INDEX



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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture INDEX

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture This page in the original is blank.

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Index (Page numbers in bold refer to figures) A Acidification of soil, 232-234 AGNPS model, 345 Agricultural Conservation Program, 140-141 Agricultural Water Quality Protection Program, 140 Agriculture nonpoint source model, 135 Agroforestry, 392 Alfalfa nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257 as nitrogen source in corn rotation, 60-62, 65, 267 Aluminum, 287, 290 American Farmland Trust, 125 ANSWERS model, 345 B Bennett, Hugh Hammond, 150, 343 Biological processes algal, phosphorus in, 284, 287-288 for desalinization of drainage water, 392-393 microbial attenuation of nonpoint source pollution, 423-425 nitrogen fixation, 242 for pest control, 88 for pesticide degradation, 317 plant uptake dynamics, 422-423 salinity effects on, 361 salinization effects on, 372-377 in soil degradation, 234-236 timing of fertilizer applications and, 66-68, 273, 279-280 trace element effects on, 381-387 Boron, 366 Buffer zones, 417 basic concepts, 7-8 characteristics of, 104 evaluating effectiveness of, 120-121 in phosphorus management, 310 plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423 riparian forest, 212, 425-426, 427-428 role of, 103, 104-106 Bureau of the Census, 137 C Carbon dioxide emission, soil degradation and, 25

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Case examples Coon Creek, Wisconsin, soil conservation, 32-33 dibromochloropropane transport, 323-325, 334 Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo watershed, 164-166 nitrogen management program, 169-170 systems approach in dairy farm management, 116-117 Chemical degradation, 230-234 Chesapeake Bay Program, 176 Clean Air Act, 2, 38 Clean Water Act, 2 Coastal Zone Management Act Reauthorization Amendments, 26, 118, 121, 139 Colorado River, 368 Salinity Control Act, 366 Compaction. see Soil compaction Companion planting, 94 Conservation Compliance program, 14, 118 Conservation Reserve Program, 22, 141, 152, 172, 427 recommendations for, 174-175 Coon Creek, Wisconsin, 32-33 Cooperative Extension Service, 169 Corn nitrogen consumption, 60, 65, 67, 275-279 nitrogen management research, 68 phosphorus consumption, 292 yield response to soil compaction, 229-230 Cotton, integrated pest management for, 84-85 Cover crops, 93 in nitrogen management, 280-281 in phosphorus management, 311 role of, 94-95, 355 CREAMS model, 343-344, 345, 421 Crop rotation in integrated pest management, 84-86 nitrogen uptake in three corn scenarios, 275-276, 277 Crop yields in commodity support programs, 153, 155, 156 compaction effects on corn, 229-230 erosion effects, 42 nitrogen management and, 63-64, 270-271, 272-273, 275-279 phosphorus management and, 303-304, 307 salinization effects, 376-377 setting goals for, 64, 272-273 soil compaction effects, 227 soil degradation effects, 193-194, 195 Cropping systems cover crops in, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311 encouraging diversity in, 154-156 models of, 123-124 in nitrogen management, 90-91, 280-281 in phosphorus management, 311 price support programs and, 154-156 to reduce erosion/runoff, 100-101 to reduce input use, 58-59 research needs, 11, 93-95 saline seeps and, 365 D Denitrification, microbial processes in, 423-425 Department of Agriculture, 8, 9, 10, 11 conservation programs, 23-24t conservation spending, 139-143 Cooperative Extension Service, 169 early conservation policy, 150 integrated farming system approach in, 113, 118, 119 in measurement of soil quality, 49

