the government regulatory agencies, especially EPA, as they continue their efforts to use risk assessment methodologies to safeguard the health of the U.S. population.

  • It proposes new cancer risk assessment methods that take into account temporal patterns of exposure to pesticide residues in the diet of infants and children, as well as tissue growth and changes in cell kinetics with age. Because of their greater consumption of certain foods relative to body weight, children may be at greater risk than adults from pesticides with carcinogenic potential. Infants and children are subject to rapid tissue growth and development, which will have an impact on cancer risk.

This report indicates how such variations in exposure with age can be accommodated in the Moolgavkar-Venzon-Knudson model of carcinogenesis (Moolgavkar et al., 1988), along with data on tissue growth and changes in cell kinetics. The methods proposed here can be adapted and extended, based on the availability of appropriate data on dietary exposure to pesticides and on tissue growth and cell kinetics, to arrive at improved estimates of lifetime cancer risks that may be posed by dietary exposure to pesticides.


Block, G., B. Patterson, and A. Subar. 1992. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: A review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr. Cancer 18:1–29.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Pesticide Industry Sales and Usage. 1990 and 1991 Market Estimates. Office of Pesticide Programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Mason, A.F. 1928. Spraying, Dusting, and Fumigating of Plants. New York: Macmillan.

McCallan, S.E.A. 1967. History of fungicides. In Fungicides: An Advanced Treatise, Vol. 1, D.C. Torgeson, ed. New York: Academic.

Moolgavkar, S.H., A. Dewanji, and D.J. Venzon. 1988. A stochastic two-stage model for cancer risk assessment. I. The hazard function and the probability of tumor. Risk Anal. 8:383–392.

NRC (National Research Council). 1987. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 288 pp.

Wilkinson, C.F. 1990. Introduction and overview. Pp. 5–33 in Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology: The Effects of Pesticides on Human Health, Vol. XVIII, S.R. Baker and C.F. Wilkinson, eds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Scientific. 438 pp.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement