1988) provides instruction, modeling, and role play for students to learn to identify and resist influences to use drugs. Curricula promoting norms against drug use (Hansen and Graham, 1991; Ellickson and Bell, 1990; Perry, 1986) have included portrayals of drug use as socially unacceptable, identification of short-term negative consequences of drug use, provision of evidence that drug use is less prevalent among peers than children may think, encouragement for children to make public commitments to remain drug free, and in some cases the use of peer leaders to teach the curriculum.
Nearly all curricula include information on the prevalence and effects of alcohol and other drug use. However, this component alone does not appear sufficient to change the drug and alcohol behavior of youth (Hansen, 1992; Schinke, Botvin, and Orlandi, 1991; Stuart, 1974; Weaver and Tennant, 1973).
The combination of social influence resistance and normative change content in school curricula has produced modest significant reductions during early adolescence in the onset and prevalence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use across a number of experimental studies conducted by a variety of investigators (Ellickson and Bell, 1990; Hansen et al., 1988; McAlister, Perry, Killen, Slinkard, and Maccoby, 1980; see Hansen, 1992, for a recent review.)
Hansen and Graham (1991) have examined the relative contribution of the two components in a universal four-condition experimental study, the *Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial, of 3,011 seventh-grade students at 12 junior high schools. The study population was 44 percent white and 54 percent minority (e.g., African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans). Schools were stratified by size, test scores, and ethnic composition, and randomized to the following conditions: (1) an information program about the social and health consequences of alcohol and drug use; (2) a resistance training program on how to identify and resist peer and advertising pressure to use alcohol and drugs; (3) a normative education program geared toward remedying students' false perceptions about the prevalence and acceptability of alcohol and drug use among their same-age peers (methods used included discussing topics in class, completing and reviewing interviews with nondrinkers, developing positive friendships, establishing nondrinking as a positive quality, and writing and videotaping antialcohol rap songs); and (4) a shortened combination of information, resistance training, and normative education.
Results, which were analyzed at the classroom level on data collected in the year following intervention, suggested that normative change was the active ingredient in the curricula. Overall, those classrooms that