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture policy-relevant research in, 163-167 in program targeting, 128-129, 131 research programs, 14-15 in systems approach, 137-139 Desalinization techniques, 392-394 Design standards, 121-122 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP), 83-84, 314, 323-325, 334 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 313, 333-334 E Easements, 16 implementing program of, 174-175 recommendations, 172-175 role of, 171-172, 174 EC. see Electrical conductivity Economic factors agriculture income support program, 150, 152 cost of sedimentation, 25, 45 in efficient use of farm resources, 6 government conservation program funding, 139-143 in implementing integrated farming system, 9-10, 115, 116-117 incentives for conservation compliance, 15-16 in input management, 91-92 long-term easements, 16 losses in erosion, 42 managing irrigation by water pricing, 396-397 in manure management, 79-81, 404, 414 in nitrogen management, 274-279 nutrient value of manure, 77 in policy deliberation, 3-4 soil degradation in cost of production, 195 see also Price support/supply control programs Economic Research Service, 135-136, 137 EGEM model, 345 Electrical conductivity, 369-370, 371, 372 Environmental Easement Program, 139, 141 Environmental Protection Agency, 8, 9, 10, 11, 48 conservation programs, 23-24t conservation spending, 140-143 integrated farming system approach in, 113, 118 market-based incentives in programs of, 171 in measurement of soil quality, 49 in point source manure control, 410, 411, 412 policy-relevant research in, 163-167 in program targeting, 128-129, 131 research programs, 14-15 in systems approach, 137-139 Equilibrium phosphorus concentration, 297-299 Erosion/runoff, 97, 219-221 assessment programs, 200-201 channel management, 355-358 related to commodity price, 158-159 in conservation program spending, 141 control techniques, 6 Coon Creek, Wisconsin, demonstration project, 32-33 cropping systems to reduce, 93, 94, 100-101 early policy actions on, 150 effects of, 21-22, 22, 36, 45, 95-96, 97, 98, 198, 222-226 estimating cost of, 195 extent of, 22, 25, 48 forms of, 22, 43 identifying problem areas, 118

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture losses to, 42, 193, 200, 221-222, 338 management goals, 97-98 management strategies, 99-103 modeling of, 119-120, 214, 339-341, 343-345, 348 in pesticide management, 331-332 pesticide models, 325, 328 of pesticides, 319, 323 in phosphorous management program, 309-311 phosphorus loss in, 70, 71, 73, 301 in program targeting, 129-130 as part of soil management strategy, 47-48 storm events and, 7, 98-99, 101-102 surface sealing effects and, 348 time lag of effects from management of, 96-97 weather patterns in, 101-102 see also Sediments/sedimentation Eutrophication, 406 phosphorus in, 283 Evaporation ponds, 394-395 F Farm Practices Inventory, 133 Farming practices advantages of systems approach, 108-109, 111-113 assessment of, 113, 130-134 channel erosion management, 355-358 commodity support programs and, 153-155, 158-159 cover cropping, 93, 94-95, 280-281, 311, 355 crop diversity in, 154-156 deacidification of soil, 233-234 diversity in, 33-34, 36-38 ecosystem threats from, 30 environmental trade-offs in, 35 estimating nitrogen needs, 270-273 geographic diversity in, 133-134 groundwater quality and, 27 herbicide use, 86 identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118 implementing integrated systems, 9-10 improving manure management, 80-81 improving nitrogen management, 68-69 incremental reform of, 14, 155-156 individual differences in, 32-34, 146 input efficiency in, 6, 57-59, 89-95, 119 integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333 intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54 irrigation source management, 389 irrigation techniques, 390, 391-396 linkages in management systems, 107-108 long-term management strategies, 47-48 management tools for, 10-13 managing salt-affected land, 390-391 manure application, 257 manure management in, 78-80, 410-415 nitrogen application, 271, 273 nitrogen management in, 59-69, 273-274 nonincremental reform of, 156-159 on-farm record keeping, 10-11, 124 organic carbon losses from, 236 pesticide management in, 84-88

