APPENDIX F
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Prepared by Thomas Walton, Ph.D.

American City and County. 1987. St. Paul computerizes facilities maintenance. March:47.

A computer in St. Paul monitors maintenance needs; keeps track of costs, warranty, and liability issues; issues work orders; and centralizes building upkeep. The process also simplifies budget justifications.

Architectural Lighting. 1988. Retrofit cuts energy costs, preserves appearance. February.

Retrofitting the Transamerica Pyramid with specular silver reflectors has reduced maintenance and energy costs, including a reduction in the air conditioning load. The rehabilitation should pay for itself in 2 years.


Bilodeau, R. J. 1973. Technological innovation in Canada. Cost and Management. March–April:12–15.

Innovation, meaning bringing invention to market, is critical to a country's economic success. Witness the robust development in the United States. Canada must create a similar climate for innovation, and steps in that direction might include greater tax advantages for innovative industries, more generous capital cost allowances for high-tech firms, a more lavish use of stock options, the ability for small companies to carry forward losses for at least 10 years, government-insured loans, and general support from new and existing government agencies.

The human dimension also must be developed. Canada must seek out change and find techniques to avoid falling into a rut.



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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence APPENDIX F ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Prepared by Thomas Walton, Ph.D. American City and County. 1987. St. Paul computerizes facilities maintenance. March:47. A computer in St. Paul monitors maintenance needs; keeps track of costs, warranty, and liability issues; issues work orders; and centralizes building upkeep. The process also simplifies budget justifications. Architectural Lighting. 1988. Retrofit cuts energy costs, preserves appearance. February. Retrofitting the Transamerica Pyramid with specular silver reflectors has reduced maintenance and energy costs, including a reduction in the air conditioning load. The rehabilitation should pay for itself in 2 years. Bilodeau, R. J. 1973. Technological innovation in Canada. Cost and Management. March–April:12–15. Innovation, meaning bringing invention to market, is critical to a country's economic success. Witness the robust development in the United States. Canada must create a similar climate for innovation, and steps in that direction might include greater tax advantages for innovative industries, more generous capital cost allowances for high-tech firms, a more lavish use of stock options, the ability for small companies to carry forward losses for at least 10 years, government-insured loans, and general support from new and existing government agencies. The human dimension also must be developed. Canada must seek out change and find techniques to avoid falling into a rut.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Bosworth, D. L. 1978. The rate of obsolescence of technical knowledge—a note. The Journal of Industrial Economics XXVI, (3):273–279. Based on patent renewal information in Great Britain, the author predicts that obsolescence of technical knowledge is more than 10 percent per year. Buffalo Organization for Social and Technological Innovation. 1983. The Impact of Office Environment on Productivity and Quality of Working Life. Buffalo: BOSTI. This is an analysis of the environmental and design factors that enhance the quality and productivity of offices. Estimates of the economic value of improved or lost productivity is an interesting feature of the study. Building, 1985. Designing for change. July:46–47. To enhance the flexibility of the new high-tech office, an adaptable distribution system is needed. Raised office floors (100 mm minimum) are an excellent choice to serve this need. They can streamline wire management, and they offer space for air distribution. Regarding the latter issue, because office equipment generates so much heat, air conditioning is the critical need. According to the author, cool air is delivered more economically and comfortably from floor rather than ceiling ducts since it will not mix prematurely with the rising air heated by the office equipment. To keep such a system in balance, floor ducts can be moved and an exterior heating system can be installed to respond to those perimeter areas that need heat rather than cooling. Lighting is another critical energy/heat concern in building design and user comfort. Building. 1985. In touch with telecoms. July:44–45. Telecommunications wiring and services are, in the postmonopoly era, becoming more complex. As well as the level and type of service, there are questions related to fire safety, control and flexibility, and the compatibility of equipment. Building Design and Construction. 