Index

A

Accounting practice

control system components and, 196-197

engineering/manufacturing knowledge in, 191,193, 200

environmental costs in, 15, 191, 234

environmentally sensitive, 199-200

in international agreements, 113

organizational barriers to environmental sensitivity in, 193-196

public access to information, 194

role of, 193

sustainability accounts in, 234

traditional, 197-199

in waste reduction strategies, 191-193

Air Force Pollution Prevention Program

education/training in, 153-154

funding, 152

green weapon systems, 159-163

incentives for compliance, 154-155

information needs, 163

objectives, 151-153, 163-164

origins, 149-151

ozone-depleting chemicals in, 149, 152, 160

procedural obstacles, 159-160

purchasing procedures, 155-159, 160-163

Antitrust law, 5, 103, 131 n. 12

Automobile industry

catalytic converter technology, 36

current recycling practice, 4, 165-167

environmental regulation for, 169-170

in functionality economy, 16

life cycle analysis, 182t

life cycle analysis and recycling in, 169

mandatory recycling of used autos, 127

plastics recycling, 168

B

Barcelona Convention, 114

Bell Telephone System, 16

Bottle bills, 115

C

Cadmium, 73-74

Carbon dioxide, 8, 37 n.4

economic modeling of future emissions, 66



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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Index A Accounting practice control system components and, 196-197 engineering/manufacturing knowledge in, 191,193, 200 environmental costs in, 15, 191, 234 environmentally sensitive, 199-200 in international agreements, 113 organizational barriers to environmental sensitivity in, 193-196 public access to information, 194 role of, 193 sustainability accounts in, 234 traditional, 197-199 in waste reduction strategies, 191-193 Air Force Pollution Prevention Program education/training in, 153-154 funding, 152 green weapon systems, 159-163 incentives for compliance, 154-155 information needs, 163 objectives, 151-153, 163-164 origins, 149-151 ozone-depleting chemicals in, 149, 152, 160 procedural obstacles, 159-160 purchasing procedures, 155-159, 160-163 Antitrust law, 5, 103, 131 n. 12 Automobile industry catalytic converter technology, 36 current recycling practice, 4, 165-167 environmental regulation for, 169-170 in functionality economy, 16 life cycle analysis, 182t life cycle analysis and recycling in, 169 mandatory recycling of used autos, 127 plastics recycling, 168 B Barcelona Convention, 114 Bell Telephone System, 16 Bottle bills, 115 C Cadmium, 73-74 Carbon dioxide, 8, 37 n.4 economic modeling of future emissions, 66

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems in fossil fuel consumption, 40-41, 42-43, 55-56 non-energy production sources, 57 n.1 rate of increase, 123 world fossil fuel emissions, 54 Chemical engineering design paradigms, 218-220, 223-225 Chlorofluorocarbons, 33-34, 37 n.4, 114, 142, 210-211 Chromium chromated coatings, 209-210 in industrial waste stream, 73-74 Citizen's Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes, 120 n.1 Clean Air Act, 43, 102, 104-105, 210 Closed-system material flow, 25-27 Coal energy, 36, 55-56 methane emissions, 42 Coalition of Northeastern Governors, 206 Commerce, Department of, 129 Concurrent engineering, 11, 12 Consumer protection laws, 5 Consumerism, environmental, 140, 165 in government purchasing, 163 in product design process, 173 Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources, 114 Copper, recoverability, 78 Cross-functional teams, 12, 204 D Defense, Department of, 149, 150-151, 160 Deforestation, 57 n.1 Design for Environment, 14-15 AT&T telephone, case study, 171-177 benefits to industry, 140 in developing nations, 63 in electronics industry, 209, 212-213 goals of, 139, 204, 208 implementation, 139-140, 141-146 in international environmental law, 114 in life cycle analysis, 141, 201 materials flows in, 138-139 matrix system, 141, 142-144, 147 pollution prevention in, 98 product destination and, 171-172 system testing, 146-147 as systems approach, 140-141 vs. pollution prevention, 140 Design for X, 11, 139, 171, 204-205 Developing nations Design for Environment practices in, 63 energy use in, 46, 49-50 in global energy system evolution, 57, 62-63 technology transfer agreements, 115 transition to energy sustainability, 8, 40 Dissipative loss, 31 Draft Ministerial Declaration for the Second World Climate Conference , 114 E Earth, evolution as system, 27-28 Economic Summit of Industrialized Nations (1990), 114 Economic theory case studies in modeling of, 64-65 intergenerational equity in, 91-92 motivation for pollution prevention, 100-107 role of, 61-62 safe minimum standard in, 93-97 sustainability accounts in, 234 utilization-oriented economy, 181-190 valuation in industrial vs. service economy, 178 Educational system engineering curriculum, 225-226 in industrial ecosystem evolution, 16-17 role in industrial ecology, 230, 237-239 Electrification, 48-49, 55 Electronics industry chlorofluorocarbons in, 210-211 chromated coatings in, 209-210 Design for Environment in, 209, 212-213 structure, 208 technological development in, 208-209 Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, 117 Energy, Department of, 129

