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Sources and Suggested Reading SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS FCCSET (Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology). 1993. An Overview of Federal Food Safety Research, Including Research Needs for the Future. A report by the Committee on Food, Agricultural, and Forestry Research, FCCSET. Office of Science and Technology Policy, Washington, D.C. Vonnegut, K. 1985. Galapagos. Dell Publishing Co., Inc., New York. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Harper, A.E. 1969. Nutrition: where are we? Where are we going? Am. I. Clin. Nutr. 22:8 ~- 98. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Improving America's Diet and Health: From Recom- mendations to Action. Report of the Committee on Dietary Guidelines Implementa- tion, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Kretchmer, N. 1993. Forty years of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Am. I. Clin. Nutr. 57:2. CHAPTER 2: ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Folate and Neural Tube Defects IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Weight Gain and Nutrient Supplements. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and Weight Gain During Pregnancy and the Subcommittee on Dietary Intake and Nutrient Supplements 269 -

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270 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES During Pregnancy, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Imple- mentation Guide. Report of the Subcommittee for a Clinical Applications Guide, Com- mittee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Oxidative Damage to DNA, Proteins, and Fats Ames, B.N., M.K. Shinega, and T.M. FIagen. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenera- tive diseases of aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:7915-7922. Orr, W.C., and R.S. Sohal. 1993. Effects of Cu-Zn superoxidase dismutase overexpression on life span and resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 301:34-40. Witztum, ].L. 1993. Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis. Br. Heart l. 69(1 Suppl.):S12-SlS. Sensory Biology anil the Development of New Foods DlIHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1988. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. DHHS (PHS) Publication No. 88-50210. U.S. Gov- ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Drewnowski, A. 1987. Fats and food texture: Sensory and hedonic evaluations. Pp. 217-250 in H.R. Moskowitz, ed. Food Texture. Marcel DeLker, New York. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and fIealth, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Biotechnology Bills, D.D., and S.-D. Kung, eds. 1992. Biotechnology and Nutrition: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium. Butterworth-lIeinemann, Stoneham, MA. Harlander, S.K. 1989. Food biotechnology: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Food Technol. 43: 196-202,206. Harlander, S.K. 1991. Biotechnology means for improving our food supply. Food Technol. 45:84, 86, 91-92,95. Oral Rehydration Therapy Farthing, M.~.G., ed. 1990. Oral rehydration therapy: past, present, and future. Clin. Ther. 12:1-142 (Supplement A). Vitamin A Sommer A. 1982. Nutritional Blindness: Xerophthalmia and Keratomalacia. Oxford Univer- sity Press, New York. Sommer A., and S.L. Zeger. 1991. On estimating efficacy in clinical trials. Stat. Med. 10:45-52.

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SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING 271 West, K.P., G.R. Howard, and A. Sommer. l9S9. Vitamin A and Infection: Public health implications. Annul Rev. Nutr. 9:63-S6. New Concepts of Nutrient Requirements King, l.C. 1990. Assessment of zinc status. i. Nutr. 120:14i4-14~9. CHAPTER 3: UNDERSTANDING GENETIC, MOLECULAR, CELLULAR, AND PHYSIOLOGIC PROCESSES Brown and Goldstein and Lipid Metabolism Brown, M.S., and Goldstein, t.L. 19S6. A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeo- stasis. Science 232:34-4~. Hobbs, H.H., D.W. Russell, M.S. Brown, and l.L. Goldstein. 1990. The LDL receptor locus in familial hypercholesterolemia: mutational analysis of a membrane protein. Annul Rev. Genet. 24:133-1~0. Retinoic Acid Eichele, G. l9S9. Retinoids and vertebrate limb pattern formation. Trends Genet. 5:246- 251. Giguere, V., E.S. Ong, P. Segui, and R.M. Evans. l9S7. Identification of a receptor for the morpl~ogen retinoic acid. Nature 330:624-629. Lehmann, t.M., M.I. Dawson, P.D. Hobbs, M. Husmann, and M. Pfahl. 1991. Identification of retinoids with nuclear receptor subtype-selective activities. Cancer Res. 51:4S04- 4S09. PetLovich, M., Nil. Brand, A. Krust, and P. Chambon. l9S7. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature 330:444-450. Summerbell, D., and M. Maden. 1990. Retinoic acid, a developmental signalling molecule. Trends Neurosci. 13:142-14~. Cloning the First Nuclear Retinoic Acid Receptor (RAR) Giguere, V., E.S. Ong, P. Segui, and R.M. Evans. l9S:. Identification of a receptor for the morphogen retinoic acid. Nature 330:624-629. PetLovich, M., Nil. Brand, A. Krust, and P. Chambon. 19S~. A human retinoic acid receptor which belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. Nature 330:444-450. Vitamin D Receptors anil Metabolism DeLuca, H.F. l9SS. The vitamin D story: a collaborative effort of basic science and clinical medicine. FASEB i. 2:224-236. Dintzis, F.R., and l.A. Laszlo, eds. l9S9. Mineral Absorption in the Monogastric GI Tract: Chemical, Nutritional, and Physiological Aspects. Plenum, New York. Kumar, R. 1991. Vitamin D and calcium transport. Kidney Int. 40:11 ~ ~-llS9. Wasserman, R.H., C.A. Smith, M.E. Brindak, N. de Talamoni, C.S. Fullmer, [.T. Penniston, and R. Kumar. 1992. Vitamin D and mineral deficiencies increase the plasma mem- brane calcium pump of chicken intestine. Gastroenterology 102:SS6-S94.

