Index

A

Academic research, 463, 468, 472, 527, 534, 538

Academic Tutoring and Social Skills Training, 256-257

Adaptability and adaptation, 65, 498

and alcohol abuse, 159, 162, 502

Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF), 463, 465, 481, 547

Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial, 264-265

Adolescents, 4, 39, 40, 229-230, 261-275, 488, 509-510

and alcohol abuse, 99, 481, 548

depression, 66, 166, 169, 261

schizophrenia, 261

smoking prevention, suicide, 4, 95

and violence, 43, 273-274

see also Conduct disorder;

Developmental transitions and psychopathology;

Teenage pregnancy

Adoption studies, 58, 67

alcohol abuse, 155-156

conduct disorder, 502

schizophrenia, 144

Advisory councils and panels, 472, 539

population laboratory proposal, 477, 544

Affective disorders, see Depression and depressive disorders ;

Mood disorders

African-Americans, 97-98, 225, 233, 393

After-care, see Maintenance therapy

Age of onset, 62, 75-80, 117-118, 498, 499-500, 522

conduct disorder, 80-86, 502

depression, 91, 92-93, 116

Aggression, 63, 83, 84, 254-256, 481, 513, 548

and alcohol abuse, 158, 162, 502

and conduct disorder, 175-176, 178, 180

AIDS, 4, 394



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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Index A Academic research, 463, 468, 472, 527, 534, 538 Academic Tutoring and Social Skills Training, 256-257 Adaptability and adaptation, 65, 498 and alcohol abuse, 159, 162, 502 Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF), 463, 465, 481, 547 Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial, 264-265 Adolescents, 4, 39, 40, 229-230, 261-275, 488, 509-510 and alcohol abuse, 99, 481, 548 depression, 66, 166, 169, 261 schizophrenia, 261 smoking prevention, suicide, 4, 95 and violence, 43, 273-274 see also Conduct disorder; Developmental transitions and psychopathology; Teenage pregnancy Adoption studies, 58, 67 alcohol abuse, 155-156 conduct disorder, 502 schizophrenia, 144 Advisory councils and panels, 472, 539 population laboratory proposal, 477, 544 Affective disorders, see Depression and depressive disorders ; Mood disorders African-Americans, 97-98, 225, 233, 393 After-care, see Maintenance therapy Age of onset, 62, 75-80, 117-118, 498, 499-500, 522 conduct disorder, 80-86, 502 depression, 91, 92-93, 116 Aggression, 63, 83, 84, 254-256, 481, 513, 548 and alcohol abuse, 158, 162, 502 and conduct disorder, 175-176, 178, 180 AIDS, 4, 394

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Alcohol abuse, 15, 93-99, 481 age of onset, 78 childhood interventions, 481, 548 and children, 4, 155, 159, 160, 176, 502 classification, 12, 93-95, 99 and control of availability, 159, 162-163, 267-268, 275, 479, 502, 512, 546 and depression, 96, 481, 502, 548 and domestic violence, 481, 548 economic costs, 4-5, 488 markers, 156-157, 162, 502 risk and protective factors, 154-163, 501-502 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 27, 427, 464 funding, 438, 440-444, 449, 531 Alcohol Education Project, 265-266 ALERT Drug Prevention, 265 Alternative healing practices, 249, 340-344, 346-347, 348-349 Aluminum, and Alzheimer's disease, 138 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 4, 15, 105-111, 118, 291, 294, 488, 498 age of onset, 107, 111, 131 classification and diagnosis, 106, 108-109 delay of onset, 26, 118, 132-133, 137, 139, 141, 501 risk factors, 129-141, 501 treatment, 109-110, 141 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 4 American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 296 American Express Foundation, 449, 530 American Stop Smoking Intervention Trial (ASSIST), 40 Amyloid deposition, 118, 132-133, 134, 139, 141, 501 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 449, 531 Anthropology, 474, 540 Antisocial behavior, 84-86, 171-172, 176-177, 178, 179 Antisocial personality disorder, 82, 84-86, 96 and alcohol abuse, 96, 158, 162, 501-502 Anxiety, 13, 55, 87, 97, 104, 318, 319, 320 Applied behavior analysis, 477, 544 Applied research, 475, 542 Asian-Americans, 161, 394-395, 397, 524 Assertiveness Training Programs, 251 Asymptomatic individuals, 21, 22, 25, 494-495 Attachment, 63-64, 68, 161, 498 Attack rate, 76 Attention deficits, 83, 148 Attributable risk, 62, 75-76, 79-80, 115, 192, 497-498 Attrition and retention, of study participants, 221, 369, 389, 512, 522 Autism, 56-57, 559 B Basic research, 54, 475, 476, 542, 543 Behaviorally Based Preventive Intervention, 270 Behavioral sciences, 53, 63-64, 67-68, 476, 496, 498, 542 Benchmark estimates, developmental studies, 476, 477, 543, 544, 546 Benefit-cost issues, see Cost-benefit analysis; Cost effectiveness Bereavement, see Loss and bereavement Biochemical markers, 156 Biological factors, 5, 6, 61, 493, 494, 500, 501 alcohol abuse, 155-157 conduct disorder, 171-175, 180 depression, 163-165 interventions, 301, 512 research funding, 476, 478, 543, 545 schizophrenia, 142-149, 501