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Energy flows in assessing industrial evolution, 6 in closed cycle of materials flows, 26 consumption in industrialized nations, 44-45, 46 fossil fuel, 38 in global economics, 46-47 global system, rational evolution of, 56-57 in industrial metabolism model, 23-25 price shocks, 45-46 primary consumption vs. productivity of consumption, 44-45 productivity trends, 45-47 social opposition to energy consumption, 47-48 transition to sustainability, 6-8, 17-18 Energy technology trends, 48-50 Environmental Protection Agency, 5, 99, 100, 111, 149, 211 regulatory approach, 104, 105-106, 129, 194 Equilibrium models, economic, 61-62 F Federal Facility Compliance Act, 155 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 105 Fossil fuels benefit-pollution comparison, 39-40, 43 consumption in developing nations, 46 dissipative materials flows, 40-43 estimated current consumption, 54 estimated future consumption, 54-55 estimated supply, 50-53, 55 historical social benefits in use of, 43-44 policy questions, 38-39 social opposition to use of, 47-48 terminology, 38 in transition to sustainability, 6-8, 8-39, 55-57 U.S. consumption, 41, 54 use in developing nations, 40 Franklin, Benjamin, 220 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 118-119 General Services Administration, 156 Germany, 109, 115, 127, 168, 183, 206, 207 Global warming, 48, 49, 56, 57 n.2 international agreements, 114 Greenhouse gases, 8, 37 n.4, 40-42, 43, 47, 49, 55-56, 57 n.2 H Hazardous waste data collection, 70-72 disposal cost, 149, 154-155 lead dross as, 5, 211-212 military, 150-151, 151-152, 154-155 Hydrogen, as energy source, 48, 56 I Industrial ecology analytical needs, 233-235 in automobile industry, 170 biological metaphor, 36-37 n.1, 130-131 n.2 definition, 130-131 n.2, 229 economic case studies, 64-65 economic growth requirements and, 90, 91 economic theory for, 61-62, 63-64 government structure and implementation of, 129-130 implementation, 125-126, 138, 230 implications for private sector, 201-207 information needs, 233 international environmental law and, 109-110 metasystem model, 231-233 principles of, 137-138 research topics, 235-237 role of university in, 16-17, 230, 237-239 social barriers to, 124-125 social context of, 9-11

