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Index A Acid rain definition, 166- 167 effectiveness of National Acid Pre- cipitationAssessmentProgram,182- 185, 256-257 effects of, 173-174, 179 in environmental models, 180-182 legislation on, 174- 177 regulatory process, 178- 186, 255 -256 research efforts, 5, 167- 173, 179- 180 Agent Orange, 222-225, 227, 232-233, 235-236 Agriculture practices, Chesapeake Bay and, 17-19, 26, 27 Air quality combustion by-products, 100, 101 criteria pollutants, 40, 44, 63 EPA authority, 103 integrated strategy for, 63-64, 81 legislative history, 40-47 modeling, 56-59, 66-67, 180-182 monitoring, 77-78, 82, 118 ozone standard, 47-54 pollution transport issues, 64-69, 81 power plant emissions regulations, 175- 177 - 273 program for Prevention of Significant Deterioration of, 99, 101, 104, 105 regional standards, 61 regulatory authority for, 111 - 112 scientific-regulatory community inter- actions, 79-87 Toxicity Equivalency Factors for, 119 vehicle emission reduction strategies, 69-74 see also Municipal waste combustion; Ozone Algal growth, Chesapeake Bay, 14 Alternative technologies, 30 Animal studies, 190, 192, 193-196 Delaney Clause, 1-2 on TCDD, 222-224 use of, 238 Army Corps of Engineers, 13 Asbestos, vi B Baseline data, Chesapeake Bay water quality, 16, 22 Bay Area Air Quality Management District, 76-77 Birth defects, TCDD and, 222-224, 236

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274 C INDEX incentive-based approach in, 176 mandated review of, vi, 245 California on municipal waste combustion, 91, air quality regulation in, 44-47, 60- 103 61, 67-68, 70, 86 formaldehyde risk assessment, 208-209 transportation control measures in, 76 77 vehicle emission inspections in, 72, 73 Carbon monoxide, dioxin/furan forma tion and, 119 Charrette, Patuxent River. see Patuxent Charrette Chesapeake Bay consensus building for environmental action in, 34 drainage basin, 9 emergence of water quality as issue in, 33-35 federal research efforts in, 9-14 nonpoint nutrient loading in, 17-19, Cost 20, 23, 25-27 nutrient dynamics in, 23 nutrient loading in, 9 point-source nutrient loading in, 15 17 science-management interaction in decision-making for, 27-35 water quality protection activities, 11 19, 22-27 water quality studies, 9- 11, 13- 14, 19 27, 33, 34-35 Chloracne, 221 Chlorination alternatives, 156- 157, 159, 160 disinfection by-products, 144-145 formation of trihalomethanes in, 141 145 health risk of, 146- 148, 150- 151, 159 160 maximum contaminant levels, 155-156 regulatory history, 148- 161 Chlorofluorocarbons, 244 Clean Air Act, 40-47, 79-81 acid rain management strategies and, 175, 176, 177 pollution transport issues in, 66 regulatory authority in, 111-112 vehicle emission standards, 69-70 Clean Water Acts, 11-13, 25-27 TCDD and, 233, 237 Clean Water Restoration Act, 13 Communication, in regulatory process,259- 260 Consensus building, 34 in developing EPA dioxin guidelines, 230 regulatory negotiations for, 134-135, 158, 261-262 Control technology. see Pollution control technology Consumer Product Safety Commission, 202-203, 259-260 in acid deposition models, 180-181 of air quality monitoring, 77 emission control, 55 of environmental regulation, 1, 2. 50 of formaldehyde exposure standards, 203 of ozone standard, 53-54 of regulating municipal waste com- bustion, 133 of transportation control measures, 76- 77 of volatile organic compound, vs. nitrogen oxide, reduction, 58-59 Credibility, 186 Crisis management, environmental man agement as, 33 Critical Areas Protection, 25 Cultural eutrophication. see Eutro- phication D Data collection acid rain, 172-173, 179-180