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture in pesticide transport, 321-322 phosphorus management in, 73, 76-77 as phosphorus source, 285-286 policy-relevant research, 162-167 pollution prevention in, 33 private-sector information sources, 15-16, 125, 126t producer decision-making in, 30-31, 31, 133-134, 145-146, 147-148t , 160-162, 163-164 in program targeting, 130-134 realistic yield goals in, 272-273 recommendations for research, 14-15 in redesign of commodity support policy, 155-156, 158 to reduce erosion effects, 6-7, 99-103, 351-355 to reduce nitrogen losses, 266-270 to reduce pesticide pollution, 329-333, 334 to reduce pesticide use in, 82-83 to reduce phosphorus loss, 302-311 to reduce salt/trace element accumulation, 387-397 sediment effects, 337-338 soil compaction from, 226-227, 228 soil quality assessment, 51-55 surface water quality and, 26-27 sustainable, 203-204 timing of fertilizer applications, 66-68, 273, 279-280 water quality and, 44-46 see also Systems approach Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 26, 38, 118, 139 Feed grains, 155 Fertilizers agroecosystem pathways, 55-56, 56 economically, vs. environmentally, optimal application, 91-92 input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 89-95 input/output mass balance, 55-59 input related to commodity price, 158, 159 losses in erosion, 42, 193 manures as, 77, 399-402 in permit program, 171 synthetic, recommendations, 63 taxes on, 142 see also Nitrogen; Phosphorus Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 13, 26, 28t, 139, 153, 155 Food Security Act, 13, 22, 25, 152, 153 G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 157 Geographic diversity farm systems approach and, 111-113 policy-making and, 110 Geographic information systems, 135, 136 GRASSF model, 421 Groundwater agricultural pollutants in, 27 irrigation drainage water disposal in, 395-396 microbial denitrification of, 424 nitrogen loss to, 264-266 pesticide path to, 83-84 pesticide properties in contamination of, 317, 321 pesticides commonly found in, 317-319 phosphorus leaching to, 299-300 site conditions in pesticide contamination of, 320-321 H Herbicides banding, 86, 133 reducing use of, 86

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture I Imperial Valley, 369 Incentives for crop diversity, 155-156 easement program, 172-175 in farm decision-making, 13, 30-31, 31, 133-134, 146 historical development of income supports, 150, 152 in irrigation management, 396-397 in manure management, 414 market-based, 170-171, 396-397 as obstacles to conservation policy, 153-155 pace of policy reform on, 155, 156-158 recommendations on, 159-160 Information management assessing farm practices, 131-133 at farm level, 54-55 identifying problem regions, 8-9, 118 intrafield differences, soil maps for, 54, 217 national assessment of soil resources, 200-201 National Resources Inventory, 50 for nitrogen management, 273-274 on-farm, 124 producers' access to information, 160 recommendations, 10-13, 50-51, 134-137 technical assistance programs, 15-16, 115, 124-127, 160-162, 169-170, 414 see also Measurement Integrated farming system case example, 116-117 cost-sharing program, 115, 116-117 developing capacity for, 124-127 development of planning standards for, 118-121 implementing, 108-109, 113-118 inventory of resources in, 108-109 on-farm record keeping in, 10-11, 124 performance standards, 121-124 private-sector role in, 125-127 role of, 115-116 soil quality thresholds in, 53 Integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333 International Ground Water Modeling Center, 329 Irrigation application systems, 390 challenges in, 88, 368 drainage water disposal, 89, 364-365, 394-396 drainage water reuse, 391-392 drainage water treatment, 392-394 drainage water volume, reducing, 89 land retirement, 396 market-based management incentives, 396-397 nitrogen in, 259-260 as pollution pathway, 57 regional management authorities, 397 salinity problems in, 361, 362, 363-364, 368-369 scheduling, 390 source management, 389 Isomorphic substitution, 378 K Kesterson Reservoir, 366, 381, 394-395 KINEROS model, 345 L Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 90 Landowners rights/responsibilities, 17, 180-183

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Landscape management implementing, 426-428 microbial processes in, 423-425 models for, 421 plant uptake dynamics in, 422-423 process-place interactions, 425-426 role of, 417-418 sediment trapping, 418-421 in systems approach, 8 see also Buffer zones Laterization, 218 Legal issues landowner rights/responsibilities, 17, 180-183 see also Regulatory action Lime, 233-234 Livestock management in encouraging crop diversity, 156 manure management in, 78-79, 81, 407-409 phosphorus loss in, 285-286 see also Manures Lysimeter, 372 M Management Systems Evaluation, 119 Manhantango Creek, 2 Manures alternative uses of, 415 application practices, 257 benefits of, 400-401 challenges in management of, 78-80, 404-410 in concentrated livestock production, 407-409 cost of management techniques, 97-80 economic value of, 401-402 environmental threats from, 402-403 estimating nutrient values of, 404-405 from grazing, vs. confined, animals, 401-402 handling/storage of, 404, 410 livestock concentrations and distribution of, 78-79 management strategies, 80-81 mass balance calculations for, 434-437 national production of, 77 nitrogen in, 66, 79, 242, 257-258, 405-407 nonpoint source management, 410-411, 413-415 nutrient values, 77 phosphorus in, 71, 79, 285-286, 292-293, 300, 406-407 point source management, 410, 411-413 as pollution source, 67 processor responsibility for, 179-180 regional use patterns, 61t, 72t, 77 role of, 399-400 supply of, 401-402 as waste, 400, 402-403 as water pollutant, 7 Mass balances assumptions in calculating, 444-447 basic equation, 431-432 data sources, 433 estimation of inputs in, 433-441 estimation of outputs in, 441-444 implications of, 447 limitations of models, 123 national nutrient distribution, 111 nitrogen, 60-63, 240-242 pesticide, 83-84, 322-325 phosphorus, 70-73, 291-293, 294-296t regional differences in, 292, 294-296t role of, 57, 431, 432 Measurement of erosion losses, 221-222, 222-226