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272 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Neurotransmitters Regulation and Action Beat, M.F. 1992. Mechanism of excitotoxicity in necrologic disease. FASEB i. 6:333S-3344. Hoebel, B.G., L. EIernandez, G.P. Mark, et. al. 1990. Brain microdialysis as a molecular approach to obesity: serotonin, dopamine, cyclic-AMP. Pp. 45-61 in Bray, G., D. Ricquier, and B. Spiegleman, eds. Obesity: Toward a Molecular Approach. UCLA Symposia New Series, Volume 132. Wiley Liss Inc., New York. Olney, :.W. 1990. Excitotoxic amino acids and neuropsychiatric disorders. Annul Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 30:47-71. Iron Metabolism and Regulation Klausner, R.D., T.A. Rouault, and t.B. Harford. 1993. Regulating the fate of mRNA: the control of cellular iron metabolism. Cell 72:19-2S. Munro, [I.N. 1990. Iron regulation of ferritin gene expression. l. Cell. Biochem. 44:107-115. Ponka, P., H.M. Schulman, and R. C. Woodworth. 1990. Iron Transport and Storage. CRC Press, Boca Baton, FL. Worwood, M. 1989. An overview of iron metabolism at a molecular level. i. Intern. Med. 226:3S1-391. Genetics McKusick, V.A. 1992. Mendelian Inheritance in Man: Catalogs of Autosomal Dominant, Autosomal Recessive, & X-Linked Phenotypes, 2 vole., 10th edition. Johns FIopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. Risch, N. 1990. Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. II. The power of affected relative pairs. Am. I. Hum. Genet. 46:229-241. Todd, ).A. 1992. Diabetes mellitus. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 2:474-478. Identification, Isolation, and Tracking of Specific Cell Types Brundage, R.A., K.E. Fogarty, R.A. Tuft, and F.S. Fay. 1991. Calcium gradients underlying polarization and chemotaxis of eosinophils. Science 254:703. Connor, l.A., WE Wadman, P.E. Hockberger, and R.K.S. Wong. 1988. Sustained dendritic gradients of Ca++ induced by excitatory amino acids in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Science 24:649-653. Cornell-Bell, A.H., S. Finkbeiner, M.S. Cooperr, and SO Smith. 1990. Glutamate induces Ca++ waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signalling. Science 247:470-473. Inoue, S. 1986. Video Microscopy. Plenum Press, New York. White, :.G., W.B. Amos, and M. Fordham. 1987. An evaluation of confocal versus conven- tional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy. l. Cell Biol. 105:41-48. Animal Models Brown, M.S., and l.L. Goldstein. 1992. Koch's postulates for cholesterol. Cell. 71:187-188. Darling, S.M., and C.M. Abbott. 1992. Mouse models of human single gene disorders. I: Nontransgenic mice. BioEssays. 14:359-366.

