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formaldehyde, 96-99, 133

methylene chloride, 94-96

nickel compounds, 101-102

trichloroethylene (TCE), 99-100

Area sources, 3, 37, 38-39, 322, 545-546

Armitage-Doll model, 123, 202-203

Asbestos, 42n, 227, 228, 317

Atmospheric processes, see Air-quality models; Transport and fate

Average values, 173, 192-193, 194, 195-196

B

Bayesian models, 170, 187n

Benchmark dose (BD), 64

Benign tumors, 88, 121

Benzene, 32, 33, 42n, 198, 199, 317-321

Beryllium, 42n, 317

Bias, 162, 164, 165

Bioaccumulation, 37, 40, 51, 52

Biological markers, 45, 151-152

Butadiene, 479

C

Cadmium, 100-101

California, 35, 114, 152

Cancer and carcinogens, 1, 2, 16-17

animal studies, 92-100, 102, 229-231

extrapolation from, 86, 88, 92-104, 120-126, 134, 140-142, 397, 435-436

classification, 10-11, 58, 59, 60, 126-131, 142, 252, 421-427

dose-response relationship, 65-67, 85, 94-103, 236-237, 427-438

epidemiological studies, 1, 2, 16, 58, 88, 120, 207, 395, 398-404

individual species of suspect classes, 101-102

lifetime risk, 3, 19, 36, 250, 543, 552-553

mechanisms, 2-3, 9, 31, 98-99, 103, 104, 120-121, 123-126, 390-394

cell proliferation, 66-67, 99, 123, 228-229, 391-392, 415

multiple tumor risk, 13, 229-231, 240-241

regulatory approaches, 3, 17, 19, 31-33, 35, 36, 396

risk estimation, 69-70, 488-501, 552-553, 560-561, 567-568

guidelines, 34-35, 56, 87-88, 102, 236-237, 388-440, 600, 629

low-dose, 32, 85, 87, 228-229, 412-417

potency, 10, 102-103, 122-124, 126, 143, 265

unit risk estimate (URE), 10, 94, 103, 122, 124, 143, 314, 323, 543

sites of tumor formation, 121, 141

susceptibility, 200, 201-203, 207, 218-219, 505-512

synergistic interactions, 227-228, 511, 512

threshold doses, 29, 31, 65-66

Carbon monoxide, 198

Cell proliferation, 66-67, 99, 123, 228-229, 391-392, 415

Censuses of population, 113, 114

Central-tendency estimates (CTEs), 172-173, 618-621, 622, 635

Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), 111

Chemicals inducing alpha-2-image93-94, 621

Children, 11, 210-211, 220, 252, 511

Cigarette smoke, 227-228

Clean Air Act, 3, 21, 36, 89, 91. See also Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA-90)

Section 112

charge to NRC study committee, 4, 17-20, 82, 599-600

on environmental effects, 39-40

on individual risk calculation, 208, 217, 219



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