Index

A

Abiotic processes

conservative tracers of, 79

in contaminant mass loss, 85-87

modeling, 8, 85-87

Adaptation

as evidence of bioremediation, 7, 73

by native organisms, 24

Aeration systems, 51-53

Aerobic respiration

modeling, 155

oxygen delivery for, 144-146

process, 18-20

Agricultural areas, 42

Air sparging, 57-59, 124-125, 126, 127

definition, 187

monitoring conservative tracers in, 79-80

monitoring electron acceptor uptake in, 79

oxygen delivery via, 144-145

Alcohols, 32

Alkylbenzenes, 161-162

Anaerobic respiration, 19, 20-21, 187

measuring byproducts of, 75-76

process innovations, 132

Aquifer

bioremediation systems for, 53-59

clogging, 28, 138-139

definition, 187

minerals in, 41

monitoring of, 137-140

permeability, 138-139

preparation for bioremediation, 140-141

Aromatic hydrocarbons, 187

B

Bacteria measurement

bacterial activity, rates of, 70-73

biogeography, 113-114

fatty acid analysis, 69-70

field evaluation, 67-70

metabolic adaptation, 73

microscopic counting, 68

oligonucleotide probes, 69

sample selection, 67-68, 89-90



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Index A Abiotic processes conservative tracers of, 79 in contaminant mass loss, 85-87 modeling, 8, 85-87 Adaptation as evidence of bioremediation, 7, 73 by native organisms, 24 Aeration systems, 51-53 Aerobic respiration modeling, 155 oxygen delivery for, 144-146 process, 18-20 Agricultural areas, 42 Air sparging, 57-59, 124-125, 126, 127 definition, 187 monitoring conservative tracers in, 79-80 monitoring electron acceptor uptake in, 79 oxygen delivery via, 144-145 Alcohols, 32 Alkylbenzenes, 161-162 Anaerobic respiration, 19, 20-21, 187 measuring byproducts of, 75-76 process innovations, 132 Aquifer bioremediation systems for, 53-59 clogging, 28, 138-139 definition, 187 minerals in, 41 monitoring of, 137-140 permeability, 138-139 preparation for bioremediation, 140-141 Aromatic hydrocarbons, 187 B Bacteria measurement bacterial activity, rates of, 70-73 biogeography, 113-114 fatty acid analysis, 69-70 field evaluation, 67-70 metabolic adaptation, 73 microscopic counting, 68 oligonucleotide probes, 69 sample selection, 67-68, 89-90

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Baseline conditions, 65-67 Benzene, 32 See also BTEX Bioaugmentation, 17, 131, 188 Biocurtain, 23, 188 Biodiversity, 111-112 Biofilm kinetics, 154-155 Biological reaction rate models, 83-84 BIOPLUME model, 156-158 Biopolishing, 132 Bioremediation. See In situ bioremediation BTEX (Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes), 32, 70, 128, 188 conventional cleanup approaches, 105 engineered bioremediation of, case example, 71-72 estimate of oil/water partitioning, 164-166 estimating distribution of, 164 extent of problem with, 104-105 intrinsic bioremediation of, 105-106 levels of intrinsic attenuation of, 106-108 oily-phase residual, 170-171 practicality of bioremediation for, 104 remediation in ground water, case example, 174 remediation of subsurface material, case example, 175-178 research needs in bioremediation of, 108 C Carbon-13/14 labeling, 70-72, 80, 149 Carbon isotopes, 7, 74-75 Carbon-nitrogen-phosphorous ratio, 117 Carbonates, in aquifer matrix, 41 Chlorocatechols, 27 Coal tar, remediation of, 149 Cometabolism, 20, 21-22, 188 dead-end products from, 27-28 in ecological perspective, 114, 115 principles of, 143 Commercial bioremediation growth of, 13 standards of practice for, 61-62 status of, 129 Complexing agents, 26, 188-189 Conservative tracers, 79-80, 189 Contaminants combined remediation strategies for, 126-127 designing bioremediation strategy for, 49-50 estimating distribution in ground water, 164 estimating mass of, 161-163 halogenated, 22, 33-34, 128-129 incomplete degradation of, 27-28 low concentrations of, 25-26 metals, 20-21, 23, 26, 34-35 microbial demobilization of, 22-23 microbial destruction of, 17-22, 48 mobilization of, 26 modeling subsurface behavior of, 81-88 multiple, 27, 128 nitroaromatics, 34 plume containment, 141 prevalence, 29 sequestering of, 25-26 source removal, 140 subsurface spreading of, 49 susceptibility to bioremediation, 2-3, 29-35 toxicity to microorganisms, 26-27 See also Petroleum products Conventional cleanup technologies for BTEX, 15 excavation-and-incineration, 13 integrated with bioremediation, 60-61, 126-127 limitations of, 12, 48 in preparation for bioremediation, 139 pump-and-treat methods, 12-13, 48, 61, 140, 193 Core samples, handling of, 163

