compounded by the lack of technological expertise among environmental regulators.

On the other hand, the good news is that this issue—green design in general—has great potential to cause a fundamental shift in environmental regulation as well as in material management. The clear need is for flexible regulations that create harmony between the manufacturer, the government, and the customer. Only market-based regulations can create such harmony.


In the final analysis, industrial ecology considerations, life cycle waste management, and pollution prevention are quite similar. They are based on practices that, in the automotive industry, are already in place. Ultimately, these approaches must be combined with total quality management to meet the future demands for ''greenness," which we all expect our future customers to require. One of the most difficult barriers to the success of such comprehensive approaches is the inflexible, non-market-based, command-and-control, environmental regulatory system now in place.


Frosch, R. A., and N. E. Gallopoulos. 1989. Strategies for manufacturing. Scientific American 261(3): 144-152.

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