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lution of the uncertainties are likely to change decisions, leading to substantial benefits in improved public health and reduced control costs (OTA, 1993). More targeted research designed to avoid costly regulations based on conservative default options in risk assessment should pay very large economic dividends, while at the same time allowing better management of the substances that do present substantial risks to public health.


EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Fed. Regist. 51:33992-34003.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Letter report to EPA administrator, William Reilly, from the Science Advisory Board, Nov. 28. SAB-EC-90-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Howard, R.A., J.E. Matheson, and D.W. North. 1972. The decision to seed hurricanes. Science 176:1191-1202.

NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

OTA (U.S. Office of Technology Assessment). 1993. Researching Health Risks. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C.

Whitfield, R.G., and T.S. Wallsten. 1989. A risk assessment for selected lead-induced health effects: An example of a general methodology. Risk Anal. 9:197-207.

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