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Cost of remediation of aromatic compounds, 104-105 time as factor in, 48 Creosote, 32 D Dead-end products, 27-28 Demobilization of contaminants, 22-23 Demonstration projects, evaluation of, 64 Diauxy, 27, 189 Dichloroethylene, 78 E Ecological perspective, 110-111 biogeography, 113-114 biological specificity in, 111-112 feasibility evaluation in, 116-119 microbial diversity, 112-113 microbial natural selection in, 114-115 successful bioremediation in, 119 Education/training, recommendations for, 10-11, 95 Electron acceptor, 18, 19, 189 air injection for, 57-59 in bioremediation mechanics, 142, 144 in ecological perspective, 119 measuring concentration of, 75 measuring uptake of, 79 nitrate as, 124 in water circulation systems, 41-42, 57 Electron donor in bioremediation mechanics, 142, 144 definition, 18, 19, 189 inorganic compound as, 21 in reductive dehalogenation, 22 Engineered bioremediation air injection systems in, 57-59 definition, 2, 20, 189 determining baseline conditions, 65-67 followed by intrinsic bioremediation, 61 indications for, 3-4, 50 process innovations, 4, 53 proving, in case example, 71-72 site conditions for, 3, 39-41 systems for, 4 for unsaturated soils, 50-53 vs. intrinsic bioremediation, 35 water circulation systems in, 53-57 Esters, 32 Ethers, 32 Ethylbenzene, 32 See also BTEX Ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 26 Evaluation of bioremediation of carbon-nitrogen-phosphorous ratio, 117 case examples, 66-67, 71-72, 77, 86, 148-150 difficulty in, 14, 148 ecological perspective in feasibility studies, 116-119 evidence for, 5-6 feasibility studies, 142 field experiments for, 7-8 field measurements for, 6-7 gas surveys in, 138 individual site differences and, 88 in intrinsic bioremediation, 59-60 limitations, 9, 88-90, 148 modeling techniques for, 8-9, 80-88, 153, 154 monitoring-well placement in, 138, 139, 181-182 as multidisciplinary activity, 89 principles of, 63-65, 139-140 protocols for, 94 of rate-limiting factors, 117-119 regulatory, 99-103 research needs in, 10, 131-132

