Biographical Data

DAVID T. ALLEN is chairman of the chemical engineering department at the University of California, Los Angeles. During the 1989/90 academic, year he was a visiting associate professor of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology. Since 1987 Allen has led the Waste Reduction Engineering research effort at UCLA. This program has been one of the few university research efforts directed specifically at waste reduction. In addition, he serves on a number of national advisory committees on waste reduction. He is a member of the Environmental Protection Agency's American Institute for Pollution Prevention; he serves on the Pollution Prevention Education Group of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology, and is actively developing pollution prevention materials for engineering curricula. Allen received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering, with distinction, from Cornell University in 1979. His M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in chemical engineering, were awarded by the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and 1983.

BRADEN R. ALLENBY is the research vice president, technology and environment, for AT&T. He graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1972 and received his Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia Law School in 1978 and his master's in economics from the University of Virginia in 1979. He received his master's in environmental sciences from Rutgers University in 1989 and his Ph.D. in environmental sciences from Rutgers in 1992. Allenby is a member of the Aeronautics Board and the Federal Communications Commission, as well as a strategic consultant on economic and technical telecommunications issues. He joined AT&T in 1983 as a telecommunications regulatory attorney and was an



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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Biographical Data DAVID T. ALLEN is chairman of the chemical engineering department at the University of California, Los Angeles. During the 1989/90 academic, year he was a visiting associate professor of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology. Since 1987 Allen has led the Waste Reduction Engineering research effort at UCLA. This program has been one of the few university research efforts directed specifically at waste reduction. In addition, he serves on a number of national advisory committees on waste reduction. He is a member of the Environmental Protection Agency's American Institute for Pollution Prevention; he serves on the Pollution Prevention Education Group of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology, and is actively developing pollution prevention materials for engineering curricula. Allen received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering, with distinction, from Cornell University in 1979. His M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in chemical engineering, were awarded by the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and 1983. BRADEN R. ALLENBY is the research vice president, technology and environment, for AT&T. He graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1972 and received his Juris Doctor from the University of Virginia Law School in 1978 and his master's in economics from the University of Virginia in 1979. He received his master's in environmental sciences from Rutgers University in 1989 and his Ph.D. in environmental sciences from Rutgers in 1992. Allenby is a member of the Aeronautics Board and the Federal Communications Commission, as well as a strategic consultant on economic and technical telecommunications issues. He joined AT&T in 1983 as a telecommunications regulatory attorney and was an

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems environmental attorney and senior environmental attorney for AT&T from 1984 to 1993. During 1992 he was the J. Herbert Hollomon Fellow at the National Academy of Engineering in Washington, D.C. He currently chairs the American Electronics Association Design for Environment Task Force and is vice-chair of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Committee on the Environment. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, of the Washington, D.C., law firm Cadwalader, Wickersham, and Taft, is former dean of the law school and Ann Loeb Bronfman Professor of Law at American University. Anderson is a nationally recognized authority on environmental law. In addition to writing, teaching, and testifying on a broad range of matters involving science, natural resources, and the environment, Anderson practices in the areas of air, water, and hazardous substance pollution, the environmental aspects of energy production and real estate development, natural resources management, environmental compliance and cleanup, and administrative law. In 1970 Anderson was the founding president of the Environmental Law Institute and is currently chairman of the Institute's Advisory Council. He was the first editor-in-chief of the Environmental Law Reporter. For several years he was chairman of the American Bar Association's Standing Committee on Environmental Law. He served on a twelve-member congressional study commission created by the Superfund legislation to examine toxic tort recovery for injury from hazardous substances. Anderson currently chairs a broad-based advisory group that is attempting on behalf of the U.S. Sentencing Commission to draft sentencing guidelines for individuals and organizations convicted of environmental offenses. He also serves as a member of the National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. Anderson graduated summa cum laude from the University of North Carolina with a B.A. in the history of science. He holds law degrees from Harvard University and Oxford University, where he was a Marshall Scholar. ROBERT U. AYRES was professor of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University from 1979 through May 1992. In September 1992 he became Sandoz Professor of Environment and Management at the European Institute for Business Administration (INSEAD), Fountainbleau, France. His current research and teaching interests focus mainly on "industrial metabolism" and the impacts of technological change and public policy initiatives in response to environmental concerns. Ayres graduated from the University of Chicago (B.A. 1952, B.S. 1954) in mathematics, then did graduate work in physics at Maryland (M.S. 1956) and Kings College, University of London (Ph.D. 1958). This was followed by postdoctoral research in physics at Maryland and Yeshiva University from 1960 to 1962. In 1962 Ayres joined the staff of the Hudson Institute, where he worked on environmental problems until 1967. After a year as a visiting scholar at Resources for the Future, Inc. (1967/68) he cofounded a research and consulting firm in Washington, D.C., to perform studies for the U.S. government. He has published