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture farm system evaluation standards, 11-13 of field nitrogen, 270 frequency of, in soil quality assessment, 216-217 of manure nutrient values, 404-405 of manure supply, 401-402 national assessment of soil resources, 200-201 of nitrogen content, 273-274 of nitrogen fixation, 242, 256-257 of nitrogen sources, 64-66 of pesticide sorption, 317 of phosphorus threshold levels, 75-77 of phosphorus uptake in algae, 287-288 presidedress soil nitrate test, 274 sedimentation, 102-103 of soil organic carbon, 208-209 of soil pH, 211 of soil quality, 49-51, 51-55, 202-203 soil quality minimum data set, 49-50, 206-207 of soil salinity, 369-370 of soil structure, 210 see also Monitoring Minimum data set, 49-50, 206-207 Modeling techniques effect of soil management on water quality, 214 erosion, 103, 119-120, 135, 214, 339-341, 343-345 geographic information systems, 135, 136 nitrogen input/output balance, 261-263 nitrogen needs, 69, 271-272 nonpoint source pollution, 123-124 pesticide transport, 325-329 phosphorus, 303 price support/supply control programs in, 158-159 role of, 122-123 sediment transport, 345-350 soil productivity, 213-214 for soil quality research, 49-50, 51-53 vegetative filter strips, 421 water-holding attribute of soils, 209-210 Monitoring buffer zone effectiveness, 120-121 for design standard compliance, 121-122 of erosion, national, 200-201 frequency of, for soil quality, 216-217 harmful farming practices, 131-134 in integrated farming system, 115, 118-124 management tools, 10-13 nitrogen levels, 269-270 pesticide applications, 87 in program targeting, 128-134 soil quality, 204-206, 49-51 N Narrows Creek-Middle Baraboo watershed, 164-166 National Agriculture Statistics Service, 135-136, 137 National Resources Inventory, 50, 134, 201 erosion loss estimates, 222 Nitrates, 22, 59, 240, 259, 266 formation of, 239 in groundwater, 27 in microbial denitrification, 423-425 nitrification inhibitors, 66 reduction techniques, efficacy of, 90-91 Nitrification inhibitors, 66 process, 239 Nitrite, 240 formation of, 239

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Nitrogen, 22 agroecosystem pathways, 237-240 application of, 63, 64-66, 66-68, 131, 271, 273, 279-286 balances, scenarios for, 261-263 in crop residue, 258, 261 crop yield goals and, 63-64 cropping systems in management of, 280-281 in denitrification, 240 estimating crop needs, 270-272 in fertilizers, 243, 256 fixation, 242, 256-257, 267 groundwater losses of, 264-266 in harvested crops, 261 in immobilization processes, 239 input estimates in mass balance calculations, 433-441, 444-447 input management in controlling, 90-92 interactive processes in cycle of, 240 in irrigation water, 259-260 losses in erosion, 42, 193 management approaches in case example, 164-166 management tools, 273-274 in manure, 66, 77, 257-258, 404, 405-407 mass balance, 60-63, 111, 240-242, 244-255t mineralization, 239, 260 mobile forms of, 59 in natural environments, 241 in nitrification processes, 66, 239 obstacles to better management of, 274-281 output estimates in mass balance calculations, 433, 441-444 overapplication of, 64-66, 131 processes for loss of, 240-241, 242, 260-261, 263-266 in rainfall, 258-259 recommendations, 59 reducing losses of, 266-270 regional consumption data, 60-62, 61t research needs, 68-69 residual, reduction of, 59 soil buildup, 79 soil testing for, 270 sources of, 59, 60, 237, 241-242, 243 in synthetic fertilizers, recommendations for, 63 technical assistance management program, in case example, 169-170 timing of application, 66-68, 273, 279-280 see also Fertilizers Nonpoint source pollution design/performance standard approach and, 121-122 implementing landscape controls in, 426-428 landscape approach to, 417-418 landscape plant uptake in controlling, 422-423 manure as, 410-411, 413-415 microbial attenuation of, 423-425 models of, 123-124 off-field control practices, 417 process-place interactions in management of, 425-426 sediment trapping of, 418-421 sources of, 29 state programs for controlling, 139 of surface waters, 29 Nutrients. see Fertilizers; Nitrogen; Phosphorus O Obstacles to conservation programs, 35-36 geographical diversity as, 110 informational needs, 3 resistance to policy targeting, 8 Organic carbon, 208-209, 236 losses in erosion, 223-226

