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Index A Academic research programs, 28,210,256 food industry support, 12,264-265 foundation support, 12,267 Accreditation of schools, 8,9,215-216 Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), 95-96 Additives, 41,115 Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, 82, 83 Adolescents, 6,19 AdrenoleuPodystrophy, 83 Age and age groups, 5,18,185,203-204 high-fat preferences, 38-39 see also Aging and the elderly; Children; Development and growth Agency for International Development, 261 Aging and the elderly, 4,6,36,37,111, 144,151,204 body composition, 153-154 food assistance, 192,193,196-197 neural and sensory function, 58,106 108,161-162 and oxidation damage, 4,19,36-37 vision disorders, 152-153 see also Osteoporosis Agricultural Research Enhancement Awards (AREAs), 233,257 301 Agricultural Research Service (ARS), 252 Agricultural sustainability, 21,140-142 AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus), 45, 83,111 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 260 Algal toxins, 113 Allergies and sensitivities, 7,113,114-116, 128 Alpha-l-antitrypsin deficiency, 82 Alzheimer's disease, 161 American Board of Nutrition, 228 American Dietetic Association (ADA), 8, 215-216 American Heart Association, 12,267 American Institute of Nutrition, 265 Amino acids, 28,41,77 antioxidant properties, 4,93,95 and cereals, 39,126-127 neurotransmitters, 57 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 58,83 Anemia, 32,36,103,160 Angiogenesis, 94 Animal models, 16,34-35,37,73-76 gene knockout, 66,73 multifactorial disorders, 68,75 Anorexia, 106,163,164,179 Anthropometry, 6,199-200

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302 Antibiotics, 40 Antioxidants, 4, 19, 24, 40, 93-95, 128, 145, 152-153 Antisense techniques, 40, 65 Applied research, 1-2, 5, 16, 17 Ascorbic acid, see Vitamin C Aseptic packaging, 110, 117, 123 Aspartate, 57 Atherosclerosis, 5, 23-25 and cholesterol, 5, 24, 37, 48, 145 B Baccalaureate programs, see Undergraduate education Basic research, 1-2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12 and animal models, 73-76 cells and cellular processes, 68-73, 80, 88-90 genetics, 61-68, 78-88 graduate education, 8, 217, 229, 230 macromolecules, 76-78, 137-138 metabolism, 76, 78-79, 80-81 nutrient transport, 91-93 oxidation, 93-95 retinoid receptors, 95-96 Beans, 113 Beef, lean products, 39 Beef Promotion and Research Board, 266 Behavioral factors in diet, 5, 20, 145, 162- 164 and changes, 13, 25, 38, 186-189, 205, 254 Behavioral sciences, 7, 11, 17, 29, 212, 229, 233, 234 training, 229-230 Beriberi, 27, 28 Beta-carotene, 4, 40, 43, 93, 94, 128, 202 Biologically active food constituents, 4, 21, 25 Biology, 7, 17, 212, 217, 218, 224, 233, 234 Biomarkers, 6, 24, 25, 32, 109, 165, 198- 199, 201 Bionutrition Initiative, NIH, 10, 244, 245, 255 Biosensors, for food processing, 6-7, 41, 120-121, 124 Biotechnology, 6, 21, 39-41, 124, 126-135 and fat content, 25 Blood-brain barrier (BBB), 48, 91-93, 144 Blood-placenta barrier, 93 INDEX Blood pressure, see Hypertension Body composition and weight, 143-144, 153-156, 162 and food preference, 5, 163-164 measurement, 155-156, 199-200 and pregnancy, 