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems sustainable development and, 5-6 as systems approach, 3-6, 17-18, 108, 124 technological development in, 229 theoretical framework, 229-230 Industrial ecosystem assessing materials flows in, 9 barriers to evolution of, 4-5, 18, 124-125, 205-206 biological metaphor, 2, 3, 23, 25 current assessment, 8, 205-206 engineering profession in, 226 evolutionary stages, 6, 8 incentives for corporate participation in improving, 206-207 in natural ecosystem, 28, 123 primary energy consumption vs. productivity in assessing, 44 system boundaries, 1-2 Industrial metabolism, 229 concept, 23-25 energy flows in, 26 materials flows in, 25-28 measures of, 31-35 policy implications of, as holistic perspective, 35-36 research needs, 236 role of, 218 system boundaries, 25 Information needs Air Force Pollution Prevention Program, 163 for assessment of system sustainability, 34-35 chemical reaction engineering, 224-225 defining environmental preferability, 14 in Design for Environment process, 142-143 environmental accounting, 192, 193, 200 environmental monitoring, 235, 237 environmental policymaking, 130 industrial ecology, 233, 235-237 management information and control systems, 196-197 in materials/processes comparisons, 171 materials recovery in industrial waste flows, 4-5, 18 resource substitutability, 96, 97 technological decision-making, 231-233 university-level research, 17, 233-237 waste streams, 80 Input-output analysis data sources, 61, 62 role of, 61, 63-64, 65, 233-234 Intergenerational equity, 91-92, 146-147 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 41, 57 n.1 n.2 International environmental law building consensus for, 111-112 command and control approach in, 110-111 eco-labeling in, 116-117 ecosystems approach in, 116 enforcement mechanisms, 119 environmental assessments in, 117-118 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 118-119 impediments to systems approach in, 118-120 incentives in, 115 industrial ecology and, 109-110 internalizing environmental costs in, 112-113 market-based approaches in, 110-111 on pollution prevention, 114 precautionary principle in, 113-114 recycling and reuse in, 114-115 technology transfer in, 115-116 International implications, 8, 10, 39, 40 energy consumption, 46 resource substitutability, 92-93 U.S. environmental management, 226 J Japan, 207 energy consumption, 44, 45, 46, 54 environmental governance in, 129-130 L Landfill operations, 35, 37 n.5 automobile recycling residue in, 166-167 trends, 158-159

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Lead dross recycling, 5, 211-212 in gasoline, 34 in industrial waste stream, 73-78 in materials flow model, 9 solder alternatives in circuit boards, 146 Legal issues. See also International environmental law; Regulatory action antitrust law, 5, 103, 131 n.12 consumer protection laws, 5 role of law in pollution prevention, 108-109, 120 Life cycle analysis, 13-15 in AT&T telephone design, 171-172 automobile recycling and, 169 implementation, 201-202 materials flows in industrial metabolism, 25-28 research needs, 236 role of, 141, 205, 234 London Declaration of Second North Sea Conference, 114 London Dumping Convention, 116 M Market forces in environmental regulation, 9, 10, 36, 47 global energy economies, 46-47 in industrial ecology models, 235 in industrial metabolism model, 23-25 in international environmental law, 110-111 intra-industry cooperation, 4-5, 12, 102-103, 127 materials recovery and, 4-5, 18 paper recycling, 4 reuse vs. recycling, 181-186 selling clean technologies, 226 in social cost vs. resource substitutability model, 94-95, 96 in utilization-oriented economy, 15-16, 128-129, 181-190 in voluntary pollution prevention, 100-104, 108 MARPOL Convention, 116 Material productivity, 9, 34 Materials flows. See also Recycling; Waste flows anthropogenic nutrient fluxes, 28, 29t in assessing industrial evolution, 6, 8 in assessing sustainability, 31-35 assessment in systems, 9 in automobile manufacturing/recycling, 165-169 in chemical engineering design paradigms, 218-220, 223-225 closed vs. open systems, 25-27 differentiating products in, 138-139 in fossil fuel use, 40-43 four-box model, 26-27 in industrial metabolism, 23-28, 31-35 natural vs. anthropogenic, 123 in sustainable development, 31 in transition to sustainable development, 15-16, 17-18 types of materials in industrial systems, 31-32 zero discharge, 8 Maximum achievable control technology, 105 Mercury, 130 Metal(s) anthropogenic production, 123 in assessing materials flows, 9 in assessing system sustainability, 31, 34 atmospheric emissions of trace metals, 28, 30t automobile recyclability, 165-167 emissions in fossil fuel consumption, 42, 54, 55 waste flow data, 72-78, 80-88 waste stream concentrations in recyclability, 78-80 Methane, 123 fossil fuel emissions, 37 n.4, 42 Military hardware design specifications, 13, 140 green weaponry, 14, 140, 150-151, 159-163 hazardous waste generation and, 150-151, 151-152

