Skills Training


early behavior problems, early depressive symptoms

peer rejection


Seattle Social Development Project


Poor family management practices, early behavior problems, low commitment to school, academic failure

Better family management practices and family bonding, greater attachment to school, lower rates of delinquency and drug use initiation

Hawkins and Catalano, 1988


Changing Teaching Practices


Low commitment to education, academic failure, behavior problems

Greater attachment and commitment to school, lower rates of school suspension for misbehavior

Hawkins, 1988

Positive Youth Development Program


Early drug use onset, favorable attitudes toward drugs, social influences to use

Better coping skills, better stress management strategies, better conflict resolution and impulse control, less excessive alcohol use

Caplan and Weissberg, 1992

Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial


Attitudes favorable to the use of drugs, social influences to use, early onset of drug use

Lower rates of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use, lower prevalence of problem alcohol use and drunkenness

Hansen and Graham, 1991

ALERT Drug Prevention


Social influences to use, early onset of drug use, attitudes favorable to the use of drugs

Lower rates of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use

Ellickson and Bell, 1990

Alcohol Education Project


Favorable attitudes toward alcohol consumption, early onset of alcohol use, association with alcohol-consuming friends, community norms favorable toward alcohol use

Less initiation of alcohol use, increased knowledge about alcohol, decreased use among those drinking prior to study

Perry et al., 1989

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