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of residual oily-phase hydrocarbons, 170-171 role of, 91, 93-94 See also Field evaluation; Measurement F Fatty acid analysis, 69-70 Fermentation, 19, 21, 190 Field evaluation of bacterial adaptation, 73 byproducts of anaerobic activity in, 75-76 carbon isotope ratios for, 74-75 of contaminant distribution, 164 of co-oxidation of trichloroethylene, 129 degradable/nondegradable substance ratio in, 76-78 difficulty of, 63-64, 161 of electron acceptor concentration, 75 electron acceptor uptake in, 79 establishing baseline conditions for, 65-67 evidence collection for, 6 handling core samples for, 163 of hydrocarbon concentration in ground water, 178 of inorganic carbon concentration, 73-74 intermediary metabolites in, 76 labeling contaminants in, 80 laboratory microcosms for, 70-73 monitoring conservative tracers in, 79-80 need for, 64-65 of number of bacteria, 67-70 of oil/water partitioning, 164-166 of polychlorinated biphenyls, 77 of postbioremediation processes, 178-181 of protozoa, 70 of rate of bacterial activity, 70-73 sample selection for, 67-68, 89-90 spatial heterogeneity in, 171-173 stimulating bacteria in subsites for, 78 techniques, 6-7, 148-150 of total contaminant mass, 161-163 See also Evaluation Flow models, 8-9 estimating recirculated volume in, 164 multiphase, 82 saturated, 81-82 Free product recovery, 60, 190 G Gas chromatography, 73, 190 Gasoline, 32, 143 Genetic engineering, 131, 190 Geochemical models, 82-83 Ground water air injection systems for, 57-59 bacteriological samples from, 67-68 circulation systems, 53-57 engineered bioremediation for, 4 estimating contaminant concentration in, 164-166 estimating contaminant distribution in, 164 estimating recirculated volume in, 164 evaluating processes in, 88-89 in flow models, 81-84 in intrinsic bioremediation, 41-42 tracer tests for, 138 Growth substrates, 114-116 H Halogenated aliphatics, 33 Halogenated aromatics, 34 Halogenated compounds, 22, 33-34, 128-129 Headspace analysis, 163, 182 Helium, as conservative tracer, 79 Hexachlorocyclohexane, 78 Hudson River, 77, 92 Hydraulic conductivity, 39, 190

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Hydrocarbon. See Petroleum products Hydrogen peroxide in bioremediation mechanics, 145-146 in controlling bioremediation, 28 development of, in bioremediation, 123-124 limitations of, 145-146 in water circulation system, 53 I In situ bioremediation advantages of, 48-49 bacterial measures as evidence of, 65-78 biodiversity and, 112-113 chemical changes in ground water in, 23-24 as commercial industry, 13, 61-62, 129 complicating factors in, 25-28 contaminants susceptible to, 29-35 current status of, 11, 29, 47-48, 121-122, 125-127 defining success in, 14, 160, 169-170 determinants of success in, 49, 116-119, 136, 137, 150 ecological perspective of, 110-111 educational recommendations for, 10-11, 95-96 effect on native organisms, 24-25 engineered, 2, 3-4, 20, 35, 39-41, 50-59, 61, 65-67, 71-72, 189 environments amenable to, 35-43 evaluation of, 5-9, 63-90 evolution of, 122-125 first application of, 3, 47, 122 good practices in, 61-62 integrated with nonbiological technologies, 5, 60-61, 126-127 intrinsic, 2, 3, 4, 20, 35-39, 41-42, 59-60, 105-108, 191 limitations of, 29-32, 127-130, 153-154 measuring microbial action as evidence of, 78-80 multidisciplinary nature of, 9, 13-14, 44-46 natural selection and, 114-115, 119 preparation for, 140-141 principles of, 2-3, 49-50, 136-137 prospects for, 9-10, 95-96, 108, 127-133 proving, 63-65 regulatory assessment of proposal for, 99-103 research recommendations for, 10, 94-95 role of evaluation in, 91, 93-94 role of microbes in, 16-17 strategy selection, 49-50 technical developments in, 92-93 vs. other technologies, 12-13, 48-49 INT activity test, 68 Intrinsic bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons, 105-106 of crude oil spill, case example, 37-38 definition of, 2, 20, 191 following engineered bioremediation, 61 indications for, 4 levels of attenuation in, 106-108 limitations of, 4, 59-60 requirements for, 35-39, 59-60 site conditions for, 3, 39, 41-42 vs. engineered bioremediation, 35 Intrinsic permeability, 39, 138-139, 191 Isotope fractionation, 74-75, 191 J Jet fuel, evaluating bioremediation of, 149-150 K Ketones, 32