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 114, 115, 149, 159, 210 Municipal solid waste annual U.S. production. 69 automobile recycling residue as percentage of, 166-167 metals in, 74 N National Hazardous Waste Survey, 70, 71, 72, 80 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, 106 Natural ecosystem evolution of Earth as system, 27-28 industrial ecology and, 2, 3, 123 industrial organization as biological organism, 25 Nitrogen oxides, 41, 43, 54 economic modeling of future emissions, 67t Nuclear energy technologies, 48-49, 54, 56 O Oil crises, 45, 46, 47, 50 Old growth forests, 95 OPEC, 45 Open-system material flow, 25-27 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development energy use in, 44, 45, 50 environmental accounting, 113 Our Common Future. 65, 90, 228 Ozone-depleting chemicals, military use of, 149, 152, 160 P Paper/paper products economic viability of recycling, 4 regulatory control, 105-106 vs. reusable products, 1 Pesticides, 128 Plastics, in automobile recycling, 168 Pollution prevention. See also Air Force Pollution Prevention Program atmospheric emissions of trace metals, 28, 30t chemical engineering design paradigm, 223-225 conceptual development, 98, 137, 201, 222-225 economics of voluntary compliance, 100-104, 108 education/training courses, 153-154, 225-226 engineering design in, 223, 225-226 future needs, 63 industry benefits, 98-99 international law mechanisms, 110-118 intra-industry cooperation, 102-103, 127 as market value, 10 by medium, 35, 105 nitrogen oxides in, 43 regulatory solutions, 107 risk assessment and, 99 role of law in, 108-109, 120 sulfur oxides in, 43 in systems approach, 17-18, 35-36, 137 taxation incentives for, 10-11 via enforcement, 106-107 via permitting, 106-107 vs. historical benefits of fossil fuels, 39-40, 43-44 Pollution Prevention Act, 105, 109 Postconsumer waste, 69, 70-72 Private sector. See also Accounting practice benefits of Design for Environment, 140 benefits of pollution prevention for, 98-99 economic motivation for pollution prevention, 100-104 environmental leadership by management, 203 in evolution of industrial ecosystems, 11-13 industrial organization as biological organism, 25 industrial technology and, 201-207

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems in international environmental law development, 111-112 intra-industry cooperation, 4-5, 12, 102-103, 127 life cycle assessments in economic decisions, 13-15, 141 motivation of, research needs on, 236- 237 organizational structure of firms, 37 n.8 total environmental cost accounting, 15 in utilization-oriented economy, 15-16, 128-129, 181-183 voluntary initiatives vs. government regulation, 47, 100 Product design/development. See also Design for Environment automobile recyclability, 167-170 consumer interest in green products, 140 customer specifications in, 13, 140 engineering education and, 16-17, 225-226 engineering profession in, 217-218 environmental assessment methodology, 172-176 environmental factors in, 11, 12-13 geographic impacts, 146 government intervention, 125 in industrial ecology concept, 126 intergenerational considerations, 146-147 life cycle assessment in, 13-15, 141 participants in, 205 product complexity/materials and, 138-139 supplier management systems in, 12-13, 142, 155-156 telephone, case study, 171-177 total environmental cost in, 15, 125-126 in utilization-oriented economy, 188 Product labeling, 116-117 Productivity of materials, 9, 34 R Reaction products, 222 Recycling in Air Force Pollution Prevention Program, 159 in assessing industrial evolution, 6, 8 in assessing system sustainability, 31, 34 assessment of environmental cost in, 172-173 in automobile industry, 165-167 closed loop model, 179-183 complexity of product design and, 138-139 concentration in waste stream and, 78-80, 88 as conclusion of materials flow, 31 information needs, 4, 18 international agreements, 114-115 of lead waste, 73, 74-78, 211-212 liability concept in, 181-186 market force barriers to, 4-5, 18 optimizing use of goods vs., 183-186, 189-190 parts labeling in manufacturing process, 167, 174 plastics, 168 regulatory barriers to, 5, 18 remanufacturing, 129, 132 n.16, 166 take-back regulations, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 183, 206, 207 telephone, 176 waste flows in systems approach, 3-4, 17-18 Regulatory action automobile industry and, 169-170 chlorofluorocarbons in electronics industry, 210-211 command-and-control approach, 104, 109, 110-111, 126, 138, 212, 213 in corporate accounting, 194 economics of voluntary pollution prevention and, 101-104, 108 encouraging use vs. production of goods, 128-129 federal approaches, 104-107, 129 government purchasing procedure as, 155-158 hazardous classification of lead dross, 5, 211-212 in holistic perspective, 35-36 indications for, 10, 47, 103-104 in industrial ecology models, 235

