TABLE 1-1 Food Tolerances Established Under Sections 408 and 409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

 

Number of Tolerances Under:

Type of Pesticide

Section 408

Section 409

Insecticides

3,654

63

Herbicides

2,462

39

Fungicides

1,256

20

Total

7,372

122

NOTE: This table does not include feed-additive tolerances listed in the CFR.

SOURCE: NRC, 1987.

of dietary exposure to pesticide residues are quite different from those of adults.

To determine whether the current regulatory system in the United States adequately protects infants and children against dietary residues of pesticides, the committee considered two main issues—susceptibility and exposure:

  • Susceptibility: Are infants and children more or less susceptible (sensitive) than adults to the toxic effects of pesticides? Is there a uniform and predictable difference in susceptibility, or must each pesticide (and each toxic response) be considered separately? Does susceptibility increase during periods of rapid growth and development? Does high metabolic activity lead to more rapid excretion of xenobiotic compounds and thus to reduced susceptibility? Is the ability to repair damaged tissues and organs greater in childhood, thus leading to apparently lower sensitivity? In what fashion does the potentially long life span of infants and children affect their susceptibility to diseases with long latent periods?

  • Exposure: What foods do infants and children eat? How much of these foods do they eat? How much variation in diet is there among children in the United States? How much, and what residues are found in or on the food eaten by infants and children? What are the nonfood sources of pesticide exposure? How important are they? What data are available on exposure? Are there adequate, frequently collected food consumption data categorized by age, sex, and race that can serve as a basis for computations of intakes by potentially more sensitive subgroups in the population? What are the proper measures of exposure?

The committee examined current procedures for toxicity testing of pesticides



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