146-147 see also Fats, body; Obesity Bone marrow, 90 Bone mass and disease, 19, 156 and vitamin D, 23, 51, 55, 56, 144 see also Osteoporosis; Rickets Bovine somatotropin (BST), 40 Brain, 48, 161. see also Blood-brain barrier; Neurotoxicity; Neurotransmitters Bread, 28, 39, 41 Breastfeeding, see Lactation and breastteeding C Calbindin, 23, 54 Calcitriol, 53-55 Calcium, 19, 56, 102, 103, 169 and pregnancy and lactation, 147, 148 and vitamin D, 22-23, 51, 53, 56 Cancer, 4, 28, 38, 95, 164-166 and carotenoids, 18-19 gene therapy, 63, 83 and oxidation, 36, 37, 93-94 preventatives, 38-39, 109, 128 and vitamin A, 43, 51, 145 and vitamin D, 51 Canola oil, 127 Carbohydrates, 4, 38, 104, 169 metabolism, 41 and neurotransmitters, 56-57 Cardiovascular disease, 4, 28, 43, 145, 170- 174 and familial hypercholesterolemia, 49 and iron toxicity, 32, 145 and obesity, 24, 172, 174 and oxidation, 37, 94 see also Atherosclerosis; Coronary heart disease Carotenoids, 4, 18-19, 43, 96 antioxidant properties, 24, 36-37, 94 Cataracts, 36, 37, 145, 152-153 Celiac disease, 115, 116 Cell cultures, 62, 71-73, 129, 130 Cells and cellular processes, i, 8, 48 basic research, 68-73, 80, 88-90

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INDEX division and differentiation, 4, lS-19, 50-51, S8-90, 96, 129 imaging, 69-71 intercellular communication, lS-19, 80 and iron toxicity, 32 oxidation damage, 4, 94, 95 Cellulose ethers, 104 Center for Aseptic Processing and Packaging Studies, 25S, 265 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 260 Central nervous system, 160-162 Cereals and biotechnology, 6, 39, 126-127, 135 fortified, 22, 101 Cheese, 39, 41 Chemistry, 7, S. 17, 212, HIS, 233, 236 Child and Adult Care Food Program, 196 197 Children, 19, 32, 155 diarrhea, 42, 177-179 food assistance, 194-197 iron deficiency, 29, 32, 102 vitamin A deficiency, 42-43 Cholecalciferol, 53 Cholera, 41 Cholesterol, 22, 4S, 120 and atherosclerosis, 5, 24, 37, 4S, 145 and LDL, 24, 37, 4S-50, 94, 171-172 Chromium, 45 Chromosomal abnormalities, 67 Chronic diseases, 4-5, 6, 19-20, 28, 33, 36, 3S, 143, 145, 1S3 Cirrhosis, 32 Clinical investigators, 22S-229, 233 Clinical Nutrition Research Units (CNRUs), 10-11, 229, 242-244, 24S-249 Cloning of genes, 4, 77, 127 retinoic acid receptors, 51, 52-53 Clostridium botulinum, 110 Cognitive function, 160-162 Commodity checkoff programs, 266 Commodity Food Distribution Program, 205 Community interventions, lS9 Competitions, product development, 230-231 Computer-based management and modeling, 6-7, 121-122, 134, 135, 205-207 Confocal microscopy, 70, 94 Congregate and Home-Delivered Meals Programs, 192, 196 303 Contamination of foods, 7, 110, 112 Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS), 156, 252-253 Copper, 4, 36, 45, 103, 159 Coronary heart disease (CHD), 23-25, 37, 170-172 Curricula graduate education, S-9, 217, 233, 234 undergraduate education, 7-8, 212 Cyclodextrins, 135 Cystic fibrosis, 67, S2 Cytokine modulation, 157-160 D Dairy products, 120 and biotechnology, 40-41 industry research support, 12, 266 vitamin D content, 22 Databases of federal research, 240, 263 of food properties, 5-6, 118-119 Decaffeination, 40, 105, 119-120 Dementia, 58 Dentition, 106 