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L Labeling of contaminants, 8, 80 Laboratory microcosms, 70-73 Ligands. See Complexing agents M Measurement of anaerobic activity, 75-76 of bacterial activity, 70-73 of bacterial population, 67-70 of contaminant mass loss, 85-87 of degradable/nondegradable substance ratio, 76-78 establishing baseline conditions for, 65-67 interdisciplinary integration in, 89 of labeled contaminants, 80 of metabolic byproducts, 7 of microbiological field activity, 7-8, 23-24 of microbiological field samples, 6-7, 65-67 modeling techniques for, 8-9 of protozoa, 70 research needs in, 10 of subsurface hydrogeochemical properties, 42 See also Bacteria measurement Metals, 34-35 in anaerobic respiration, 20-21 mobilization of, 26 precipitation of, microorganisms for, 23 Methanotrophs, 129 Microbial action adaptation and, 7, 24, 73 advances in understanding of, 92 aerobic stimulation of, 144-146 air sparging for, 57-59 alternate substrates for, 143 aquifer clogging from, 28, 138-139 availability of contaminants for, 25-28 basic metabolism in, 17-20 biological specificity in, 111-112 biostimulation of, 79, 92-93, 141-147 changes in ground water chemistry from, 23-24 chemical indicators of, 23-25 in demobilizing contaminants, 22-23 description of, in bioremediation proposal, 101-102 in destroying contaminants, 17-22 determinants of, in bioremediation, 16, 147 in evaluating bioremediation, 5-6, 63, 64 evidence of, 67-70 field evaluation of, 6-8, 65, 78-80 genetic engineering for, 131 hydrogen peroxide as oxygen source for, 123-124 incomplete degradation of contaminant by, 27-28 inorganic nutrients for, 146-147 intermediate metabolite formation in, 76 intrinsic bioremediation requirements for, 59-60 intrinsic hydrocarbon biodegradation by, 105-106 laboratory breeding for, 131 limits to, 128-129 measuring rate of, 70-73 on metals, 34-35 in multiple-contaminant environment, 27, 128 nutrient delivery for, 144 nutrients in water circulation for, 54-57 nutritional requirements for, 22 predator growth from, 25 prevented by toxicity of contaminant, 26-27 principles of, in bioremediation, 142-143 reaction rate models of, 83-84 stability in, and biodiversity, 112-113 stimulants for, 92-93

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See also Bacteria measurement Modeling techniques biodegradation effects in, 82 biofilm kinetics, 154-155 biological reaction rate models, 83-84 BIOPLUME model, 156-158 for bioremediation evaluation, 8-9, 80-81 combining, 84 direct methods, 87-88 evolution of, 154-155 geochemical models, 82-83 in intrinsic bioremediation, 59 limitations of, 88 measuring mass loss in, 85-87 multiphase flow models, 82 research needs for, 10, 94-95 role of, 80-81, 84-85 saturated flow models, 81-82 sorption effects in, 81-82 types of, 81-84, 154 Moffett Naval Air Station, 66-67 Most-probable-number measures, 69, 70 Multiphase flow models, 82 N Natural gas, 86 Natural selection, 114-115, 119 Nitrate, 103 as electron acceptor, 118, 124 Nitroaromatic compounds, 34, 127 Nonaqueous-phase formation, 192 contaminants susceptible to, 29-32 flow characteristics and, 39-41 in multiphase flow models, 82 as obstacle to bioremediation, 25, 29-30 removal, before bioremediation, 140 strategies for overcoming, 26 Nutrients in air sparging, 58 delivery of, 144 in water circulation, 54-57 O Octadecane, 76-78 Oligonucleotide probes, 69, 192 Oxidation-reduction reaction, 18 P Pentachlorophenol, 34 Perchloroethylene, 129 Pesticides, 34, 127 Petroleum products degradable/nondegradable substances in bioremediation of, 76-78 estimating ground water concentration of, 178 first bioremediation application to, 3 intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil spill, 37-38 proving bioremediation of, 71-72 spatial heterogeneity in bioremediation of, 171-173 susceptibility to bioremediation, 2, 32 types of, 32 See also BTEX Phosphates in controlling hydrogen peroxide reactions, 145 effects of, on bioremediation rate, 146 Phytane, 76-78 Plume containment, 141 evaluation of, 170 levels of intrinsic attenuation in, 106-108 modeling of, 155 postbioremediation, 178-182 Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 127 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 34, 70, 127 anaerobic dechlorination of, 76, 92 bioremediation of, case example, 77 dehalogenation of, 129

