Study: Vaccines

Time of First Symptom (h)

Urticaria

Generalized Pruritis

Generalized Flush

Edema

Collapse

Bilyk and Dubchik, 1978: tetanus

0.1

Yes

No

No

Yes

?

Mansfield et al., 1986: rick skin test: tetanus

01

Yes

?

No

Yes

No

Ovens. 1986: diphtheria; tetanus; polio

0.1

Yes

No

No

No

Yes

Mandal, 1980; tetanus

0.1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Diaphoresis

Werne and Garrow,a,b 1946: diphtheria; pertussis

Unknown but <4 h

No

No

No

?

Yes

Werne and Garrow.a,b 1946; diphtheria; pertussis

Unknown but <4 h

No

No

No

?

Yes

a All patients studied were adults except: Chanukoglu et al. (1975), age = 4 years: and Werne and Garrow (1946), age = 10 months.

b Each entry is for one member of a pair of identical twins.

two injections of Td without difficulty. In that study, the investigators found a much lower rate of severe reactions than the 10 percent reported by Edsall et al. in 1954, but the authors noted that many reacting substances had been eliminated from the toxoid since that time.

Case Reports, Case Series, and Uncontrolled Observational Studies

Thirteen cases of anaphylaxis meeting the criteria of a life-threatening systemic reaction occurring within 4 hours of immunization with tetanus toxoid have been reported in the literature. These cases are summarized in



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