Department of Agriculture, see U.S. Department of Agriculture Department of Commerce, 261 Department of Defense, 261-262 Department of Veterans Affairs, 262 Depletion-repletion studies, 43 Designer foods, 25, 109 Development and growth, 4, 18, 19, 23, 32, 43, 57, 143-144, 149-151. See also Embryonic and fetal development Diabetes, 4, 5, 2S, 32, 33, 3S, 67 non-insulin dependent (NIDD), 24, 33-34, 68, 166-168 and obesity, 33-34, 166-167 Diarrhea, 43, 111, 177- 179 Dietary guidelines, 19 attainment of, 2, 186-187 fats, 38 folio acid, 35, 36 and food engineering, 21, 28, 99-106 individualization of, 19, 24, 45 nutrient intake in excess of, 36, 114 public education, 25, 182-183 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), 18, 35, 36

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304 Dietary patterns, 5, 6, 11, 20, 45 assessment of, 5, 201-202 and chronic diseases, 4-5, 6, 19-20, 28, 33, 38, 143, 145, 183 Dietetics, 211 Disease resistance, 4, 19 of transgenic animals, 40-41, 131 Doctorates and doctoral programs, 7, 9, 209, 217-218, 222, 223-227, 231, 233-236 Dopamine, 57 Drying of food, 27, 116 E Eating disorders and anorexia, 56-57, 106, 163, 164, 179 Economics, 233, 258 Education, see Academic research programs; Faculty; Graduate education; Public education and outreach; Training of scientists; Undergraduate education Eggs, 22, 39, 104, 120 Elderly population, see Aging and the elderly Electrolytes, 41-42, 168-169 Electron spin resonance, 137 Electroporation, 62 Embryonic and fetal development, 4, 32, 51, 95, 147 neurological, 35, 57, 92-93, 160-161 Endocrine disorders, 51 Endothelial cells, 91, 92 Energy sources, alternative, 141 Engineering of food, 6, 7, 17, 99-106, 117- 119 NSF research support, 11, 258, 259 training, 7, 8, 212, 217, 230, 236 USDA research support, 11, 254 Enrichment, see Fortified foods Ensuring Food Safety (EFS) program, 253, 254, 256 Enteral nutrition, 45-46 Environmental factors, 18, 86-87 for neural tube defects, 35 see also Dietary patterns Environmental impacts of food production, 21, 123-124, 140-142 Enzymes, 4, 29, 36, 78-81 and biotechnology, 41, 133-135 INDEX Epidemiology, 8, 29, 111, 217, 224, 230, 233 Epithelial cells, 88-89, 157 and vitamin A, 50 Erythropoietic protoporphyria, 93 Estrogen, and osteoporosis, 23, 156 Ethics and morality, 13, 109-110 Exports of processed foods, 2, 11, 12, 254 Extrusion, 122 Eye disorders, 42, 152-153. see also Cataracts F Faculty, 7, 12, 215, 219, 220, 221 Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), 48-49 Fast-food establishments, 104, 105 Fats, body, 155-156, 176-177 and diabetes, 34 and oxidation, 4, 19, 36, 94 regulation of, 24 Fats, dietary, 4, 24, 28, 38, 120, 169 and biotechnology, 25, 127, 131 and cancer, 164-165 and cholesterol levels, 48-49 and heart disease, 170-171 metabolism, 41 reduction in foods, 6, 25, 28, 38, 39, 103-106, 127 sensory preferences, 38-39, 106 substitutes, 21, 24-25, 38, 39, 103, 104, 106 Fat-soluble vitamins, 22, 178 Federal government documentation of research effort, 10, 263 research support, 1-2, 9, 10-11, 28, 237-264 Fellowships and grants, 9, 230, 231-236 foundation support, 12, 267 NIH, 10-11, 231-233, 234-236, 244- 247 NSF, 11, 258-259 summer training programs, 8, 214-215 USDA, 231, 233, 234-236, 256-257 Fermentation, 27, 39, 41, 117, 129, 131-133 Ferritin, 32, 59, 60, 61 Fertilizers, 140-141 Fetus, see Embryonic and fetal development Fiber, 4, 38, 41 Fish, 130, 140-141