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SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING 273 Johnson, P.R., M.R. Greenwood, B.A. Horwitz, and l.S. Stern. 1991. Animal models of obesity: genetic aspects. Annul Rev. Nutr. 11:325-353. Smithies, O. 1993. Animal models of human genetic disease. Trends in Genetics 9:112-116. Imaging Technologies for Metabolic Studies Gardner, S.F., PA. Green, E.M. Bednarczyk, L. Farnett, and F. Miraldi. 1992. Principles and clinical applications of positron emission tomography. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 49:1499- 1506. Shulman, 11.G., A.M. Blamire, D.L. Rothman, and G. McCarthy. 1993. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of human brain function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:312 ~ -3133. Gene Therapy Anderson, W.F. 1992. Human gene therapy. Science 256:80S-813. Valle, D. 1991. Treatment of genetic disease: Current status and prospects for the future. Semin. Perinatol. 15(Suppl. 1):52-56. The Human Genome Project and Nutrition Gilbert, W. 1991. DNA sequencing, today and tomorrow. Hospital Practice 26:165-169, 172, 174. Oliver, S. G. , Q. I. van der Aart, M .L. Agostoni-Carbone, M. Aigle, L. Alberghina, D. Alexandraki, G. Antoine, R. Anwar, J.P. Ballesta, P. Benit, et al. 1992. The complete DNA sequence of yeast chromosome III. Nature 357:38-46. Gene Expression and Gene Manipulations Goodridge, A.G. 1990. The new metabolism: molecular genetics in the analysis of metabolic regulation. FASEB ). 4:3099-3110. Smithies, O. 1993. Animal models of human genetic disease. Trends in Genetics 9:112-116. Structural Biology Matthews, C.K., and van Holde, K.T. 1990. Biochemistry. 1129 pp. Benjamin/Cummings, Redwood City, CA. Stem Cel1 Biology Baum, C.M., I.L. Weissman, A.S. Tsukamoto, A.M. Buckle, and B. Peault. 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:2804-2808. Kirschner, M. 1992. The cell cycle then and now. Trends Biochem. Sci. 1 /:281-285. Potten, C.S., and M. Loeffler. 1990. Stem cells: attributes, cycles, spirals, pitfalls and uncer- tainties. Lessons for and from the crypt. Development 110:1001-1020. Huang, S., and L.W. Terstappen. 1992. Formation of haematopoietic microenvironment and haemateopoietic stem cells from single human bone marrow stem cells. Nature 360: ~45- /49.

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~4 OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Nutrient Transport Systems of the Blood-Brain Barrier Neuwelt, E.A., ed. 1991. Implications of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Its Manipulation, Vol. 1: Basic Science Aspects. Plenum Medical Book Co., New York. Segal, M.B., ed. 1992. Barriers and Fluids of the Eye and Brain. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Prevention and Repair of Oxidative Damage Byers, T., and G. Perry. 1992. Dietary carotenes, vitamin C, and vitamin E as protective antioxidants in human cancers. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 12:139-159. Chisolm, G.M., K.C. Irvin, and M.S. Penn. 1999. Lipoprotein oxidation andlipoprotein- induced cell injury in diabetes. Diabetes 41(Suppl. 2):61-66. Dorgan, [.F., and A. Schatzkin. 1991. Antioxidant micronutrients in cancer prevention. Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 5:43-68. Retinoic Acid-Regulated Nuclear Receptors Lehmann, J.M., B. Hoffmann, and M. Pfahl. 1991. Genomic organization of the retinoic acid receptor gamma gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 19:5~3-5~S. Ross, A.C. 1993. Cellular metabolism and activation of retinoids. Roles of the cellular retinoid- binding proteins. FASEB [. ~ :31 / -39 ~ . Sucov, H.M ., K.K. Murakami, and R. M. Evans. 1990. Characterization of an autoregulated response element in tl~e mouse retinoic acid recepter type beta gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA S/:5392-5396. Haq, R., M. Pfahl, and F. Chytil. 1991. Retinoic acid affects the expression of nuclear retinoic acid receptors in tissue or retinol-deficient rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA SS:S? ~ )-S2 l6. Warrell, Jr., R.P., H. de Tlle, Z-Y. Wang, and L. Degos. 1993. Acute promyelocytic leuke- mia. N. Engl. [. Med. 329:1 ~ ~-lS9. CHAPTER 4: ENHANCING THE FOOD SUPPLY The Food-Processing Industry Conner, t.M. l9SS. Food Processing: An Industrial Power House in Transition. Lexington Books, Lexington, MA. Elit~ak, H. 1991. Food costs beyond the farm gate. FoodReview, July-September:34-3 ~. Gallo, A.E. 1991. The food marketing system. FoodRevie~v, [uly-September:3S-41. Fortification and Enrichment Bauernfeind, [.C., and P.A. Lachance, eds. 1991. Nutrient Additions to Food: Nutritional, Technological, and Regulatory Aspects. Food and Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT. Bodwell, C.E. and t.W. Erdman, eds. l9SS. Nutrient Interactions. Marcel DeLker, New York. Smith, K.T. l9SS. Trace Minerals in Foods: Their Relationship to Health and Nutrition. Marcel DeLker, New York.

