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The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

This volume has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering report review process. The interpretations and conclusions expressed in the symposium papers are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering.

Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the W. M. Keck Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and the National Academy of Engineering Technology Agenda Program.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The greening of industrial ecosystems / Braden R. Allenby and Deanna J. Richards, editors.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-04937-7

1. Environmental sciences. 2. Factory and trade waste. 3. Environmental policy. 4. Conservation of natural resources. I. Allenby, Braden R. II. Richards, Deanna J.

GE105.G74 1994 93-46753

363.73'1—dc20 CIP

Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Cover art: Spinozza, mixed media on paper, courtesy of the artist, Karen Vogel, Washington, D.C.

This book is printed on recycled paper.

Printed in the United States of America

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