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INDEX air pollution transport, 68-69 Chesapeake Bay water quality, 16, 22 environmental modeling for, 32 in environmental sciences, 4, 27-30 in EPA, 133-134 formaldehyde epidemiology, 198-201 in formulating acid rain policy, 178- 186 incentives for, 130- 131 industry sources, 212 interpretation of DNA-protein cross- link data, 211 ozone health effects, 48-54 ozone levels, 77-78, 82 for pharmacokinetic model of for- maldehyde, 209-210 regulatory use of, 84-85 waste combustion health risks, 109- 110 Decision-making process consensus building for, 34 in EPA, 108 factors in, 165, 258 in federal regulatory strategy for waste combustion, 112-114 improving risk assessment in, 249-250 inertia in, 30 lack of scientific basis in, 254-255 motivations to reconsider decisions, 5, 243-245, 261 pace of, 31 role of scientific information in, 92- 93, 114, 126-135, 178-186, 213- 217, 243, 251-254 science-management interaction in, 29- 30, 31-32 in setting ozone standards, elements of, 54 see also Regulatory process Delaney Clause, 1-2 Dioxins EPA reassessment of, 229-230 monitoring for, 119 types of, 221 from waste combustion, 104, 109, 110, 116, 118-119, 123 see also TCDD 275 DNA-protein cross-link data formaldehyde in, 194, 195-196, 204, 206-210, 213 significance of, 217 n.1 DPX. see DNA-protein cross-link data Drinking water regulatory history, 244-245 see also Chlorination EElectrostatic precipitators, 101, 135- 136 Empirical kinetic modeling, 56-59, 66- 67 Environmental groups on mandated waste material separation, 125 role of, 248-249 use of scientific information by, 131 Environmental modeling, 16 in acid rain policymaking, 180-182 advantages of, 32 air quality, 56-59, 66-67, 82 disinfection by-product risk assessment, 157-158, 160-161 drawbacks of, 32, 257 interlinking of air pollution effects in, 64 of pollution transport effects, 66-67 watershed, 27 Environmental Protection Agency on air pollution transport, 67, 68, 81 Chesapeake Bay studies, 9-11, 13-14, 19-27, 33, 34-35 Clean Air Act and, 40-47 data collection in, 133- 134 decision making in, 108 formaldehyde exposure regulation, 205- 208, 211 leadership role of, 108, 114, 127 materials separation standard for waste combustion, 120- 126, 130 motivations to reconsider decisions, vi, 243-245, 246 in municipal waste combustion regul- ation, 94, 102-114 ozone standards, 79-81

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276 preparation of waste combustion stan dards, 114-120, 131-135 regulation of trihalomethanes in chlori nated water, 148- 160 regulatory process, 246 research needs, 247 risk assessment model, 227-228, 236 237 role of other institutions in assisting, 248-249 on TCDD, 227-228, 228-230, 231-232, 237-238 on transportation control measures, 74 75 use of scientific information in, 91, 92-93, 126-135 vehicle emission standards, 69-70 EPA. see Environmental Protection Agency Erosion. see Nonpoint source nutrient loading Eutrophication in Chesapeake Bay, 9-11, 14-19, 23- 27 definition, 8 phosphorus in, 11 see also Nonpoint source nutrient loading Exposure levels mechanism of carcinogenicity and, 196- 198 no- ob served-effect-level , 227 no-threshold model, 227 state authority for setting, 233 TCDD, 233, 237 F False positives/negatives, 249-250 Fluidized bed combustion, 99- 100 Formaldehyde, 61 acute effects, 191 carcinogenicity, 191-193, 196-198, 210 Consumer Product Safety Commission action on, 202-203, 259-260 Environmental Protection Agency regulation, 205-208, 211 INDEX epidemiological data, 198-201 health risk of, 189 industrial uses, 190-191 interest groups in regulation of, 215- 216 mutagenic potential, 196 Occupational Safety and Health Ad- ministration rulings, 203-204 pharmacokinetics, 193-196, 204, 205- 206, 209-210, 211 regulatory history, 201-209, 252-253 scientific debate on, 209-217 sources of, 191 state regulation of, 208-209 use of new scientific data on, 211- 217 Furans, 104, 109, 118-119, 123 H Health risk of chlorinated drinking water, 146-148, 150-151, 159-160 of formaldehyde, 189, 191-201 of municipal waste combustion, 105, 109-110 ozone concentration, 48-54 as source of regulatory authority, 112 see also Risk assessment Hydrochloric acid, 117- 118 I Incinerators. see Municipal waste com- bustion Indirect source review, 74-75 Industry interests in formaldehyde exposure regulations, 203-204 industry-sponsored research and, 212 new technology development, 131 in regulatory process, 3, 249 regulatory stability and, 6 Interior Department, 13 International Toxicity Equivalency Factors, 119