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 32, 157 Polynuclear aromatics, 149 Primary substrates, 18, 19, 142-143, 192 in cometabolism, 115 Protozoa as evidence of bioremediation, 6 field evaluation of, 70 growth in bioremediation, 25 Pump-and-treat methods integrated with bioremediation, 61 limitations of, 12-13, 48 in preparation for bioremediation, 140 process, 48, 193 Push/pull tests, 149 R Reductive dehalogenation, 20, 22, 193 Regulatory assessment information needed for, 99-100 proposed process description for, 101-102 site cleanup description for, 102-103 site description for, 100-101 Research in development of bioremediation, 122-124 for evaluation protocol development, 94 for improving models, 94-95 on increasing microbe availability, 93 on microbial processes, 92, 128-129 needs, 108 in site characterization techniques, 94 on stimulating microbial action, 92-93 S Saturated flow models, 81-82 Saturated zone, 81, 193 Secondary utilization/cometabolism, 21, 143, 193 Sequestering of contaminants, 25-26 Sewage contamination, 149 Site conditions characterization of, 10, 94 in choosing bioremediation strategy, 49-50 contaminant concentrations, 25-27 determinants of bioremediation potential, 35, 126, 130, 137-138 electron receptor concentration, 41-42 for engineered bioremediation, 3-4, 39-41, 50 estimating total contaminant mass, 161-163 ground water behavior, 41-42 heterogeneity, 42-43, 138 indications for integrated cleanup approach, 5, 60-61, 126-127 individual differences in, 3, 35, 88 for intrinsic bioremediation, 3, 39, 41-42, 59-60 multiple contaminants, 27, 128 regulatory description of, 100-101 See also Soil conditions Slurry wall, 141, 193 Soil conditions aeration systems and, 51-53 in air sparging, 58 bioremediation contraindicated by, 126 hydraulic conductivity, 39 intrinsic attenuation of plume and, 107 permeability, 39, 138-139 unsaturated, 50-53 See also Site conditions Solvents dechlorination of, 76, 127, 143 halogenated compounds as, 33, 34 Stereoisomers, 78 Surfactants, 26, 128, 193-194

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T Tetrachloroethene, 33 Time factors in bioremediation vs. conventional methods, 13, 48 in ecologically oriented bioremediation, 116 in engineered bioremediation, 3-4, 50 Toluene, 23, 32 See also BTEX Tracer compounds, 8 Trichloroethane, 24 Trichloroethylene, 28, 129, 143 intermediary metabolites in transformation of, 76 Trinitrotoluene, 34 U Unsaturated soils, 50-53, 194 oxygen delivery techniques for, 124-125 V Vadose zone. See Unsaturated soils Vapor recovery, 124, 194 integrated with bioremediation, 61, 126-127 Vinyl chloride, 28, 143 W Water circulation systems, 53-57 X Xylene, 32

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Other Recent Reports of the Water Science and Technology Board Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Predicting Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty (1993) Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas (1993) Sustaining Our Water Resources: Proceedings, WSTB Symposium (1993) Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992) Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy (1992) Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries (1991) Preparing for the Twenty-first Century: A Report to the USGS Water Resources Division (1991) Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (1991) A Review of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Pilot Program (1990) Ground Water and Soil Contamination Remediation: Toward Compatible Science, Policy, and Public Perception (1990) Managing Coastal Erosion (1990) Ground Water Models: Scientific and Regulatory Applications (1990) Irrigation-Induced Water Quality Problems: What Can Be Learned from the San Joaquin Valley Experience? (1989) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press 1-800-624-6242 202-334-3313