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture P Pedotransfer functions, 211, 212t Performance standards, 121, 122, 177-179 Pesticides agroecosystem pathways, 56, 56-57, 83-85 alternative technologies, 88 application technique, 86-87, 330-331 commonly found in groundwater, 317-319 controlling erosion in management of, 331-332 degradation of, 317 development of, 313-314 extent of water pollution from, 314 in groundwater, 27, 317-319 improving characteristics of, 86 input efficiency, 6, 57-59, 82-83 in integrated pest management, 84-86, 332-333 knowledge base, 333-334 management practices, 321-322, 329-333 mass balance, 55-59, 83-84, 322-325 modeling of, 325-329 obstacles to policymaking, 82 in permit program, 171 persistence classes, 317, 318-319t proper use of, 334-335 properties of, 315-319 selection criteria, 87 site factors in transport of, 320-321, 322 soil properties in transport of, 320, 322 sorption properties, 317 spray drift, 323 in surface waters, 26-27, 319 taxes on, 142 transport processes, 314-315 Petiole tests, 274 pH of soil, 211, 232-234 pesticide action and, 320 Phosphorus agricultural consumption of, 71 agricultural sources of, 285-286 agroecosystem pathways, 69-70, 289-291 buffer strips in management of, 309 cropping systems in management of, 311 enrichment ratio, 301-302 equilibrium concentration, 297-299 erosion control in management of, 309-311 establishing threshold levels for, 302-307 forms of, 286-289 input estimates in mass balance calculations, 433-441, 444-447 losses in erosion, 42, 193 management strategies, 73 in manure, 77, 292-293, 300, 404 mass balance, 70-73, 111, 291-299 output, 293 output estimates in mass balance calculations, 433, 441-444 point sources of, 284-285 as pollutant, 283 soil buildup, 71-75, 79, 293-299, 406-407 soil type in movement of, 299-300, 303 sources of, 71, 292-293 surface water effects, 283-284 in synthetic fertilizers, 71 threshold levels, recommendations for, 75-77 transport processes, 299-302 weather as loss factor, 310-311 see also Fertilizers Policy-making agriculture private-sector in, 32-34 conservation programs, 22, 23t

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture defining soil quality for, 190, 201-202 economic factors in, 3-4 factors influencing, 30-31, 31 farming practice and, 159 forms of government assistance, 169-170 government conservation spending, 139-143 historical development, 150-152 as impediment to conservation, 153-155 implementation, recommendations for, 14-17 incremental reform approach, 14, 155-156 for integrated farming systems implementation, 125 interagency coordination in, 8-9, 137-139 landowner/land user responsibilities in, 17, 180-183 at local/state level, 32, 109-110, 139, 173-174 long-term objectives, 146-150 nonincremental reform approach, 156-159 nonvoluntary approaches, 175-180 obstacles to, 3, 8, 35-36, 110 on pesticides, obstacles to, 82 price support/supply control programs, 13-14, 159-160 program linkages in, 108-110 recommendations, 4, 36-38 research agenda in, 162-167 role of monitoring systems in, 204 short-term goals in, 3-4, 11-13, 122, 167-169 soil quality in, 48 see also Regulatory action Potassium losses in erosion, 42, 193 in manure, 404 Poultry processors, 179-180 Presidedress soil nitrate test, 274 Preventive interventions, recommendations for, 3 Price support/supply control programs base acreage structure in, 156 conservation practices related to, 158-159 development of, 150, 152 elimination of, 157, 158-159 as obstacles to conservation, 153-155 recommendations, 13-14, 155-156, 159-160 set-asides, 172, 173 Private-sector in developing integrated farming systems, 125-127 in policy-making, 32-34 structure of agricultural business, 179 technical assistance from, 15-16, 125, 126t Problem areas, identifying for regulatory action, 177-179 Problem regions, identifying, 8-9, 118, 128-132 see also Targeting Processors of agriculture products, 179-180 Public opinion, 21, 38-39 R Regional differences adapting national policies to, 133-134 in cover cropping practices, 93 data collection, 133-137 in erosion losses, 222 farming systems approach and, 110-113 implications for policy-making, 36-38 nitrogen inputs/outputs, 60-62, 61t nitrogen mass balance, 111, 244-255t