1986. Retrofit expands wire capability of cellular floor. November: 113–114. Expanding the cable capacity of a cellular floor was achieved by installing a 24 inch wide bottomless trench header perpendicular to the cells. In addition to flexibility and ease of access, there were savings over the next most cost-effective approach: a ceiling plenum.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Building Research Board. 1988. Electronically Enhanced Office Buildings. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. The growth of sophisticated electronic systems in office buildings places the following new design demands on these structures: space for cables; reliable, secure, and uninterruptable sources of power; unusual structural loads to support computers and antennas; a variety of different heating and cooling requirements; special lighting and acoustic problems; and, above all, flexibility. To respond to these needs, designers should follow this process: (1) articulate clearly a building's mission and electronic performance requirements, (2) involve a multidisciplinary design team, (3) include a "commissioning" period as part of the construction schedule, (4) employ various diagnostic techniques as part of the construction and commissioning phases of the project, and (5) establish a permanent postoccupancy evaluation (POE) evaluation team as a facet of the building management structure. This team should include a facilities manager, an information technologies manager, and a personnel manager. Building Research Board. 1989. Improving the Design Quality of Federal Buildings. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. This is an investigation of the design, construction, and building management process, with specific suggestions and policy recommendations for improving quality. Five areas receive particular attention: (1) predesign planning and programming, (2) architect/engineer selection, (3) participation in design and construction, (4) design evaluation, and (5) building approval and general management. Building Service. 1986. Tracing out the pipework. May:55. Using trace heating devices, water can be maintained at a constant temperature without being recirculated. In this technology a heat-sensitive, energy-releasing tape is placed along the hot water system and keeps water temperatures at a certain minimum. Boilers can be smaller, pumps and return pipes are eliminated, and water is saved. Net savings depend on building use and installation costs. Bumbary, R. C. 1989. The VA Hospital Building System: Building better hospitals for veterans. Unpublished paper, Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Facilities. December.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence This is summary of the Veterans Administration Hospital Building System (VAHBS), with descriptions of the interstitial floor concept, basic modular dimensions, approaches to the layout of building systems, and comments on the benefits of this hospital design strategy. Cato G. 1984. Anatomy of hospital design. The Construction Specifier. April:28–35. Hospital needs, design, and technology are changing so fast that avoiding obsolescence is a difficult challenge. In any building project several issues must be analyzed: construction sequence, safety, who the users are, technical needs, various building systems, handicapped access, and radiation shielding, as well as electrical, HVAC, and plumbing equipment. Factors that affect final decisions include cost, service requirements, and function. Commercial Renovation 1988. Time and money favor retrofit. December:46–47. In Phoenix it was cheaper and faster to renovate an old Safeway into an outpatient center than to build a new one. New sprinklers; facades; interiors; and mechanical, lighting, and electrical systems were added. In the end the savings came to more than $200,000, and the building was occupied 6 months before a new structure could have been completed. Construction Industry Institute, Design Task Force. 1986. Evaluation of Design Effectiveness. Austin: University of Texas at Austin. This shows the development of a matrix-based model for measuring design performance using accuracy, useability, cost, constructability, economy schedule, and ease of start-up as evaluation criteria. Croome, D. 1990. The impact of technological innovation on the construction industry. The Journal of CIB 18(3):174–182. Despite the fragmented nature of the construction industry, there is a genuine need to incorporate innovation. This requires a better education with more technical background and better testing of new systems, including their impact on users. The ultimate goal should be to improve performance, quality, and durability. Information technologies are having an impact on construction in terms of computer-aided design (CAD), site automation, and new materials, but more effort is needed both in considering buildings as total systems and in