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SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING Low-Fat and Low-Calorie Foods Friedman, M. 1991. Healthy foods find cross-category niches. Prepared Foods 160(10):61. Institute of Food Technologists. 19S9. Lo~v-Calorie Foods. Food Technol. 43(4):113-125. Sensory Needs of the Elderly 9,5 Clydesdale, F.M. 1991. Meeting tl~e needs of the elderly with the foods of today and tomor- row. Nutr. Today 26(5 ): 13-20. Clydesdale, F.M., ed. 1993. Sensory Perception in Aging: Special Issue. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 33(1). Murphy, C., W.S. Cain, and D.M. Hegsted, eds. 19S9. Nutrition and the Chemical Senses in Aging: Recent Advances and Current Research Needs. Ann. NY Acad. Sci., Vol. 561. Functional Foods for Health Caragay, A.B. 1992. Cancer-preventive foods and ingredients. Food Technol. 46(4):65-6S. Sch~nidl, M.K., and T.P. Labu%a. 1997. Medical foods. Food Technol. 46(4):Si-96. NRC (National Research Council). 19S9. Recommended Dietary Allowances, 10th ed. Re- port of the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDAs, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Microbiological Food Hazards Cliver, D.O., ed. 1990. Foodborne Diseases. Academic Press, San Diego. Doyle, M.P., ed. 19S9. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Marcel DeLker, New York. lay, J.M. 1997. Microbiological Food Microbiology, 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Methods of Preservation Fellow, P. 19SS. Food Processing Technology: Principles ~ Practice. VCH Pubs., New York. Physical and Engineering Properties [owitt, R., ed. l9S i. Physical Properties of Food I. Elsevier, New York. Rao, M.A., and S.S.H. Ri%vi, eds. l9S6. Engineering Properties of Foods. Marcel-DeLker, New York. Separation King, C.~. 1991. Separation Processes, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. Biosensors and Process Control Seborg? D.E., T.F. Edgar, and D.A. Mellichamp. 19S9. Process Dynamics and Control. Solon Wiley and Sons, New York.

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276 OPPORTUNITIES IN TlIE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Luyben, W.L. 1990. Process Modeling, Simulation, and Control for Chemical Engineers, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, New York. Rheology Moskowitz, H. l9S /. Food Texture: Instrumental and Sensory Measurement. Marcel DeLker, New York. Peleg, M., and E.B. Bagley. l9S3. Physical Properties of Food. AVI, Westport, CT. Schwartzberg, H.G., and R.W. Hartel. 1992. Physical Chemistry of Foods. Marcel DeLker, New York. Packaging Downes, T.W. l9S9. Food packaging in the IFT era: Five decades of unprecedented growth and change. Food Technol. 43(9):228-240. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1992. Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment. Report No. OTA-E-541. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Biotechnology Bills, D.D., and H.-D. Kung, eds. 1992. Biotechnology and Nutrition: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium. Butterworth-Heinemann, Stoneham, MA. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1992. A New Technological Era for American Agriculture. Report No. OTA-F-474. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Goldberg, I., and R. Williams, eds. 1991. Biotechnology and Food Ingredients. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Marx, [.L., ed. 1989. A Revolution in Biotechnology. Cambridge University Press, New York. Molecular Basis of Food Quality Levine H., and L. Slade, eds. 1991. Water Relationships in Foods: Advances in the 1980s & Trends for the 1990s. Plenum Press, New York. Schwartzberg, fI.G., and R.W. Hartel, eds. 1992. Physical Chemistry of Foods. Marcel DeLker, New York. Slade L., and H. Levine. 1988. Non-equilibrium behavior of small carbohydrate-water sys- tems. Pure Appl. Chem. 60:1841-1864. Symons, M.C.R. 1988. Formation of radicals by mechanical processes. Free Radic. Res. Commun. 5:131-139. Environmental Issues NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Alternative Agriculture. Report of the Committee on the Role of Alternative Farming Methods in Modern Production Agriculture, Board on Agriculture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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SOURCES AND SUGGESTED READING CHAPTER 5: UNDERSTANDING DIET, HEALTH, AND DISEASE RELATIONSHIPS Reproduction 277 IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1990. Nutrition During Pregnancy: Weight Gain and Nutrient Supplements. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and Weight Gain During Pregnancy and the Subcommittee on Dietary Intake and Nutrient Supplements During Pregnancy, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Nutrition During Lactation. Report of the Subcommit- tee on Nutrition During Lactation, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Growth and Development Ciba Foundation Symposium. 1991. The Childhood Environment and Adult Disease: Sym- posium 156. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Pollitt, E., K.S. Gorman, P. Engle, R. Martorell, and J. Rivera. Early Supplementary Feed- ing and Cognition: Effects Over Two Decades. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, in press. Box: Nutrition and Vision Sauberlich, H.E., and LO Machlin, eds. 1992. Beyond Deficiency: New Views on the Func- tion and EIealth Effects of Vitamins. New York Academy of Sciences, New York. Taylor, A., P.F. Jacques, and C.K. Dorey. 1993. Oxidation and aging: impact on vision. Toxicol. Ind. Health 9:349-3~1. Body Composition Shephard, Ret. l9S /. Physical Activity and Aging, 2nd edition. Aspen Publishers, Rockville, MD. Immune System Chandra, S., and R.K. Chandra. 1986. Nutrition, immune response and outcome. Frog. Food Nutr. Sci. 10(1/2):1-65. Meydani, S.N. 1990. Dietary modulation of cytokine production and biologic functions. Nutr. Rev. 48(10):361-369. Roitt, I.M., I. Brostoff, and D. Male. 1989. Immunology, 2nd edition. Cower Medical Pub- lishing, New York. Cognitive Function Central Nervous System Krieg, l.C. 1991. Eating disorders assessed by cranial computerized tomography (CCT, dSPECT, PET). Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 291:223-229.

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97S OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Cancer Amos, D.I., N.E. Caporaso, and A. Weston. 1997. lFIost factors in lung cancer risk: a review of interdisciplinary studies. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 1:505-513. Idle, [.R., M. Armstrong, A.V. Boddy, C. Boustead, S. Cholerton, I. Cooper, A.K. Daly, l. Ellis, W. Gregory, H. Hadidi, C. Hofer, l. Holt, i. Leathart, N. McCracken, S.C. Montanan, [.E. Painter, H. Taber, D. Walker, and M. Yule. 1992. The pharmacogenetics of chemical carcinogenesis. Pharmacogenetics 2:246-25S. NRC (National Research Council). 1982. Diet, Nutrition and Cancer. Report of the Co~n- mittee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academv Press, Washington, D.C. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Hypertension Criqui, M.H., R.D. Langer, and D.M. Reed. l9S9. Dietary alcohol, calcium, and potassium: independent and combined effects on blood pressure. Circulation S0:609-614. Karppanen, H. 1991. Minerals and blood pressure. Ann. Med. 23:299-305. Luff, F.C., and D.A. McCarron. 1991. Heterogeneity of hypertension: the diverse role of electrolyte intake. Annul Rev. Med. 42:34 i -3.55. NRC (National Research Council). l9S9. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Disease ant! Arteriosclerosis NRC (National Research Council). l9S9. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. The Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. 1992. The effects of nonpharmacologic interventions on blood pressure of persons with high normal levels. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 96i:1913-1290. Willett, W.C. l9S9. Nutritional Epidemiology (Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatis- tics: No. 15). Oxford University Press, New York. Box: Homocysteine and Vascular Disease Lindenbaum, I., D.G. Savage, S.P. Stabler, and R.H. Allen. 1990. Diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency: II. Relative sensitivities of serum cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and total homocysteine concentrations. Ann. J. Hematol. 34:99-lO`. McCully, K.S. and R.B. Wilson. 19 ~5. Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis. Atheriosclerosis 22:215-~) i. Obesity Bjorntorp, P., and B.N. Brodoff, eds. 1992. Obesity. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA. Bouchard, D., ed. 1993, in press. Genetics of Obesity. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Stunkard, AT and T.A. Wadden. 199~. Obesity: Theory and Therapy. Raven Press, New York.