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture phosphorus mass balance, 71, 72t, 111, 292, 294-296t phosphorus soil buildup, 73-75, 74t, 303, 305t in reliance on private-sector technical assistance, 127 soil pH, 234 use of manures, 61t, 72t, 77 wetlands classification, 359 Regulatory action, 162 clarifying landowner responsibilities/rights, 17, 180-183 in erosion management, 99-100 implementing systems approach, 10, 11 in irrigation management, 397 at local/state level, 8, 109-110, 139, 176-177, 178, 412 in manure management, 80-81 market-based incentives in, 15-16, 170-171 need for, 175-176, 177 objections to, 177 for off-site salinization effects, 366 participation in integrated farming system, 115-118 performance standards in, 121, 177-179 recommendations, 16-17, 177-179 through agricultural processors, 179-180 voluntary approach to change, 15, 17, 167-170 Research needs alternative pest control technologies, 88 biochemical treatment of selenium, 393-394 buffer zones, 105 cropping systems, 11, 93-95 data collection, 134-137 in developing performance standards, 122 in estimating sedimentation, 102-103 identifying soil quality indicators, 49-51 in integrated pest management, 86 long-term phosphorus uptake, 76 market-based incentives, 16, 171 national data, 3 new farming technologies, 164-166 nitrogen management, 68-69 on producer decision-making processes, 133-134, 163-164 recommendations, 10, 14-15, 162-167 storm probability models, 7, 101-102 in water erosion prediction technology, 346-351 Residue management, 6, 99-100 Resource Conservation Act, 50-51 Resource Management System, 116-118 Rill erosion, 22, 25 Riparian buffer zone, 8, 105-106, 121, 417, 421, 425-426, 427-428 Rodale Institute Research Center, 190 S Saline seeps, 365 Salinization, 22, 230-232 agroforestry in management of, 392 assessment of, 369-370 crops sensitive to, 376 effects of, 361, 366, 368-369, 370-377 extent, 22, 26t, 48, 231-232, 361-362 farming practices in management of, 387-397 irrigation source management to reduce, 389-391 process, 363-364 sodification and, 230, 372 sources of, 365, 370

