cant protective factor against academic and mental health problems. Felner has now combined the school restructuring components of STEP with curriculum changes suggested by the Carnegie Council and applied the program in 50 schools with 22,000 children (R. Felner, personal communication, 1993).

Others have taken a more comprehensive approach by targeting the broader social environments of the school, family, and community, seeking to spread the prevention message throughout the social environments affecting the adolescent. Olweus's *Intervention Campaign Against Bully-Victim Problems was designed to prevent bullying among children and adolescents in Norway (Olweus, 1991). The primary emphasis of the multicomponent prevention program was to educate the community, families, and school personnel on the scope of the bully-victim problem, and potential solutions. The intervention program was implemented as a nationwide campaign. The components of the program included (1) an educational booklet on the bullying problem distributed to all schools, (2) parent education (in the form of a booklet) on the bullying problem and possible solutions, (3) a 25-minute video with stories about the lives of “bullied children,” which was available for rent or sale, and (4) a self-report questionnaire to be completed by the children in the program.

The universal preventive intervention was evaluated by using a quasi-experimental cohort sequential design, and time-lagged comparisons were made between age-equivalent groups. The sample consisted of 2,400 students in grades 4 through 7 from 42 primary and secondary schools. Using self-reports of “being bullied” and “bullying others,” the findings indicated a 50 percent reduction in the levels of bully-victim problems at both the 8-month and the 20-month follow-up assessments. Youths also reported a reduction in reports of antisocial behavior (e.g., vandalism, theft, truancy) and an increased satisfaction with school life. Although the design does not rule out potential sources of influence, the fact that children reported a reduction in bullying, victimization, and other antisocial behavior following the intervention suggests the potential benefit of interventions seeking to reduce violence by establishing commonly shared concerns regarding antisocial behavior and discouraging such behavior in the media, schools, and homes.

Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Study: Programs Aimed at Violence Prevention

The emergence of concern with violence as a major public health problem (Rosenberg and Mercy, 1991; Sullivan, 1991; see also Chapter 3)



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