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence considering their effect on human beings. This last aspect is critical. Designers must ask how new technology enhances communications, creativity, personal control, environmental quality, and basic human needs. Issues of pollution, maintenance, conservation, and decentralized control are important. Cunningham, R. M., Jr. 1982. Design trick: Guessing right for a future that's anybody's guess. Hospitals. February 16:96–99. This is a discussion of the difficulty in predicting future trends in hospital needs and design, with an analysis and a forecast of a few critical issues. Doyle, M. 1985. Older buildings ripe for telecommunications retrofit. Building Design and Construction. June:66–68. Many older buildings can be improved to better serve tenants by a telecommunications retrofit. The space needed for this effort often can be found in mechanical equipment areas, because older systems traditionally are oversized. Prior to making a commitment, owners should assess whether or not tenants can afford to subscribe to the new services. Small-and medium-size businesses are the most likely takers. Doyle, M. 1986. Retrofitting for microelectronics research. Building Design and Construction. August:76–77. This addresses the 1983 saga of how MIT's Microsystems Technology Laboratory (MTL)—a ''clean'' research center—was installed in an old data processing building. Among the many issues addressed are floor height, lighting, removable wall panels, vibration, and mechanical systems. Federal Construction Council, Consulting Committee on Architecture and Architectural Engineering. 1990. The Use of Standard Designs for Federal Facilities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. This is composed of a series of articles on the use of standard designs in the federal and private sectors, including the VA, the U.S. Postal Service, and the Marriott and Humana Corporations. Federal Construction Council, Consulting Committee on Master Planning. 1990. Quality Planning in Times of Tight Budgets. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Presentations and narrative cases address planning concerns in the government and corporate worlds. In addition to discussions of planning in the Air Force, the Navy, and along Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., there is information on the role of computers, the dilemmas in hospital planning, and the potential for public-private partnerships. Gautschi, T. F. 1982. OD & hi-tech series: Technological obsolescence—Part 2 . Design News. May:141. In the 1970s the half-life of an engineering education was estimated to be 10 years. Today, in some fields it is inevitably shorter. To address this obsolescence and simultaneously develop management skills—many of which are dependent on long-term experience, firms must develop strategies to keep re-educating the engineering and management staff. As one solution, some companies are separating expertise and promoting parallel career paths—one for engineers and another for managers. Others are giving engineers and managers time—perhaps 1 day at week—to study and keep up with new technologies. Still others are offering their engineers sabbaticals as an encouragement to stay current with scientific advances. Government building finds comfort in retrofit. Consulting/Specifying Engineer. 1988, July, pp. 58–62. At the State of Illinois Center, an innovative HVAC system, notably a major ice storage component, failed to keep the building cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Much of the problem was due to inaccurate assumptions about both equipment capacities and how the building would be used. An extensive renovation included a new chilled water plant, conversion of the ice-making system to a closed configuration, and installation of higher-capacity fans. Greenberg, R. H., R. F. Sharp, and E. E. Spires. 1989. A practical method of measuring current costs of technologically inferior assets. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting 16(3):433–441. Authors address the issue of how to measure the effects of technological change on current costs of plant assets. Present accounting rules require an estimate of the current cost of a new asset to be based on the same technology of the owned asset. This limits the type of technological change that can be described accurately. The authors propose an approach that is based on present value and that measures the effects of technological change on operating costs and the quality of productive output.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Groak, S. 1990. The decline of robust technologies in the building industry. The Journal of CIB 18(3). May/June:162–168. Recent declines in the quality of buildings can be attributed to the de-skilling of the workforce, the failure of the educational system to provide adequate training, the absence of quality assurance, and inadequate testing. A growing uncertainty on the part of contractors in terms of workload and the type of skill required exacerbates the problem. There is also the fact that the contracting team is becoming more fragmented. This creates a turbulent environment; in addition, a changing technology reduces the repertoire of "robust" or proven technologies. Hartman, T. 1989. Total involvement engineering. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning. August:67–71. The technological complexity of present building systems makes the traditional approach to design obsolete. Total involvement engineering (TIE) is a team alternative to the hierarchical/linear design process. The focus of the TIE team is having project and engineering input on an equal basis with the other design components, the client, the construction manager, and the contractor. The common goal of the group is to achieve the best building performance possible, and each member contributes toward that objective. Effective communication is one of the keys to success. Other contributions are made by handling the design fees and procurement procedures differently. In the TIE approach the overall budget for design, construction, commissioning, and start up for each element of the project is established in advance, and funds can be shifted among these categories as long as the bottom line is not violated. TIE also encourages life-cycle additions to the budget, as long as they can be justified economically. With respect to procurement, evaluations are made in terms of both price and performance—a critical balance when dealing with high-tech systems. Specifications have to be written carefully, and contractors perhaps may be encouraged to submit two or three options for particular systems. Finally, TIE needs to include postcompletion commissioning, start-up, POE, and staff training as part of the project schedule. This will help assure that the systems are working as anticipated and that the building engineers will be able to regulate and maintain them. Hartman, T. 1989. TRAV—A new HVAC concept. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning. July:69–73.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Terminal-regulated air volume (TRAV) HVAC technology unifies the fan and air supply points into a single system. Sensors determine if a room is occupied, and the output required at one vent is factored into needs at other distribution points. This unified approach reduces fan-speed requirements, generally avoids "air starvation," and distributes reductions in air supply across the system. A well-chosen control system is key to implementing the TRAV technology successfully. Hayes, R. H., and R. Jaikumar. 1988. Manufacturing crisis: New technologies, obsolete organizations. Harvard Business Review. September–October:77–85. New technologies require new approaches to management. Contemporary managers should devote their time not to controlling individual elements of a business but to making the pieces fit together. Sometimes the related aspects of different systems cause a conflict of interest (e.g., reducing inventories may require going to more expensive and reliable suppliers; thus, the materials manager's gain is the purchasing manager's loss). In this environment generalists are essential, and the overall view—the total of all the parts—is more important than an analysis of any individual part. The stress is on horizontal relationships rather than vertical hierarchies—on enhancing organizational capabilities rather than measuring and controlling costs. Health Facilities Research Program. 1988. Hospitals as Intelligent Buildings. American Institute of Architects/Associated Collegiate School of Architecture Council on Architectural Research, Washington, D.C. This is composed of series of presentations on the definition of "intelligent buildings" and the implications of that on building automation, telecommunications systems, and hospital design. Jackson, D. W. 1976. Is planned obsolescence obsolete? Arizona Business. November:11–17. Obsolescence can be measured in many ways: physical, technological, and psychological. Interestingly, there are both positive and negative aspects to obsolescence. From the consumer viewpoint, although some planned obsolescence may be bad, in certain cases it is useful, such as in disposable razors and other shorter-lived products that may be produced at lower costs. Some technological and psychological obsolescence also creates a valuable second-hand market. The important criteria are price,