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INDEX L Lakes, eutrophication in, 11 Land use agricultural practices, 17- 19, 26, 27 Chesapeake Bay water quality and, 13 14, 33-34 transportation control and, 74-76 Lead, 3-4 Legislation acid rain, 184 air quality, 40-47, 60-61 Chesapeake Bay water quality, 14-18, 22-27 as crisis response, 33 drinking water, 244-245 formaldehyde exposure, 201-209 incinerator emissions, 102- 103 indirect source review, 75 for managing acid rain effects, 174 177 mandated waste materials separation, 148 123-126 municipal waste combustion, 103-106, 123-126 nitrogen oxide emissions, 61-62, 81 provisions for new scientific information in, 165-166 regulatory criteria in, 2-3 setting atmospheric ozone standards for, 47-54 technology-driven regulation, 131 transportation control measures, 74-77 trihalomethane in chlorinated water, 148-158 vehicle emission standards, 69-70 volatile organic compound emissions, 61-62, 81 water quality, 11 - 13 see also Clean Air Act; Clean Water Acts M Maryland TCDD exposure levels, 233 watershed management in, 9, 22, 24- -25 277 Materials separation, 120-126, 130 Measurement of acid deposition, 166-167 of air quality levels, 77-78, 82 of Chesapeake Bay water quality, 23, 27, 29 of ozone, 42-43 uncertainty in environmental sciences, 4 Mercury, 3 Microbial contamination, in drinking water, 153-158 Modeling. see Environmental modeling Monitoring for acid gases, 118 cost of, 77 dioxin/furan, 118- 119 for ozone, 77-78, 82 solid waste combustion, 118- 119 Toxicity Equivalency Factors for, 119 for trihalomethanes in drinking water, use of, in government programs, 257 for volatile organic compounds, 77- 78, 82 Montreal Protocol, 244 Municipal solid waste combustion acid gas controls in, 117-118, 136 air emissions, 100, 104, 107-108, 121, 135-137 combustion design in, 99-100 current industry status, 94-97, 107 energy production in, 91 EPA regulatory management of, 102- 106 good combustion practices in, 116- 117 health risk, 105, 109-110 historical development of, 93-94 materials separation for, 120- 126, 130 national impacts, 106- 108 nitrogen oxides in, 120 organic controls in, 118- 119 particulate/metal controls in, 117 political factors in regulation of, 113- 114, 120, 123-128, 131-135, 260 pollution control in, 93-94, 97-99, 100- 102, 135-137

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278 preparation of federal standards for, 114-120 quality of data in, 133 - 134 regulatory history, 102-106 regulatory strategies for, 110- 114, 133 retrofitting for, 100 risk assessment of, 109- 110 scientific analysis in regulation of, 126- Ozone 135 N National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program effectiveness of, 182- 185, 256-257 goals of, 5, 172-173 policy formulation and, 178-179, 257 research model, 181 research results, 179, 183-184 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, 13 Nitrogen loading in Chesapeake Bay, 15, 16, 20, 23, 24-27, 30 in eutrophication, 11 nonpoint sources of, 18, 20 via atmospheric deposition, 26 Nitrogen oxides in achieving ozone reduction, 54-62, 81, 83 acid rain and, 172, 173 combustion emission controls, 136-137 in improving overall air quality, 62 64 regulation of, 255 as waste combustion byproduct, 100, 102, 123 in waste combustion standards, 120 see also