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INDEX Five-a-Day for Better Health, 205 Flavor and flavorings, 41, 102-103, 107-108 Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), 71 Folate and folio acid, 35-36, 101, 103, 161, 173 and neural tube defects, 35, 101, 145, 160, 182 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 101, 109, 260 Food assistance programs, 3, 6, 21, 28, 181, 192-198 evaluation of, 193-197, 204-205, 257- 258 Foodborne disease, see Microbiological food hazards Food consumption, 5, 20, 144, 162 assessment and measurement, 5, 200- 204 neurological regulation, 5, 162 and oxygen intake, 27 preferences, 5, 6, 20, 38-39, 163-164 Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), 201-202 Food industry, 6-7, 21, 100-101 research support, 1-2, 12, 21, 264-267 summer training support, 8, 214, 231 see also Processed foods and processing Food safety, 3, 7, 21, 110-116 and biotechnology, 41, 109-110, 128, 132 microbiological hazards, 110-112, 116- 117, 124 NSF support, 258 USDA support, 11, 254 Food sciences, In, 142 graduate education, 8-9, 218, 220-221 undergraduate education, 7-8, 211-216 Food stamp program, 192, 193, 195, 205, 258 Food supply, 2, 5, 6-7, 13, 20-21 USDA research, 11 Fortified foods, 6, 28, 33, 35-36, 43, 101-103 Foundations, 1-2, 9, 12, 267-268 Free-radical reactions, 7, 58, 139 Fried foods, 106 Frozen foods, 28, 104, 117, 137 Fruits, 21, 40, 93-94, 102, 165, 205 Functional foods, 6, 25, 108-110, 128 Funding of research, 1-3, 9-10, 12-13, 28-29 academic, 12, 218-219 305 federal, 1-2, 9, 10-11, 28, 237-264 by food industry, 1-2, 12, 21, 264-267 by foundations, 1-2, 9, 12, 267-268 Fuzzy logic, 121-122 G Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), 57 Gender, see Sex-related differences Gene expression regulation, 4, 29, 40, 47- 48, 61-66, 84-86 and vitamin A, 43, 51 and vitamin D, 23, 53-56 Gene knockout, 63, 66, 73, 80 Gene mapping, 67, 83-84 Gene therapy, 5, 75, 81-83 for cancer, 63, 83 Genetic engineering, 21, 39, 108, 114, 115- 116 animals, 40-41, 130-131 microorganisms, 39, 41, 131-133 plants, 39-40, 113, 126-130, 134-135 Genetics, 4, 8, 15, 18, 29, 47, 217 and atherosclerosis risk, 24 basic research, 61-68, 78-88 and chronic disease, 4-5, 15-16, 19-20, 29, 32-37 and diabetes, 33-34 and food preferences, 5, 20 and hemochromatosis, 32, 33 multifactorial disorders, 67-68, 75 neural tube defects, 35 and obesity, 20, 67, 68, 87, 175-176 Gene transfer, 25, 39, 61-65 Germline gene therapy, 81-82 Glutamate, 45-46, 57, 93 Graduate education, 7, 8-9, 209, 210, 211, 216-227, 229, 230 see also Fellowships and grants Grants, see Fellowships and grants; Funding of research Growth, see Development and growth H Handicapped persons, 196-197 Hatch Act, 253, 256 Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) procedures, 112, 117 Health Resources Services Administration, 261