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems more than 120 journal articles and book chapters, and has authored or coauthored 10 books and edited several others on topics ranging from technological change, manufacturing and productivity to environmental economics. NASRIN BEHMANESH is a postdoctoral research associate in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her current research focuses on pollution prevention, waste reduction, life cycle assessment and alternate uses of hazardous wastes. She has coauthored several journal articles in environmental engineering. Behmanesh received her Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles. PIERRE CROSSON is an economist at Resources for the Future, where he has worked for over 25 years. For the last decade or so his research has focused on the impacts of agriculture on the natural resource base and environment, emphasizing the consequences for the sustainability of the agricultural system, in the United States and globally. With colleagues at RFF he currently is engaged in developing a program of research on sustainable development. Crosson received his undergraduate degree from the University of Texas and his Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University. PATRICIA S. DILLON is a senior research associate at the Tufts University Center for Environmental Management, where she specializes in corporate environmental management issues. Her current research examines product stewardship and related developments in the private sector, such as Design for Environment and industrial ecology. Dillon has written widely on business and the environment and on various aspects of environmental management in corporations. Dillon is a member of the advisory board of the Greening of Industry project, an international research network on corporate environmental behavior. She holds an M.S. degree in civil engineering and a B.S. degree in biology from Tufts University. FAYE DUCHIN is director of the Institute for Economic Analysis at New York University. Over the past several years, she has investigated the potential contribution of technological change to environmentally sound economic development in the international context and for individual developing countries. Duchin is a founding managing editor of Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, a journal promoting the integration of theoretical and empirical research in economics. She is a vice president of the international society for ecological economics, where she is responsible for curriculum development. Duchin received her B.A. degree in psychology from Cornell University and her Ph.D. degree in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley. JOHN R. EHRENFELD is senior research associate in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development and has

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems additional appointments as lecturer in the departments of chemical engineering and urban studies and planning. At MIT since 1986, he directs the MIT Program on Technology, Business, and Environment, an interdisciplinary educational, research, and policy program. In 1977 Ehrenfeld was appointed by President Carter to serve as chairman of the New England River Basins Commission (NERBC). There he was responsible for developing regional policies and strategies for surface and ground water, and coastal resources. Ehrenfeld has served on the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, the state's primary water policy organization, and on the boards of Other public and nonprofit organizations. He holds a B.S. and Sc.D. in chemical engineering from MIT. GREG EYRING received a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1981. He then did three years of postdoctoral research in chemical physics at Stanford University before joining the Office of Technology Assessment staff as an OTA Fellow in 1984. He was project director of OTA study Advanced Materials by Design (June 1988), which discusses the status and policy implications of advanced ceramic and composite materials technologies. He then directed OTA's assessment High-Temperature Superconductivity in Perspective (May 1990), which evaluates the potential applications of high-temperature superconductors and includes an extensive survey of superconductivity research activities of U.S. and Japanese firms. A third study, Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment (September 1992), examines how better product design can help to address environmental problems. In particular, the study explores trends in designers' use of materials, and how policymakers can shape environmental policies that encourage environmentally sound design. SHELDON K. FRIEDLANDER is Parsons Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles, currently working on the applications of aerosol science and technology to pollution prevention and to the formation and behavior of ultrafine particles. From 1984 to 1988 he chaired the UCLA Chemical Engineering Department. He has consulted for the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District and served as chairman of the National Research Council Panel on the Abatement of Particulate Emissions from Stationary Sources and the subcommittee on Photochemical Oxidants and Ozone. He was also chairman of the EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (1978-1982) and a member of its Science Advisory Board Executive Committee. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Friedlander received his B.S. degree in chemical engineering from Columbia University and Ph.D. degree from the University of Illinois. ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and a senior fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. He recently retired from the position of vice-president in charge