Ozone No-observed-effect-level, 227 No-threshold level, 227 Nonpoint source nutrient loading in Chesapeake Bay, 17-19, 20, 23, 25 27, 27-30, 30 policy implications of, 30 INDEX o Occupational Safety and Health Admin- istration, 203-204 Organizational structure in-house research, 259-260 regulators-researchers in, 27-30, 259 in Air Quality Act, 40, 42 atmospheric formation, 39 atmospheric transport issues, 64-69, 81 cost of standard for, 53-54 development of standards for, 47-54 emission control strategies in reducing, 54-62 health effects of, 48-54 in integrated air pollution strategy, 62- 64, 81 legislative history, 40-47, 244 monitoring of, 77-78, 82 natural emissions in formation of, 82 reactive species in formation of, 61 reduced vehicle use and, 74-77 science-management interaction in approach to, 79-85 standards, 79-81 state implementation plans for reducing, 78 vehicle inspection strategies for reduc- ing, 70-74 volatile organic compounds, vs. nitrogen oxide, reduction and, 54-64, 81, 83 for water decontamination, 156 p Patuxent Charrette, 17, 24, 30, 34 Patuxent River, 14, 16-17, 28, 30 pollution control strategy, 16- 17, 24- 25, 28, 34 Peer review, 186, 260 Pesticides, 245 see also TCDD Phosphorus in Chesapeake Bay, 15, 16, 20, 23, 26

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INDEX in cultural eutrophication, 11 nonpoint sources of, 18, 20 PM-10, 59, 63 Point-source contamination of Chesapeake B. ay, 15 - 17, 27-28 climactic conditions and, 27 in federal legislation, 13-14 policy implications of, 30 Political factors differing governmental perspectives, 128- 130, 260-261 in effectiveness of National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program, 182-185 in environmental regulation, 131 - 132 in federal waste combustion regulation, 113-114, 120, 123-128, 132-135 in formaldehyde regulation, 212-213, 214-215 not based on science, 255-256 regulatory regime stability, 6 in scientific agenda, 256-258 Pollution control technology acid rain, 177, 181-182 incentives for development of, vi, 86- 87, 131, 245-246, 257-258 ozone, 44, 55, 69-70, 78, 86-87 municipal solid waste combustion, 97- 102, 106-108, 116-118, 135-137 nutrients in surface water, 15- 16, 18 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 230 Potomac River, 14, 15-16, 28 Power plants regulation of emissions from, 175, 177 sale of emissions permits, 177 Public awareness of acid rain, 178-179 of chemical risk, 234-235 of Chesapeake Bay watershed, 33-34 formaldehyde debate, 215-216 Public opinion EPA and, 108 of municipal waste combustion, 103, 108 Public transportation, 76 279 R Ranch Hand study, 224-225 Recycling, 120-126 Regional standards, 2, 61 Regulatory process for acid rain management, 178-186 on chlorofluorocarbons, 244 conflicting interests in, 92-93 cost of, 1, 2 differing governmental perspectives in, 128- 130, 260-261 in EPA, 246 evaluating need for regulation, 133 evaluation of national impacts of waste combustion, 106- 108 for formaldehyde, use of new scientific data in, 211-217 goals of, 91 government agency participation in, 2 law and, 245-246, 261 legislated criteria in, 2-3 mandated periodic review, vi, 5, 237 238, 245, 261 policy agenda in, 255-256 policy-relevant research in, 185- 186 preparation of standards for waste com bustion, 114-120 recommendations for, 5-6, 258-262 regime stability, 6 regulatory negotiations in, 134-135, 158, 261 -262 research needs, 6-7, 258-259 responsiveness of, v-vi, 4-5, 6, 262 risk assessment in, 109, 111 - 112, 213 role of Congress in, 248 role of environmental groups in, 248 249 role of industry in, 249 role of media in, 248 role of scientists in, 9, 246-247 role of technical information in, v science-regulator communication in, 259-260 scientific understanding of ozone and, 79-84