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306 Heart disease, see Cardiovascular disease; Coronary heart disease lIeat processing, 2S Hemochromatosis, 32-33 Heredity, see Genetics fIome economics, 2S, 224 Homeless population, 6, 197, 204 Homocysteine, 161, 173 Homologous recombination, 63, 66, 73, SO Human Genome Project, S3-S4 Human Nutrition Research Centers (HNRCs), USDA, S. 214, 252-253, 256 Human Nutrition Research Information Management System (HNRIMS), 240, 263 Hunger, see Malnutrition and hunger Hydrocolloids, 104 Hydrogenation, 127 Hypercholesterolemia, 37, 4S-49, S2 Hyperlipidemia, 63, 67 Hypersensitivities, see Allergies and sensitivities Hypertension, 4, 5, 24, 37, 67, 6S, 145, 147, 16S-169 I Imaging technologies, 135, 137, 162 cells and cellular processes, 69-71 food processing, 121 magnetic resonance, 76, 77, 95, 121, 135, 136, 137, 254 for metabolism, 76 Immune function, 19, 32, 36, 96, 111, 144, 154-155, 156-160 Immunohistochemistry, 69 Improving Human Nutrition for Optimal Health (IHNOI]), 253-254 Ingredients, engineering of, 7, llS, 12S 129, 131-132 Inheritance, see Genetics In situ hybridization, 69 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), S. 215-216, 230-231, 265 Institutional infrastructure, 7, 210, 219-223 Insulin, 33, 34, 167 Interagency Committee for Human Nutrition Research (ICHN11), 240, 263-264 INDEX Interdisciplinary research, 7, 15-17, 20, 29, 194, 209, 210 and graduate education, 7, 9, 209, 211, 229, 230 NIH support, 11, 242-243 Interventions, 6, 25, lS7-189, 207-208 evaluation of, 6, 181, 204-207 Intestine, 32, 45, 48, 54 Intracellular communication, 18-19, 80 Intravenous feeding, 45-46 Iodine, 27, 160 Ion channels, 57 Iron, 5S-61, 101, 102 deficiency, 29, 32, 33, 58, 102, 160, 181-182 toxicity, 32, 59 Iron-responsive-element-binding protein (IRE-BP), 59, 60, 61 Isotopic tracers, 44, 45, 4 K Keratomalacia, 42 Kinetic models, 44-45 L Labeling, 3, 25, 105, 109 Laboratory training, 9, 11-12, 213-214, 220, 229 Lactation and breastfeeding, 43, 44, 93, 105, 144, 146, 148, 150, 185 and diarrhea, 178 Lactose intolerance, 115 Land-grant colleges, 28, 210, 253 Laser-scanning confocal microscope, 70 Lead poisoning, 32 Lean body mass ( LB M ), 153- 155 Lifestyle, see Behavioral factors in diet; Dietary patterns Linoleic acid, 171 Lipids, see Cholesterol; Fats Lipoproteins, 24, 171 Liver, 22, 32, 33, 53 Longevity, 4, 19, 151 Low-calorie foods, 6, 39, 103-106 Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), 24, 37, 48-50, 94, 171-172 Low-fat foods, 6, 25, 28, 38, 39, 103-106, 127

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INDEX M Macromolecules, ~6- 7 S. 13~-13S Macronutrients, 4, i, 103-104, 106. see also Carbohydrates; Fats, dietary; Protein Magnetic resonance imaging, ~6, ~ /, 95, 121, 135, 136, 13~, 254 Malnutrition and hunger, 3, 19, 144, 150 151, lSl, lS9-19S see also Vitamin deficiency Margarine, 22, 104 Mathematical models, 44, 11 Mathematics, i, 212 Meat, 12, 103, 111-112 fat content and reduction, 25, 39, 104, 131 Medical foods, 21, 109 Medical schools, 9, 2S, 21S, 220, 221-222, 229 Membrane structures, 139-140 separation technologies, 120 Menkes syndrome, S3 Menstruation, 29, 102 Metabolism, 2~, 3,, 44-45, 4~-4S basic research, ~ 6, ~ S- ~ 9, S0-S 1 and biotechnology, 41 enzymatic processes, 4, 29, ~S-S1 and food preferences, 5, 1 ~ 5 