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture in surface water pollution, 27 Salton Sea, 369 San Joaquin Valley, 88, 362, 391, 392, 394-395, 396, 397 selenium in, 380-385 SAR. see Sodium absorption ration Sediment trapping, 418-421 Sediments/sedimentation agriculture contribution to, 337-338 depositions of, 339 effects of, 337-338, 341-342 estimating, 102-103, 342-345 farming practices to control, 351-355 modeling transport of, 345-350 processes, 338-342 time lag of effects from erosion management, 96-97 upland processes in, 349 in waterways, 25, 45, 341-342 wetlands and, 358-359 Selenium, 27, 362, 366, 377, 380-385, 393-394, 394-395, 396 Set-asides, 172, 173 Sheet erosion, 22, 25 Sludge, 381, 385-387 Sodbuster program, 14 Sodification, 26t, 48, 195, 230, 372 Sodium absorption ratio (SAR), 371, 372 Soil, Water and Related Resources Conservation Act, 201 Soil compaction, 47 causes of, 226-227 corn yield and, 229-230 deep tillage effects on, 228-229 effects of, 48, 229-230 extent of, 22, 48 losses to, 230 measurement of, 210 subsoil compaction, 227-230 surface soil, 227 Soil Conservation Service, 53, 116, 118, 135-136, 137, 141, 201 founding of, 150 Soil degradation acidification, 232-234 biological processes in, 234-236 effects of, 21-22, 36, 42, 193-196 elements of, 2, 22-25, 192 extent of, 2 indirect effects, 198 interactive processes in, 42, 219, 219 microbial processes, 236 organic carbon loss as, 236 price support/supply control programs and, 14 processes, 218, 218-219, 219 see also Erosion/runoff; Salinization Soil productivity basic concepts, 5 effects of soil degradation, 193-196 erosion and, 222, 226, 338 indicators of, 213-214 soil quality and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192 Soil quality in assessing farming system implementation, 119 assessment of, 49-51, 216-217 basic concepts, 1-3 benefits of manure for, 400-401 buffering capacity indicators, 215-216 as common good, 181 cover cropping effects on, 94 defining, 40-41, 190-191, 201-202 early policy action on, 150, 152 elements of, 189 erosion effects on, 222-226 global climate and, 46-47, 199 indicators of, 53, 202-203, 205-211 intrafield differences, 53-54, 217 irrigation effects, 89 labile carbon in, 209 long-term management goals, 47-48, 199-200

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture minimum data set for, 49-50, 206-207 monitoring system, 204-205 national assessment of, 200-201 in national resource inventory, 50 nitrogen buildup, 79 nutrient availability assessment, 207-208 organic carbon in, 208-209, 236 pedotransfer functions in, 211, 212t in pesticide transport, 320, 322 pH, 211 phosphorus buildup, 79 phosphorus leaching and, 299-300 as policy goal, 48, 145 policy recommendations, 1-6 program targeting assessment, 129-130 public interest in, 38-39 quantifying, 211-213 in repeated manure applications, 405-407 role of, 38-39, 189, 191-192 rooting depth as factor in, 210 sampling procedures in assessing, 217 soil maps, 54 soil productivity and, 40, 41-44, 190, 192 structure as attribute of, 210 as sustainability criteria, 203-204 texture as element of, 209 water-holding capacity in, 209 water quality linkage to, 5-6, 44-46, 196-199 see also Soil degradation Soil Science Society of America, 40, 190 Soybeans, nitrogen fixation in, 242, 256-257 Storm events, 7, 98-99, 101-102, 310-311 Stubble mulch tillage system, 52 Surface water agricultural pollutants, 26-27 irrigation drainage water discharge to, 394 modeling pesticide transport to, 328 nitrogen loss to, 264 pesticide contaminants of, 319 phosphorus loss to, 300-302 phosphorus pollution of, 70, 283-286 types of nonpoint pollution, 29 Sustainable practices, 30, 153 developing framework for, 203-204 SWRRB model, 345 Systems approach advantages of, 110-113 components of, 187 in dairy farm, case example of, 116-117 farm evaluation standards, 11-12, 113 implementation, 8-13 see also Integrated farming system T Targeting data collection needs, 135-137 definition, 127 of farming practices, 130-134 in farming systems approach, 110-112 informational needs in, 127-128 recommendations, 8-9 role of, 127 soil/water monitoring and, 128-130 Taxes, 142 Technical assistance, 15-16 from Cooperative Extension Service, 169 delivery of, 115

