 44 Work-study programs, 45, 48 Y YouthBuild, 164, 168n Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act, 37 Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects (YIEPP), 158 Youth training, 3, 5, 10, 15, 55-56, 125-126, 163-165, 167-168n under JTPA, 54-57, 87-89 skills improvement, 68