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence information to evaluate alternatives, and a choice with respect to durability. From the seller's perspective, planned obsolescence may be useful for goods that are used infrequently or are unidentifiable by brand. In other situations, however, it may be a negative factor, limiting repeat business and profits. With respect to technological obsolescence, a manufacturer may withhold advances, but this may give competitors time to catch up, so that strategy is not always economically successful. Nor is psychological obsolescence—style changes—always financially rewarding. It takes money to develop consumer awareness, and buyers may resist superficial change. From a societal vantage point, obsolescence encourages innovation, and full employment, it offers consumers product options, and it supports a market for used equipment. On the other hand, planned obsolescence can waste resources and lead to the withholding of advances from the marketplace. Kelsey, D. and D. R. Webb. 1990. Moving into digital control through retrofitting. ASHRAE Journal 32 (7): 12, 14–16. Direct digital control (DDC) can be integrated more easily with existing HVAC control systems. Such a retrofit can improve temperature accuracy and comfort, reduce maintenance, provide better environmental monitoring, enhance a building's value, and save energy dollars. The interfaces among various components of the HVAC system and DDC are the most critical design issues in any retrofit. King, J. and R. E. Johnson. 1983. Silk Purses from old plants. Harvard Business Review. March–April:147–156. Renovating older industrial buildings can save money on site acquisition, infrastructure development, transportation and construction. This conclusion is based on a study of Michigan factories, some of which were renovated for as little as one tenth the cost of new construction. Some of the drawbacks of factory reuse are poor column spacing, low floor-to-ceiling height, constricted configurations, inefficient exteriors, inadequate vertical circulation, and congested sites. Still, there have been successes. Hendrix Electronics renovated an old millyard building in Manchester, New Hampshire; General Electric retrofitted a textile mill in Somersworth, New Hampshire, to include better product handling and energy-saving features; and Burroughs adapted a Detroit manufacturing plant into a headquarters facility.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Critical issues in this kind of decision include the efficiency of layout, site constraints, structural quality, and the options for growth. Kirby, J. G., and J. M. Grgas. 1975. Estimating the Life Expectancy of Facilities. Technical Report p-36. Champaign, IL: U.S.Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. This examines the definition and refinement of a life expectancy of a facilities model based on a weighted average of the six principal building components: mechanical, foundation, electrical, structural frame, exterior walls, and plumbing. Knott, A. W. 1988. Quality vs litigation in the design and construction industries . Forensic Engineering 1(3):123–130. Changing the way disciplines relate in the construction industry can improve quality of construction and reduce litigation involved. In the traditional American approach decisions are made with a "management by objectives" technique. In the Japanese system responsibility is shared, and all the players are involved in gathering data and making management decisions. If the United States is to learn from the Japanese example, contractors need to define objectives in terms of quality, make sure those standards are the as the owner's, define how those objectives will be measured, ask all employees to participate in taking appropriate measurements and comparing them with the ideal, and coordinate suggested improvements in the construction process to meet the original standards. Leov, G. and G. Mangurian. 1984. Alternatives to replacing obsolete systems. Journal of Information Systems Management. Fall:89–93. Replacing obsolete information systems is not automatically the best approach. As an alternative, decision-makers should analyze the existing system's technical condition and functional adequacy and then list deficiencies. Next, several approaches to resolving these deficiencies should be evaluated: maintenance, renovation, augmentation, replacement, and elimination. Each of these options should be priced and studied in terms of its cost/benefit ratio. Only then can a decision be made. Lockwood Greene Engineers. 1989. Retrofitting brings new life to existing buildings. Consulting/Specifying Engineer. August:42–53. Buildings are machines serving particular functions, from industrial production to office work. By keeping a building up to date, retrofitting can