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture example of program for change, 169-170 in integrated farming system, 124-127 in manure control practices, 414 private-sector as source of, 15-16, 125-127, 126t role of, 160-162 sources of, 125-7, 126t Technology digitized soil surveys, 54-55 erosion modeling, 343-345 manure management, 81 for nitrogen management, 273-274 policy-relevant research, 162-167 producers' access to information on, 160 sediment transport modeling, 345-350 water application systems, 390 TIGER system, 137 Tillage systems conservation techniques in, 99-100 effects of, 353, 354t for mitigating compaction effects, 228-229 no-till drill, 352 to reduce erosion/runoff, 99-100 to reduce phosphorus erosion loss, 309 stubble mulch, 52 types of, 352, 353t use of, 355 Trace elements, 22, 362, 366 effects of, 368, 380-387 examples of, 378 management practices, 368-369, 387, 397 maximum concentrations, 385, 386-387t nature of, 377-378 sources of, 368, 378 transport of, 379-380 treating contaminated water, 392-393 U United Nations, 217 V Vegetative filter strips, 8, 105, 120, 418-421, 426 W Water Erosion Prediction Project, 214 Water quality as common good, 181 manure and, 78 modeling soil management effects, 214 phosphorus effects on, 283-284 price support/supply control programs and, 14 in program targeting, 129-130 soil quality linkages to, 5-6, 44-46, 196-199 surface water, 26-27 threats to, 25-27 Water Quality Incentives Program, 116, 117 Waterlogged land management of, 390-391 in soil salinization, 361-362 Weather global, soil quality and, 46-47, 199 nitrogen in rainfall, 258-259 in nutrient management, 64 in phosphorus loss, 310-311 rainfall dynamics, 339 seasonal erosion risk, 352 storm events in soil erosion, 7, 98-99, 101-102 Weed control. see Herbicides WEPP model, 344, 345, 346

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture WEQ model, 349-350 WERM model, 350 Wetland Reserve Program, 139, 141 Wetlands as buffer zones, 8 sedimentation processes in, 358-359 Whitman County, Washington, 37 Wind erosion, 48, 222, 338 modeling of, 344, 349-350

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Recent Publications of the Board on Agriculture Policy and Resources Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993), 408 pp., ISBN 0-309-04875-3. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Livestock (1993), 294 pp., ISBN 0-309-04394-8. Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment in the Humid Tropics (1993), 720 pp., ISBN 0-309-04749-8. Agriculture and the Undergraduate: Proceedings (1992), 296 pp., ISBN 0-309-04682-3. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992), 320 pp., ISBN 0-309-04528-2. Managing Global Genetic Resources: Forest Trees (1991), 244 pp., ISBN 0-309-04034-5. Managing Global Genetic Resources: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (1991), 198 pp., ISBN 0-309-04390-5. Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991), 448 pp., ISBN 0-309-04578-9. Toward Sustainability: A Plan for Collaborative Research on Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (1991), 164 pp., ISBN 0-309-04540-1. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System (1989), 156 pp., ISBN 0-309-04127-9. Alternative Agriculture (1989), 464 pp., ISBN 0-309-03985-1. Understanding Agriculture: New Directions for Education (1988), 80 pp., ISBN 0-309-03936-3. Designing Foods: Animal Product Options in the Marketplace (1988), 394 pp., ISBN 0-309-03798-0; ISBN 0-309-03795-6 (pbk). Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness (1987), 224 pp., ISBN 0-309-03745-X. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox (1987), 288 pp., ISBN 0-309-03746-8. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management (1986), 480 pp., ISBN 0-309-03627-5. Pesticides and Groundwater Quality: Issues and Problems in Four States (1986), 136 pp., ISBN 0-309-03676-3. Soil Conservation: Assessing the National Resources Inventory, Volume 1 (1986), 134 pp., ISBN 0-309-03649-9; Volume 2 (1986), 314 pp., ISBN 0-309-03675-5. New Directions for Biosciences Research in Agriculture: High-Reward Opportunities (1985), 122 pp., ISBN 0-309-03542-2. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns (1984), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03434-5. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals Series and Related Titles Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Fifth Revised Edition (1989), 128 pp., ISBN 0-309-03989-4; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition, Update 1989 (1989), 168 pp., ISBN 0-309-03826-X; diskette included. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, Ninth Revised Edition (1988), 96 pp., ISBN 0-309-03779-4.

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture Vitamin Tolerance of Animals (1987), 105 pp., ISBN 0-309-03728-X. Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals (1986), 95 pp., ISBN 0-309-03695-X. Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Revised Edition (1986), 87 pp., ISBN 0-309-03682-8. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Revised Edition (1985), 79 pp., ISBN 0-309-03496-5. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep, Sixth Revised Edition (1985), 106 pp., ISBN 0-309-03596-1. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, Sixth Revised Edition (1984), 90 pp., ISBN 0-309-03447-7. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, Eighth Revised Edition (1984), 71 pp., ISBN 0-309-03486-8. Further information, additional titles (prior to 1984), and prices are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418, 202/334-3313 (information only); 800/624-6242 (orders only); 202/334-2451 (fax).

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Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture This page in the original is blank.