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems of General Motors research laboratories. Frosch's career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and in government service. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international level. From 1951 to 1963 he was employed at Hudson Laboratories of Columbia University, first as a research scientist and then as director from 1956 to 1963. In 1963 he became director for nuclear test detection in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense, and deputy director of ARPA in 1965. In 1966 he was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development. He served in this position until January 1973, when he became assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Program. In 1975 he became associate director for applied oceanography at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, and from 1977 to 1981 he served as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He served as president of the American Association of Engineering Societies from 1981 to 1982. Frosch is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his A.B., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in theoretical physics from Columbia University. ROBERT F. HOUSMAN is an attorney with the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL) and an adjunct professor of law at the American University's Washington College of Law. Housman serves as a consultant to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United Nations Environment Program, and the Environmental Protection Agency's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. He is also a member of the Council on Foreign Relations Study Group on Trade and Environment. Before joining CIEL, Housman was an associate at Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom's Washington, D.C. office. He also served as aide to Dr. Iann Twinn, member of the English House of Commons. DAVID JENSEN is an analyst with the Energy and Materials Program of the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. Jensen joined OTA in the fall of 1991, after completing his graduate work in the Department of Engineering and Policy at Washington University in St. Louis. He received his D.Sc. and M.S. degrees from Washington University and his B.S. in mechanical engineering from the University of Nebraska. Since joining OTA, Jensen served on the project team for Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment, a study of how product design and environmental regulations interact to affect the environmental attributes of products. RICHARD L. KLIMISCH is vice president of engineering affairs at the American Automobile Manufacturers Association. From 1983 to 1993 he was executive director of the General Motors Environmental Activities Staff, which oversaw worldwide GM activities related to vehicle safety, fuel economy, and all aspects of

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems pollution. From 1975 to 1983, he was head of the Environmental Science Department of the GM Research Laboratories. Klimisch joined the GM Research Laboratories in 1967 as GM's first resident expert in catalysis. After receiving his Ph.D. in chemistry at Purdue University in 1964, Klimisch was employed as a research chemist for the DuPont Co. at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware. He received his B.S. in chemistry from Loras College in Dubuque, Iowa in 1960. Klimisch is the author of two books and more than 30 scientific papers and holds two patents in chemical kinetics, catalysis, emission control, atmospheric chemistry, and alternative fuels. HENRY R. LINDEN is the Max McGraw Professor of Energy and Power Engineering and Management at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and director of IIT's interdisciplinary Energy and Power Center. From July 1989 until June 1990, he served as interim president and chief executive officer of IIT and interim chairman and chief executive officer of its subsidiary, IIT Research Institute. He has been a member of the faculty of lit since 1954 and served as the Frank W. Gunsaulus Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering following his retirement as president of Gas Research Institute (GRI) in April 1987, until becoming interim president of IIT. Linden was instrumental in the organization of GRI, the U.S. gas industry's cooperative research and development arm. He was elected GRI's first president and a member of its board of directors in 1977 and continues to serve GRI as executive advisor. Linden received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1944, a master's in chemical engineering degree from Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn in 1947, and a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from IIT in 1952. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a member of the Energy Engineering Board of the National Research Council. During the past six administrations, he has served on many government advisory bodies, most recently on the Energy Research Advisory Board of the Department of Energy. He has written and lectured extensively on U.S. and world energy issues, has authored or coauthored 200 publications, and holds 27 patents. EDWARD T. MOREHOUSE, JR., a major with the United States Air Force, is military assistant to the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Environmental Security. He was previously chief of the Pollution Prevention Division with the Air Force's Environmental Quality Directorate, responsible for developing and implementing a Pollution Prevention Program throughout the Air Force. His earlier assignments include base engineering at Offutt Air Force, Nebraska; RAF Fairford, UK; and Galena Airport, Alaska. He was also the Ground Launched Cruise Missile Program Manager at the London Regional Civil Engineering Of-flee, served in an Education with Industry assignment with the 3M Corporation in St. Paul, Minnesota, and worked at the Air Force Civil Engineering Support Agency's research laboratory at Tyndall AFB, Florida, on alternatives to ozone-

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems depleting substances. Since 1987 Morehouse has been active in the United Nations Montreal Protocol process to eliminate global production of ozone layer depleting chemicals. He cochairs the United Nations Halon Technical Options Committee and is a member of the United Nations Technology and Economics Assessment Panel, which prepares assessment used in the Montreal Protocol process. He has conducted workshops on alternatives to ozone-depleting substances in a number of developing countries as part of a United Nations effort to broaden international participation in the Montreal Protocol. Morehouse holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from Union College and an M.S. in mechanical engineering from Boston University. ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., is director of advanced manufacturing technology at Motorola, where his organization is responsible for developing and introducing advanced manufacturing technology and advanced electronic packaging into production. His organization's areas of activity include reflow soldering, cleaning, advanced electronic packaging, factory control systems, and advanced electronic materials. Pfahl is chairman of the American Electronics Association's CFC Task Force. He chairs the Motorola corporate task force that eliminated the use of CFCs in manufacturing in 1992 and has been an active participant in the Industry Cooperative for Ozone. Layer Protection. He represents the electronics industry on the Safe Alternatives Subcommittee of the EPA's Stratospheric Ozone Protection Advisory Council. Pfahl invented, developed, and implemented ''vapor phase" soldering, used for reflow soldering of temperature-sensitive assemblies. He led the development of new manufacturing processes including infrared solder fusing, liquid immersion solder fusing, and flat flexible cable termination. Pfahl received his B.M.E., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees from Cornell University, where he majored in heat transfer and fluid mechanics. JOE RAGUSO is a research contractor with the Energy and Materials Program at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. Current projects include a background paper investigating the commercial importance of biopolymers and a full study examining energy technology transfer to former communist countries working to convert from central planned to market based economies. His most recently completed study entitled Green Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment, for the House Committees on Science, Space, and Technology and on Energy and Commerce, examines the environmental implications of trends in materials technology and product design. Before coming to OTA in 1991, Raguso worked for IBM on developing novel computer substrate materials. He received an M.S. in technology policy from MIT in 1991, as well as an M.S. in glass engineering and a B.S. in ceramic engineering from Alfred University. DEANNA J. RICHARDS is senior program officer with the National Academy of Engineering and directs the Academy's Technology and Environment program.