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence save both time and money over new construction. On the other hand, it may not be economically viable to retrofit structures more than 30 years old. Retrofit projects require sound management practices, such as those that follow, to keep costs under control: have accurate documents and phase work to minimize disruptions; assume that higher cost estimates are the more accurate, especially on complex projects; before making a final commitment, assess a building's structure, available utilities, skin, mechanical systems, and access; and determine the level of upgrade required and any special programmatic needs. This includes a discussion of electrical system, computer, energy, HVAC, lighting, and security needs. Checklist included in boxes. Loring, J. R., J. O. Samuel, and I. Zupovitz, P.E. 1988. Retrofitting commercial buildings—opportunities and problems. Consulting/Specifying Engineer. July:46–53. The retrofitting of buildings falls into several categories: adaptive reuse, total retrofit, progressive retrofit, and progressive but periodic retrofit. Among the components of such a retrofit are electrical and communications systems, HVAC, life-safety systems, individual environmental controls, lighting, security, and elevators. The constraints on renovation are schedule, budget, floor-to-floor heights, access, and asbestos removal. The motivation to renovate includes reducing operating costs, reclaiming space, and upgrading equipment. A general evaluation of alternatives can be made by building age: pre-1950s offices, offices constructed in the 1950s and 1960s, and those completed in the 1970s and 1980s. To illustrate different mechanical systems options, the authors describe the retrofit of the Boston Federal Reserve Bank, the National Academy of Sciences Offices in Georgetown, the National Education Association Headquarters in Washington, and a 40-story office at an undisclosed location. The conclusion of this analysis is that the older the building, the easier the retrofit, and that the economic incentives to renovate depend on the cost of energy, who pays for operating costs, and the investment potential of the structure. Masters, L. W. Prediction of service life of building materials and components. Materiaux et Construction 19(114):417–421. Innovative design, technological change, emphasis on lower life-cycle costs, changing availability of materials, and shifting legal and environmental restrictions are making the selection of building materials more difficult and perhaps less reliable. In this context there is a pressing