imaging technologies, / 6 imprinting, 151 and iron, 29, SS-61 and obesity, 1 i5 secondary, 12S-129 and vitamin D, 53, 54 Microbiological food hazards, 110-112, 116 11/, 124 Microbiology, i, S. 212, 21 i, 230 and genetic engineering, 39, 41, 131 133 Micronutrients, see names of.specific vitamins ancl minerals Microscopy, 69-~1 Microwave processing, 11 i Milk, 2 ~ -28, 131 and BST, 40 fortified, 22, 2S, 101 see also Lactation and breastteeding Minnesota Heart Healthy Program, lS9 Minority groups, 6, 145, 1S4, 203-204 nutrition careers, 224-225, 226, 249 Minority Health Initiative, 249 307 Modernization, and disease risk, 20 Modified atmosphere packaging, 110, 112 Modified foods, 21, 25, 26, 2S fat content, 25, AS, 39 Molecular biology, 4, i, S. 15, 29, 4 ~-4S, 135-140, 165-166, 234 Molecular genetics, 4, 4 i, 61-62, 1 ~ 5-1 ~6, 2:33 Monitoring and surveillance, 3, 5, 2S, 112, 203-204, 20 ~ Monoclonal antibodies, 6S-69 Monogenic disorders, 6~ Monosodium glutamate, 115 Mucosal barriers, 15 ~ Multidisciplinary research, see Interdisciplinary research Multifactorial genetic disorders, 6 /-6S, i5 Muscular cells and tissue, 23, 45-46, 154 Mycotoxins, 113 N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 262 National Center for Health Statistics, 261 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), 25, 3S National Dairy Promotion and Research Board, 266 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidnev Diseases ~ , (NIDDK), 241, 24S National Institutes of Health (NIH) Bionutrition Initiative, 10, 244, 245, 255 fellowships and grants, 10-11, 231-233, 234-236, 244-24 ~ research support, 10-11, 23~, 23S, 239, 240-249 summer training support, S. 214 see also Clinical Nutrition Research Units; Obesity Nutrition Research Centers National Needs Graduate Fellowships Program, 233, 256-25 ~ National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program (NRICGP), 233, 253, 254, 255 National Research Service Awards (NRSAs), 232 National school lunch program, 104, 105, 192, 193, 194-195, 258

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308 National Science Foundation (NSF), 11, 258-259 Neural tube defects, 3.5, 101, 145, 160, 182 Neuropeptides, 56-57, 144 Neuroreceptors, 5 ~ -58 Neurotoxicity, 56, 57-58, 93 Neurotransmitters, 5, 20, 24-25, 38-39, 56 58, 144, 162, 163, 174-175 N-methyl-D-aspartic acid ( N M DA) receptor, 57-58 Nobel Prize awards, 30-31, 50 Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), 24, 33-34, 68, 166-168 Nonprofit organizations, 1-2, 9, 12, 267-268 Norrie's disease, 83 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 76, 77, 95, 121, 135, 137 Nutrient transport, 48, 54-55, 59-61, 62, 91- 93 blood-brain barrier, 48, 91-93, 144 Nutritional status assessment, 6, 44-46, 198 203 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act, 109 Nutrition science, In, 48 graduate education, 8-9, 218, 220, 221, 225 history, 27-28 undergraduate education, 7, 211-216 o Obesity, 4, 5, 38, 163-164, 174-177 and diabetes, 33-34, 166-167 genetic predisposition, 20, 67, 68, 87, 175-176 and heart disease, 24, 172, 174 Obesity Nutrition Research Centers (ONRCs), 10-11, 229, 242-244, 248-249 Oilseeds, 25, 39, 127 Older Americans Act, 196 Oligosaccharides, 