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Before joining the Academy in 1990, she was an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and in 1989, as an American Association for the Advancement of Sciences Environmental Sciences and Engineering Fellow she worked on remedy selection criteria at Superfund sites. She has several articles published on her engineering research work on advanced biological wastewater treatment systems. Richards, a registered engineer, has also done engineering consulting in Malaysia and the United States. Richards received her B.S. degree in civil engineering from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees, also in civil engineering, from the University of Pennsylvania. JANINE C. SEKUTOWSKI is a technical manager in the Environmental and Materials Technology Department, AT&T Bell Laboratories. Her group is responsible for research to reduce the environmental impact of AT&T's products and manufacturing operations. She joined AT&T in 1979 as a member of technical staff at the Western Electric Engineering Research Center. She became a supervisor in 1982 and has worked in various areas of manufacturing technology, such as plastics processing and interconnection technology. Sekutowski has a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Kent State University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in inorganic chemistry from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Following her formal academic training, she had a postdoctoral appointment at the Max Planck Institut für Kohlenforschung in Mulheim a.d. Ruhr, Germany, and at Texas A&M University, where she was also a chemistry instructor. Sekutowski has been the author or coauthor of more than 20 publications on her academic and industrial work. WALTER R. STAHEL is a director of the Product-Life Institute in Geneva, and deputy secretary general of the International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics. His independent business consulting interests are in utilization-related technologies such as reuse, repair, reconditioning, and technological upgrading of components, goods, and systems; risk management and insurance; and regional economic development. For several years he worked as a private architect in the United Kingdom and Switzerland and in 1973 joined the Battelle Geneva Research Center as project manager in applied economics for business strategies and feasibility studies. In 1979 he became personal assistant to the chief executive officer of a holding company with worldwide activities in railway maintenance, shipping, and real estate. Stahel has authored books and articles on strategies for the improved use of resources and job creation. In 1978 he was awarded a first prize in a German competition on job creation and in 1982 was a recipient of the U.S. Mitchell-Prize for his paper on "The Product-Life Factor." Stahel is an alumnus of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, where he received a diploma in architecture and town planning. REBECCA TODD is a member of the accounting faculty of the Stem School of

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems New York University. She received her Ph.D. degree in business from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1986. Her interests include the information content in financial information and the development of improved analysis tools to enhance the financial decision making of managers, financial analysts, and investors. Todd's current research is directed toward developing accounting and analysis tools to enable managers to better capture and trace environmental costs. She teaches several courses in financial statement analysis for manufacturing firms, financial institutions, and cross-border firms in the MBA program at the Stern School. She is a chartered financial analyst and teaches financial statement analysis in candidate curriculum programs in the United States, Europe, and the Far East. MICHAEL A. TOMAN is a senior fellow at Resources for the Future, a nonprofit and nonadvocacy research organization in Washington, D.C., that specializes in a variety of issues relating to natural resources and the environment. He also is a professional lecturer at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, where his teaching responsibilities cover the economics of natural resources and environment. Toman received his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Rochester, with earlier degrees in economics and mathematics from Indiana University and Brown University. He is the coauthor of two books published by Resources for the Future and is the author or coauthor of more than 30 scholarly and popular publications covering a number of topics related to energy, public utilities, and the environment. MATTHEW WEINBERG is an analyst with the Energy and Materials Program at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He recently completed a study for the House Committees on Science, Space, and Technology and on Energy and Commerce, examining the environmental implications of trends in materials technology and product design. Before coming to OTA in 1990, Weinberg spent six years in the semiconductor industry, where he received five patents in the area of microelectronic devices. He received B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering in 1983 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His graduate work focused on nonequilibrium effects in superconducting materials.

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