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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence THE FOURTH DIMENSION IN BUILDING: STRATEGIES FOR MINIMIZING OBSOLESCENCE COMMITTEE ON FACILITY DESIGN TO MINIMIZE PREMATURE OBSOLESCENCE Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Donald G. Iselin Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1993
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project, under the Federal Construction Council Technical program, was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of State Contract No. 1030-270106; National Science Foundation Grant No. MSS-9203138, under master agreement 8618641; and U.S. Postal Service grant, unnumbered. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-83826 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04842-7 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-063 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence COMMITTEE ON FACILITY DESIGN TO MINIMIZE PREMATURE OBSOLESCENCE Chairman DONALD G. ISELIN, Rear Admiral, U.S.N., Retired, Engineering Consultant, Santa Barbara, California Members J. PHILIP ANDREWS, FAIA, Principal, Damianos Brown Andrews Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania GARY G. BRIGGS, Senior Vice President, Charles E. Smith Management, Arlington, Virginia R. ELIZABETH EVERS, Senior Attorney, Marriott Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland WILLIAM K. GAY, Department Manager, Special Systems Integration, Sverdrup Corporation, Arlington, Virginia GEORGE E. HARTMAN, Principal, Hartman-Cox Architects, Washington, D.C. MIN KANTROWITZ, President, Min Kantrowitz and Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, New Mexico ROGER E. PANTHER, Ph.D., President, Facility Development Division, Quorum Health Resources, Inc., Nashville, Tennessee LESLIE DEAN PRICE, AIA, Georgetown University Architect Emeritus, McLean, Virginia GARY L. REYNOLDS, Director of Facilities Management, Facilities Planning and Management, Iowa State University, Ames JAMES RICH, Vice-President, Sigal/Zuckerman Company, Washington, D.C. WILBUR H. TUSLER, FAIA, Senior Vice-President, Stone Marraccini Patterson, San Francisco, California
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence FCC Liaison Representatives BENGT ANDERSON, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C. ALFRED BREITKOPF, Department of State, Arlington, Virginia GEOFF FROHNSDORFF, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland DOUGLAS C. HEINEN, U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, Champaign, Illinois DANIEL HIGHTOWER, Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland JAMES JACKSON, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, D.C. JAMES D. LONG, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Department of the Navy, Alexandria, Virginia JACK METZLER, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. PFC Liaison Representatives MIKE BERENDZEN, Missouri Division of Design and Construction, Jefferson City, Missouri MARY K. DONAHOE, Architect, Montgomery County Government, Rockville, Maryland JAMES Y. PAO, Division of Building and Construction, Trenton, New Jersey WILLIAM W. SCOTT, Bureau of Capital Outlay Management, Richmond, Virginia DALE STRAIT, Director, Maryland Department of General Services, Baltimore, Maryland Project Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Ph.D., Director DAVID MOG, Ph.D., Consultant THOMAS WALTON, Ph.D., Consultant PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant MARY T. McCORMACK, Project Assistant
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1991–1992) Chairman HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York Members RICHARD T. BAUM, (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Institute for the Study of High-Rise Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania GERALD L. CARLISLE, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT, President, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California ELISHA C. FREEDMAN, Regional Manager, The Par-Group-Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., and Executive-in-Residence, University of Hartford, Connecticut DONALD G. ISELIN, U.S.N., Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California FREDERICK KRIMGOLD, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria, Virginia GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence WALTER P. MOORE, President and Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas J. W. MORRIS, U.S. Army, Retired, Engineer Advisor, Zorc, Rissetto, Weaver & Rosen, Washington, D.C. BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey LESLIE E. ROBERTSON, Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri JAMES E. WOODS, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia APRIL L. YOUNG, CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Construction Council PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY T. McCORMACK, Project Assistant
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence PREFACE The term "obsolescence" calls to mind automobiles and washing machines, record players and watches—a range of consumer products that we discard, typically long before they have broken or worn out, simply because newer, more advanced, and (presumedly) better replacements are available. In our buildings and other facilities constructed to stand safely for decades, obsolescence is more difficult to comprehend. We and the committee whose work is presented here questioned at first whether the term has useful meaning in the context of facilities. Many professionals seemingly use the term whenever they judge that substantial action is needed to return a facility to fully useful service, and they do not distinguish among the factors giving rise to this need. Yet, new facility users and their new demands; new materials, technology, and procedures of construction and operation; new air pollutants; and new laws and regulations exemplify changes that lead us to alter design methods and our expectations of acceptable service long before older facilities are abandoned. Similarly, changes in organizations, variations in urban real estate markets, and the opportunities presented by new equipment and materials often lead us to renovate long before facilities and their parts are worn out. That we can accommodate change and yet retain at least some portion of the investment of capital, history, and culture embodied in our facilities is a great benefit. That we must do so, often at substantial cost, is a problem, particularly in times of fiscal stringency. The ancient Roman designer Vitruvius advised that architecture should be possessed with "Firmness, Commodity and Delight," that is, well constructed, responsive to the functions the owners intend, and pleasing to the eye. This remains sage counsel today. However, although many of the edifices of ancient Rome continue to evoke wonder, few of them serve their original function. Successful buildings and other facilities operate not only in the three spatial dimensions; the fourth dimension—time—is crucial as well. Philosophers may argue that firmness, commodity, and delight are constants in a changing world. We hope that our work will assist those who seek such
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence touchstones of constant quality this so. We cannot afford to build in ways that become obsolete quickly in a changing world. Donald G. Iselin, Chairman Committee on Facility Design to Minimize Premature Obsolescence Andrew C. Lemer, Director Building Research Board
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence This study was supported as part of the technical program of the Federal Construction Council (FCC). The FCC is a continuing activity of the Building Research Board (BRB), which is a unit of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. The purpose of the FCC is to promote cooperation among federal construction agencies and between such agencies and other elements of the building community in addressing technical issues of mutual concern. The FCC program is supported by 16 federal agencies: the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Army (2 agencies), the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of the Navy, the Department of State, the General Services Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Postal Service, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The Public Facilities Council (PFC) was formed in 1983 to make available to state and local governments, quasi governmental authorities, and others, the forum and services of the BRB and NRC to identify technical problems and research needs facing construction administrators and facilities managers. Sponsors of the PFC currently include a score of state and local governments or interstate entities. Funding and participation are typically drawn from the executive office of the jurisdiction responsible for facilities development and management. Reports resulting from BRB programs are provided free of charge to sponsoring entities. For information contact: Director Building Research Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1. INTRODUCTION 5 Obsolescence and Other Service Inadequacies 6 Scope of the Study 7 Organization of the Report 8 2. OBSOLESCENCE IN FACILITIES 11 Identifying Obsolescence 12 Progression of the Service Life 14 Rising Expectations and the Onset of Obsolescence 19 Scale of the Obsolescence Problem 22 Incentives to Avoid Obsolescence 25 3. ACTIONS AND STRATEGIES FOR AVOIDING OBSOLESCENCE 30 Actions in Planning and Programming 30 Actions in Design 35 Actions in Construction 43 Actions in Operations and Maintenance 44 Actions in Reuse and Retrofit 47 Responsibility for Action 49 4. AVOIDING OBSOLESCENCE IN PUBLIC FACILITIES 51 Public Facilities Planning and Fiscal Programming 52 Public Facilities Budgeting for Flexibility 54 Setting Facility Design Guidelines and Other Predesign Action 55 Facility Programming, Design, and Construction 56
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence Operations 56 Achieving Optimum Public Facilities Use 57 APPENDIXES A. Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff 59 B. Glossary of Terms 63 C. Workshop on Environmental and Health Regulations as Sources of Facility Obsolescence 67 D. Predicting Performance, Service Life, and Physical Life of Buildings and Their Components 77 E. Hospital Building Systems 81 F. Annotated Bibliography 85 List of Figures Figure 1 A conceptual view of service life 16 Figure 2 Maintenance practices can influence service life 19 Figure 3 Standards or expectations of performance may change with time 20 Figure 4 Changes in standards of performance may be relatively rapid 21 Figure 5 Periodic renewals raise performance and can extend service life 22 Figure C-1 Downs's ''issue-attention cycle'' characterizes the sequence through which societal problems evolve 71 Figure E-1 VAHBS vertical zone organization within module 84 Figure E-2 VAHBS one-floor building module 85 List of Tables Table 1 Renewal Cycles of Selected Building Components (in years) 18 Table 2 Potential Future Issues of Environment and Health That Could Influence Building Obsolescence (nonresidential) 26 Table 3 Roster of Participants 71
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The Fourth Dimension in Building: Strategies for Minimizing Obsolescence THE FOURTH DIMENSION IN BUILDING: STRATEGIES FOR MINIMIZING OBSOLESCENCE
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