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence need for more accurate service-life prediction. There are, however, technical barriers to reliable short-term service-life tests, and the author suggests both how these might be overcome and an agenda for future research. Masters, L. W., ed. 1985. Problems in Service Life Prediction of Building and Construction Materials. Boston: Matinus Nijhoff Publishers. Focusing on inorganic, polymeric, and metallic materials, this volume contains more than a dozen essays and reports on these themes: state of the art of service-life prediction of building and construction materials, approaches to service-life prediction in advanced technologies, commonalities between service-life prediction problems in building/construction technology and advanced technology, mathematical analysis techniques used in advanced technologies, mathematical analysis techniques used in building and construction technology, and recommendations. Newman, J. H. 1978. Commercial buildings: Retrofit and other energy opportunities and strategies. Journal of Property Management. November–December:325–332. Because existing commercial structures represent such a large portion of building stock, energy retrofits are critical to achieving significant savings. Achieving this, however, requires that more and better information is needed since most owners are unaware of their building's energy use. Such a study was done for 250 million square feet of office space in New York City from 1971 to 1975, and many energy consumption details were revealed. One of the conclusions was that older buildings generally consume less energy per square foot than new ones. Another was that the larger and newer—but not the newest—buildings are the most effective targets in terms of conservation. Controlling ventilation and turning off lights in unoccupied spaces are simple examples of potential areas for savings. The point is to have information in order to know how to make the most effective energy-efficient decisions. Nwachukwu, J. C. 1989. Job obsolescence and its contributing factors among production managers. Engineering Management International 5:299–308. Technological change has meant that managerial skills also become obsolete, especially among technical specialists. This can lead to a decline in competitiveness and economic health. According to this study, the

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence critical factors in job obsolescence are age, education, organizational climate, the nature of the work, and individual characteristics. Experience, a variety of job assignments, and the opportunity for promotion reduce obsolescence, as does participation in decision-making. Pan Am Building retrofitted for efficiency. 1986. Building Design and Construction. March:94. The addition of a computer to monitor mechanical systems improves efficiency and comfort as well as enables facility managers to better cope with emergencies. Parker, W. Jr. 1979. Flexible designs are key to reuse projects. Hospitals. February 16:125–126. The author proposes a planning/program/design model that makes the testing and developing of reuse/reconfiguration proposals in hospitals potentially more successful both functionally and economically. Pierce, C. F. Jr. 1979. Hospitals' future depends upon long-range planning. Hospitals. January:80–86. All hospitals should have an ongoing planning process. This is especially important as government takes a more active role in health care. Such planning should consider both internal and external environmental factors when developing proposals and policies. It may be necessary to call on outside expertise to devise effective strategies and to form associations with other institutions as a way of sharing information. Pilzer, P. Z. 1989. The real estate business and technological obsolescence. Real Estate Review 19:30–33. Real estate has three main functions: (1) assisting tenants to distribute goods and services; (2) assisting tenants to create, market, or stimulate ideas and to process information about their products; and (3) providing tenants with machines for living. Technology is changing dramatically the profile of these operations and simultaneously is rendering much commercial real estate obsolete. In the retail area, advertising and marketing have shifted loyalty from the store to individual brands. Because of this, successful department stores sell entertainment, not merchandise, and service has been replaced by efficiency, especially in mass merchandising (e.g., Kmart). This increased volume per square foot of space suggests that there will be less demand for