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280 simplifying science in, 255 state-federal relationship, 85-86 for TCDD, 235-239 technological considerations in, 131 technological development and, 86-87, 257-258 for trihalomethanes in chlorinated water, 148-161 use of new scientific information in, 3-4, 84-85, 130- 131, 251 -254 use of scientific information by EPA, 126-135 for waste materials separation standard, 120-126 see also Decision-making process; Legislation Research center, recommendations for, 87 Resource recovery, 92 Risk assessment animal data in, 1-2, 190 cell proliferation mechanism of car cinogenesis and, 196-198 of chlorinated drinking water, 146-148, 159-160 cost factors in, 54 developments in conceptualizations of, 1-2, 238-239 drinking water disinfection by-product, model for, 157-158, 160-161 elements of, 91 false positives/false negatives in, 249 250 of formaldehyde, 193- 196, 202, 204, 205-213 models for, 227-228, 236-237 of municipal waste combustion, 109 110 mutagenicity in, 186 of ozone, 48-54 pesticides, risk-benefit analysis of, 239 n.2 in regulatory process, 213 of TCDD, 228-229 Rivers and Harbors Act, 13 Runoff, 33-34 contamination of Chesapeake Bay, 17- 19 INDEX S Selective noncatalytic reduction, 120, 136- 137 Sewage treatment. see Wastewater treat- ment Soil conservation, in watershed manage- ment, 18, 25 Solid waste management. see Municipal solid waste management State regulation Air Quality Act implementation, 40- 41, 44 of Chesapeake Bay, 15 in Clean Water Acts, 11-13, 25-26 federal regulation and, 85-86, 260-261 of formaldehyde exposure, 208-209 indirect source review requirements, 75 of interstate pollution, 67 of municipal waste combustion, 110- 111, 129 of ozone reduction, performance as- sessment of, 78 in setting exposure levels, 233 vehicle inspection strategies, 70-74 Submerged aquatic vegetation, Chesa- peake Bay, 19, 20-21, 27 Sulfur dioxide, 101, 117, 118 in acid rain, 167, 170, 171 emission permits, 177 regulation of emissions of, 176, 177, 180 Superfund sites, 245 T TCDD in Agent Orange, 232-233 animal studies, 222-224 carcinogenicity, 228-229 Clean Water Act and, 233 current status of, 229-230 emergency suspension of, 231-232, 239 n.1

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INDEX epidemiological data, 224-226, 238- 239 exposure levels, 233, 237 immunology, 226-227 interpretation of data, 238-239 risk assessment models, 227-228, 236- 237 scientific data in policymaking, 235- 239 timeline of major events regarding, 223 use of, 221-222, 231 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. see TCDD Times Beach, Missouri, 234, 236 Transportation control measures, 74-77 Trihalomethanes formation of, in chlorination, 141-148 principal compounds, 143 regulation of, in drinking water, 148- 160 U Urban Airshed Model, 57, 67 Urea-formaldehyde products, 202, 203, 208 Vehicle emissions, 41, 42, 43 cleaner fuels and, 78-79 evaporative, 72, 73 fuel reactivity adjustment, 60-61 inspection/maintenance programs, 70- 74 nitrogen oxides in, 55 strategies for controlling, 69 - 281 technological improvements, 69-70 transportation control measures and, 74-77 volatile organic compounds in, 55 Volatile organic compounds in achieving ozone reduction, 54-62, 81, 83 acid rain and, 172, 173 in improving overall air quality, 62 64 legislative regulation of, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47 monitoring of, 77-78, 82 ozone formation and, 39 W Waste-to-energy conversion definition, 92 in municipal waste combustion, 93- 94 Wastewater treatment in Chesapeake Bay management, 15 16, 30 federal efforts for, 11 - 13, 25-26 Water Pollution Control Acts, 11 Water quality acid rain and, 170, 179-180 atmospheric deposition and, 26 eutrophication, 8-9, 11 legislative history, 11 - 13 measures of degradation, 35 n.1 regulation of drinking water standards, 244-245 TCDD and, 233 see also Chesapeake Bay; Chlorination