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"safe" doses). (The rare situations in which this relaxation of the standards does not occur would imply that the default assumptions were not sufficiently health protective and so needed to be re-examined.)

A stepwise process that replaces default assumptions with specific data can be expected to yield more and more firmly established standards (regulatory doses); i.e., uncertainty should be reduced as a consequence of having more information. The tiered process for setting standards thus reflects the philosophical process of proceeding from conjecture ("it is reasonable that …") through information to (one hopes) wisdom.

The issue of implementation is discussed in Chapter 12, the final chapter, from two points of view. First, technical guidance is provided on EPA's implementation of the recommendations in a regulatory context. Second, the committee discusses institutional issues in risk assessment and risk management.



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