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence retail space in the future, and better inventory control and faster manufacturing and ordering times will reduce the need for warehouses. Statistically, 80 to 90 percent of the cost of retail merchandise is in distribution. Therefore, the real innovations in retailing will be in distribution—not manufacturing. Similar transformations will occur in office design, where the focus will be on helping customers process information. Raftery, J. 1988. Dynamic rehabilitation. RIBA Journal. August:61–77. Building obsolescence occurs when the cost of providing the benefit of a structure exceeds the value of the benefit obtained. Under this definition, recent as well as older structures can be obsolete. For example, the 10-year-old Toxteth estate is being razed because it seemed impossible to rehabilitate the units to anyone's satisfaction. The challenge with rehabilitation is to find the best possible return for the rehabilitation investment. Designers must be sensitive to modern service needs, high costs, structural and space constraints, and the historic character of rehabilitated buildings. Social and political benefits also need to be part of the rehabilitation equation. Research Staff, Office of Construction, Veterans Administration. 1968. Feasibility Study—VA Hospital Building System. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. This is a detailed review of a system of building components designed to provide better hospital design at a lower cost. The first volume outlines the system, and its dimensions, elements, implications for design, and construction and procedures for implementation. The second volume discusses the parameters that affect the feasibility of the system, including form, function, and technical issues. The third volume is a compendium of sample studies and specifications. Schmenner, R. W. 1983. Every factory has a life cycle. Harvard Business Review. March–April:121–128. Even more so than declining sales (27 percent) and high labor costs (21 percent), inefficient technologies (46 percent) are a major cause of plant closings. There are many factors that contribute to this process: product proliferation (e.g., Michelin v. Firestone), overexpansion, facilities that are too large in terms of numbers of employees, souring labor relations, and ignoring advances in technology.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Two important ways of preventing this decline are (1) not mixing production technologies at the same plant and (2) setting a limit on plant employment. A third way to avoid obsolescence is to identify and plan ahead for the life cycle of the plant. Such a plan should address the start-up years, the mature years, and the failing years of a facility's history and should cover such topics as plant engineering, work force, overhead functions, control systems, and contingency issues. Sequerth, J. and T. DeFranks. 1987. Intelligent features upgrade facilities. American City and County. March:42,45–48. Intelligent buildings are those that use sophisticated electronic controls to deal with environmental, security, safety, communications, and elevator issues. They respond to human needs and save money for owners. In Seattle an environmental control system improved comfort and reduced energy use by 20 percent. VAV have been used in a Phoenix municipal building to cut energy costs by $2000/month. The authors include many other anecdotes to illustrate their points, including some about computer interfacing and security options. Souhrada, L. 1990. A-1 renovation: Planning for the future. Hospitals. February:58–60. This presents the argument to develop multiyear plans to address new hospital needs rather than to deal with them piecemeal. Boxes can out some special problems, trends, and statistics. Sraeel, H. 1988. Retrofitting power distribution: Keeping pace with technology. Buildings. November:64–66. It is valuable to know who the clients will be in an electrical retrofit since different types of work have different needs. Next, owners must take a survey of existing capacity and the willingness of the utility company to provide additional service. At this point, the method and location of distribution need to be determined, as well as who will pay for tapping into the new lines. Costs range from $3 to 5 per square foot. In terms of horizontal distribution, alternative designs include power poles, poke-throughs, and flat cable. Most retrofits, however, are done as overhead installations. Vertical distribution can occur in abandoned elevator shafts, a chimney, or in new electrical closets. Tao, D. K. 1987. System architecture designed to manage change. Top Health Care Financing 14 (2):52–59.

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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence The author addresses the need for software that integrates the many uses of information in a hospital setting. Ideally, this should be a system that supports operational and decision-making processes. Flexibility for collecting and manipulating databases, the integration of educational programs, and a user-friendly interface are qualities to seek out and to plan for. Such a holistic approach requires long-term planning. Tye, R. P. 1979. Retrofit thermal insulation: An evaluation of materials for energy conservation. Technology and Conservation (3):36–42. The energy crisis mandates the need for more effective insulation. Many structures require a retrofit. This article discusses where and how to insulate and evaluates alternative insulation materials. Walton, T. 1988. Architecture and the Corporation: The Creative Intersection. New York. This is an analysis of how facilities are assets that can be actively exploited to enhance the corporate bottom line. The book includes several detailed case studies and an outline of a decision-making process owners can use to take advantage of this resource.