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SO URGES AND S UGGESTED READING 279 Diarrhea IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1992. Nutrition Issues in Developing Countries. Report of the Subcommittee on Nutrition and Diarrheal Diseases Control and the Subcommittee on Diet, Physical Activity, and Pregnancy Outcome, Committee on International Nutrition Programs, Food and Nutrition Board. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Walker, W.A., P.R. Harmatz, and B.K. Wershil, eds. 1993. Immunophysiology of the Gut. Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Nutrition Symposia, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York. CHAPTER 6: IMPROVING THE DIET AND HEALTH OF INDIVIDUALS AND POPULATIONS Reducing the Risk of Diet-Related Disease DHHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 1988. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. DHHS (PHS) publ. 88-50210. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1991. Improving America's Diet and Health: From Recom- mendations to Action. Report of the Committee on Dietary Guidelines Implementa- tion. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Sociocultural Factors in Diet Selection Brown, L.K., and K. Mussell. 1985. Ethnic and Regional Foodways in the United States: The Performance of Group Identity. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. Quandt, S.A., and C. Ritenbaugh, eds. 1986. Training Manual in Nutritional Anthropology. American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. Sharman, A., (. Theophano, K. Curtis, and E. Messer, eds. 1991. Diet and Domestic Life in Society. Temple University Press, Philadelphia, PA. Behavioral Strategies for Life-Style Change Marlett, G.A., and ).R. Gordon, eds. 1988. Relapse Prevention: Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviors. Guilford Press, New York. Prochaska i.O., W.F. Velicer, C.C. DiClemente, and ]. Fava. 1988. Measuring processes of change: applications to the cessation of smoking. l. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 56:520-528. Rogers, E.M. 1983. Diffusion of Innovations, 3rd ed. Free Press, New York. Steckler, A.B., I. Dawson, B.A. Israel, and E. Eng. 1993. Community health development: an overview of the works of Guy W. Steuart. Health Education Quarterly (Suppl. l):Sl- S150.

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gSo OPPORTUNITIES IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES Reducing the Risk of Food Insecurity and Hunger Anderson, S.A. 1990. Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult-to-sample populations. i. Nutr. 120:1559-1600. Campbell, C.C. 1991. Food insecurity: a nutritional outcome or a predictor variable'? J. Nutr. 121:408-415. Dietz, W.H., ed. 1991. Symposium: Nutritional Assessment and Intervention: Interface of Science and Policy. l. Nutr. 131:401-429. Society for Nutrition Education. 1992. Hunger in the '80s and 90s. I. Nutr. Educ. 24(1). Improving Methods and Tools American Dietetic Association. 1993. The Research Agenda for Dietetics: Conference Pro- ceedings. The American Dietetic Association, Chicago. Gibson, R.S. 1990. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. Oxford University Press, New York. Mason, t.B., l.P. Habicht, H. Tabatabai, and V. Valverde. 1984. Nutritional Surveillance. World Health Organization, Geneva. Olson, ).A. 1982. New approaches to methods for the assessment of nutritional status of the individual. Am. t. Clin. Nutr. 35:1166-1168. CHAPTER 7: EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES NRC/SED (National Research Council Survey of Earned Doctorates). 1970-1992. Survey of Earned Doctorates, sponsored by five Federal Agencies (National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Education, National Endowment for the Humanities, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture), and conducted by the Na- tional Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. CHAPTER 8: SUPPORT OF THE NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES IOM (Institute of Medicine); Bloom, F.E., and M.A. Randolph, eds. 1990. Funding Health Sciences Research: A Strategy to Restore Balance. Report of the Committee on Policies for Allocating Health Sciences Research Funds, Division of Health Sciences Policy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1992. National Institutes of Health Program in Bio- medical and Behavioral Nutrition Research and Training, Fiscal Year 1991. Report of the NIH Nutrition Coordinating Committee, Division of Nutrition Research Coordina- tion. NIH Publication No. 92-2092. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. (Pub- lication is revised annually.) NRC (National Research Council). 1989. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System. A report of the Board on Agricul- ture. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1992. 1991 Report on USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities: A Report to Congress. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (Publication is revised annually.)