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems in industrial metabolism perspective, 35-36 market orientation of, 9, 10, 125-126 as obstacle to industrial ecosystem evolution, 5, 10, 18, 47, 209, 212-213 on packaging, 206 product complexity and, 139 product design process, 125 in promoting intra-industry cooperation, 127 prospects, 107 in social cost vs. resource substitutability model, 94-95 state level, 104 structure of government and, 129-130 systems approach in, 126-128, 129-130 take-back regulations for industry, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 206, 207 technical knowledge in, 212-213 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 5, 71, 106, 131 n.11, 211 Rio Declaration, 113 S Safe minimum standard, 93-97 Sherwood diagram, 69-70, 78, 88 Service economy, valuation in, 178 Social values barriers to ecological systems perspective, 124-125 ecological-economic linkages needed in, 124 in industrial ecology, 9-11 opposition to energy consumption, 47-48 pollution vs., in fossil fuel use, 39-40, 43-44 resource substitutability and, in limiting scenarios, 10, 93-97 technological development and, 220-222 Solar energy, 48, 49 Steady-state systems, 26. See also Sustainable systems Structural economics, 61, 62, 64 Substitutability of resources, 37 n.7, 91, 92-93 social costs and, in limiting scenarios, 10, 93-97 Sulfur anthropogenic emissions, 41-42 waste flow of, 32-33 Sulfur oxides, 41, 43, 54 economic modeling of future emissions, 66 Summit of the Arch, 114 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 71 Sustainability economic modeling, 234 industrial ecology and, 5-6 intergenerational equity calculations, 91-92, 146-147 materials flows in assessment of, 31-35 meaning of, 5, 90-91, 228 research needs, 236 resource substitution for, 90-91, 92-93 technological change for, 228-229 transition to, 6-8, 15-16, 17-18, 38-39, 55-57, 237-239 T Take-back regulations, 127-128, 129, 139, 168, 183, 206, 207 Taxation to encourage evolution of industrial ecosystems, 10-11, 126 energy use and, 45-46, 47 Taylor, Frederick, 37 n.8 Technological development attitudes toward, 220-222 research needs, 237 role of, 228-229 Telephone design, case study of, 171-177 Thoreau, Henry David, 220-221 Total quality management, 11, 12, 205, 211 Toxic Release Inventory, 70, 71 Toxic Substances Control Act, 105 Treaty on European Union, 114

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The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems U United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 62, 64, 99, 113-114, 228 Utilization-oriented economy, 181-190 V Volatile organic compounds, 41, 42, 132 n.18 W Waste flows. See also Materials flows of chlorofluorocarbons, 33 concentration in, and recyclability of metals, 78-80, 88 current estimates, 69 data sources, 70-71, 72, 80 estimating resource values in, 72 fast food industry, 131 n. 10 industrial, 40-41, 71-72 lead in, 9 metals in, 73-78 in military settings, 152, 154-155 recoverable materials in, 69 recycle/reuse loops, 179-183 of sulfur, 32 in systems approach, 3-4 waste reduction strategies, 178-179 Waste sinks, 2 Wetlands, 95 World Charter for Nature, 114 World Commission on Environment and Development, 90, 228 World Energy Council, 41 Z Zero discharge, 8, 100, 223