108 Opioid peptides, 5, 38-39 Oral reLydration therapy (ORT), 41-42 Osteoporosis, 19, 23, 51 56 145, 148, 156 , , Oxidation, 4, 19, 36-37, 93-95 p Packaging, 6, 21, 110, 112, 117, llS, 122 124, 125, 258 Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 23, 54 INDEX Parenteral nutrition, 45-46 Parkinsonism, 58 Pasteurization, 27-2S Peer review of research proposals, 10, 11, 247-248, 262-263 Pellagra, 28 Pesticides, 141 Pew Charitable Trusts, 12, 267 Pharmaceuticals, 130, 131 Phase equilibrium, 119-120 Phaseolin, 126 Phenylketonuria (PKU), 67, 75, S2 Phosphorus, 23, 41, 63 Physical exercise and inactivity, 24, 27, 154 Physical properties of food, 6, 7, 117-119, 122, 13S-139 Physiology, 8, 20, 29, 233, 236 Phytochemicals, 39-40, 109, 128 Plant tissue culture (PTC) technology, 128 129, 130 Poisonous foods, 113 Policies, 20-21, 26, 207 food assistance, 192, 197-19S to improve eating habits, 5-6, 13, 21 regulatory, 7, 109, 212, 229, 230 and research, 5-6, 16 Polymers, 104, 135-136, 137-13S Pork, 39, 40 Positron emission tomography (PET), 76, 162 Postdoctoral programs, 7, 9, 218-219, 231 236 Potassium, 16S-169 Poultry, 104 Poverty, 6, 32, 102, 194 Preeclampsia, 147 Pregnancy, 144, 146-149 and folic acid, 35-36 and food assistance, 195 iron deficiency, 29, 32, 102 Premature infants, 161 Preservation of foods, 6, 116-117 Presidential initiative, 2-3 Processed foods and processing, 6-7, 40, 100-101, 171 functional foods, 6, 25, 108-110, 128 history of, 27-2S quality control, 112, 120-122 safety of, 110-112, 114 see also Value-added foods Professional societies, 8, 13, 214, 265

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INDEX Promoter-regulator DNA, 61-62 Protein, 4, 62, 104 and biotechnology, 133-135 and metabolism, 41, 79-S0 and neurotransmitters, 56 and oxidation, 4, 19, 9.5 Public education and outreach, 2, 3, 20-21, 2S, 244 dietary guidelines, 25, 182-1S3 food safety, 7, 112 oral rehydration therapy, 42 Public health schools, 9, 28, 220, 222-223, 229-230 Q Quality control, 112, 120-122 R Race and ethnicity, see Minority groups Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), 18, 35, 36 Refrigeration, 28, 117 Regional Research Centers (RRCs), USDA, 8, 214, 252, 256 Regulatory policies, 109 nutritionist training in, 7, 212, 229, 230 Reproduction, see Embryonic and fetal development Restaurants, 104, 105 Retinoic acid receptors (RARs), 51, 52-53, 95-96 Retinoids, 4, 18, 43, 50-51, 94, 128 Retrolental fibroplasia, 93 Rheology, 122 Rhodopsin, 50 Riboflavin, 101 Rickets, 22, 23, 51, 144 S Salmonellosis, 112 Salt, 27, 28, 168 Satiety mechanisms, 56 School lunches, 192, 193, 194-195, 258 low-fat foods, 104, 105 Scurvy, 27, 2S Seafood, 104, 113 Secondary metabolism, 12S-129 - 309 Selenium, 45, 177-17S antioxidant properties, 4, 19, 36, 95, 159 Senile dementia, 5S Sensors, see Biosensors, for food processing Sensory factors, 5, 3S-39, 103, 106 Separation processes, 6, 119-120 Serotonin, 56-57 and food preferences, 5, 3S-39 Sex-related differences, 5, 18, 34, 145, 163 164, 185, 203-204 Shelf life, 40 Sickle cell anemia, 81 Skin, 43, 51, 53 Smoking, 24, 37, 94, 188, lS9 Social sciences, 7, S. 17, 29, 234, 258 training, 229-230 Sociocultural factors, 5, 11, 39, 174, 184 lSS Sodium, 145, 168, 169 Solvents, 119-120 Somatic gene therapy, 81, S2-83 Somatotropin, 40 Sous vice processing, 110, 112 Specialized Centers of Research (SCORs), 249 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 192, 193, 195-196, 197, 2S8 Stanford Five-City Multifactor Risk Reduction Project, 189 State agricultural research, USDA support, 11, 256 Statistics, 7, 212, 230 Stem cells, 88-90 Steroid hormones, 51, 53, 56 Student aid, see Fellowships and grants Sugar and sweeteners, 28, 38, 38-39 substitutes, 21, 38, 39, 103 Summer training programs, 8, 213-215, 230 Supercritical Iluid extraction, 108, 119-120 Surveillance, see Monitoring and surveillance Sustainable agriculture, 21, 140-142 T Taste, 46, 106, 107, 108, 161 Tay-Sachs disease, 67, 82 Thiamin, 58, 101 Thyroid hormones, 51, 56

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INDEX Promoter-regulator DNA, 61-62 Protein, 4, 62, 104 and biotechnology, 133-135 and metabolism, 41, 79-S0 and neurotransmitters, 56 and oxidation, 4, 19, 9.5 Public education and outreach, 2, 3, 20-21, 2S, 244 dietary guidelines, 25, 182-1S3 food safety, 7, 112 oral rehydration therapy, 42 Public health schools, 9, 28, 220, 222-223, 229-230 Q Quality control, 112, 120-122 R Race and ethnicity, see Minority groups Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), 18, 35, 36 Refrigeration, 28, 117 Regional Research Centers (RRCs), USDA, 8, 214, 252, 256 Regulatory policies, 109 nutritionist training in, 7, 212, 229, 230 Reproduction, see Embryonic and fetal development Restaurants, 104, 105 Retinoic acid receptors (RARs), 51, 52-53, 95-96 Retinoids, 4, 18, 43, 50-51, 94, 128 Retrolental fibroplasia, 93 Rheology, 122 Rhodopsin, 50 Riboflavin, 101 Rickets, 22, 23, 51, 144 S Salmonellosis, 112 Salt, 27, 28, 168 Satiety mechanisms, 56 School lunches, 192, 193, 194-195, 258 low-fat foods, 104, 105 Scurvy, 27, 2S Seafood, 104, 113 Secondary metabolism, 12S-129 - 309 Selenium, 45, 177-17S antioxidant properties, 4, 19, 36, 95, 159 Senile dementia, 5S Sensors, see Biosensors, for food processing Sensory factors, 5, 3S-39, 103, 106 Separation processes, 6, 119-120 Serotonin, 56-57 and food preferences, 5, 3S-39 Sex-related differences, 5, 18, 34, 145, 163 164, 185, 203-204 Shelf life, 40 Sickle cell anemia, 81 Skin, 43, 51, 53 Smoking, 24, 37, 94, 188, lS9 Social sciences, 7, S. 17, 29, 234, 258 training, 229-230 Sociocultural factors, 5, 11, 39, 174, 184 lSS Sodium, 145, 168, 169 Solvents, 119-120 Somatic gene therapy, 81, S2-83 Somatotropin, 40 Sous vice processing, 110, 112 Specialized Centers of Research (SCORs), 249 Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 192, 193, 195-196, 197, 2S8 Stanford Five-City Multifactor Risk Reduction Project, 189 State agricultural research, USDA support, 11, 256 Statistics, 7, 212, 230 Stem cells, 88-90 Steroid hormones, 51, 53, 56 Student aid, see Fellowships and grants Sugar and sweeteners, 28, 38, 38-39 substitutes, 21, 38, 39, 103 Summer training programs, 8, 213-215, 230 Supercritical Iluid extraction, 108, 119-120 Surveillance, see Monitoring and surveillance Sustainable agriculture, 21, 140-142 T Taste, 46, 106, 107, 108, 161 Tay-Sachs disease, 67, 82 Thiamin, 58, 101 Thyroid hormones, 51, 56