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Biological sciences, 53, 67, 496, 498 Bipolar disorder, 24, 55, 87 and teen pregnancy, 13 Birth complications, see Pregnancy, and complications Birth trauma, 59 Birthweight, 65, 182, 183, 225, 234-239, 502 Block grants, and state prevention offices, 472, 539 Boxers, head injuries, 135, 136 Brain injury and head trauma, 49, 59, 479, 546 alcohol-related, 96 and Alzheimer's disease, 135-136, 141 and depression, 165 Bullying, 273, 512 C Caesarean births (CB), 280-281 Calcium channel blockers, 55, 497 Cambridge-Somerville project, 327 Cardiovascular disease, 34-37, 46-47, 57, 488 Career development awards, 473 Caregivers, 4, 26, 140, 140-141, 152-153, 289-291, 292, 293-294, 479, 481, 546, 548 Alzheimer's disease, 108, 109, 140-141, 294 schizophrenia, 152-153, 154 Caregiver Support Program for Coping with Occupational Stress, 283-284, 291, 292 Carnegie Corporation, 449, 531 Carolina Abecedarian Project, 238-239 Case-control studies, 61, 62, 498 Categorical measures, 381-382 Causal chains and processes, 11, 15, 75, 76, 186-187, 217, 219, 222, 503 genetic studies, 497 multiple disorders, 480, 547 neurological disorders, 54, 496 Cellular mechanisms, 54, 139, 496 and drug therapy, 55, 497 Censoring bias, 77, 111 Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), 424, 442 Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), 442 Center on Mental Services (CMHS), 442, 464 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 14, 43-44, 48, 427, 438, 457, 463, 465, 469-470, 477, 536, 544 Cerebral palsy, 59, 225 Cerebral ventricular size, 149, 192 Challenge model, 186 Change technologies, 367 Changing Teaching Practices, 262 Child abuse and neglect, 4, 188-190, 191, 402, 488 and alcohol abuse, 481, 548 and conduct disorder, 177-178 and depression, 165 Children, 4, 64, 111-115, 403, 487-488 of alcoholics, 4, 155, 159, 160, 176, 502 depression, 66, 92, 93, 112-113, 114, 320 diagnostic classification, 13, 112, 114-115, 117 interventions, 114-115, 227-229, 241-261, 299-300, 504, 507-509 and schizophrenia, 142-144 and violence, 43 see also Adolescents; Child abuse and neglect; Conduct disorder; Day care; Developmental transitions and psychopathology; Preschool programs Children of Divorce Intervention Program, 251-253 Cholesterol, 34, 46-47 Chronic medical conditions, 64, 175, 182, 502 Classification, see Definitions of prevention; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Diagnostic criteria and classification; International Classification of Diseases

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Clearinghouses, 424, 425-426, 463, 473, 527, 528, 540 Clinical depression, see Depression and depressive disorders Cognitive-behavior therapy, 477, 513, 544 Cognitive deficits, see Intelligence levels; Neurological deficits Cohort studies, 61, 62, 116 Collaboration in research, 329, 370-372, 460, 539 interorganizational issues, 370-372, 431, 432 treatment and prevention, 477, 514, 544 Colloquia, 478, 545 Colorado Trust, 449, 531 Community Epidemiological Preventive Intervention: Mastery Learning and Good Behavior Game, 256 Community factors and roles, 48, 59, 183, 184, 301, 344-345, 478, 482, 498, 545, 549 conduct disorder, 178-179, 181 in program research and adoption, 360, 361, 364, 372-373, 399-400, 403-303, 415-418, 427, 429-430, 432-434, 527, 528-529 protective, 501 violence prevention, 43-44 see also Cultural factors Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT), 40 Community mental health centers, 3 Co-morbidity, 13, 23, 115-116, 182, 469, 498, 513, 533, 534, 536 alcohol abuse, 481, 548 conduct disorder, 83 depression, 87, 91, 481, 548 genetic studies, 497 intervention research, 319-320, 328, 513-514 schizophrenia, 103-104 Comparability of research, 13, 469 Compensatory model, 186 Computer Retrieval of Information and Scientific Projects (CRISP) , 419, 438-440, 449, 454, 529, 530, 532 Conduct disorder, 7, 15, 219, 249, 480, 481, 499, 502, 512, 547, 548 age of onset, 80-86, 502 classification and diagnosis, 12, 80-82, 83-86, 438-440 interventions, 83, 261, 269-270, 300, 323, 512 research trials, 481, 548 risk and protective factors, 57, 171-182, 481, 502, 548 Conferences, 424, 427, 463, 527 Confidentiality, 401-402, 525 Confirmatory trials, 46, 365, 482, 483, 516, 548, 549, 550 Congressional commissions, 470, 537 Conrad N. Hilton [foundation], 449, 531 Consensual norms, 263-266, 300, 301, 512 Consortiums, 48, 473, 540 Continuous measures, 381-382 Continuous performance test, 148 Coordination of programs, 50, 463-466, 468, 469-473, 533-534, 535-540 accounting of intervention funding, 472, 539 proposed national council, 468, 470-472 Core sciences, 53, 67-68, 496-498, 542, 545. see also Behavioral sciences; Biological sciences; Developmental transitions and psychopathology; Epidemiology and epidemiologists; Genetics and genetic factors; Neuroscience Cost-benefit analysis, 50, 405, 525, 526 Cost effectiveness, 301, 329, 367, 405-408, 482, 512, 525-526, 549 health promotion, 335, 348, 515 immunization, 233 indicated interventions, 21, 25, 495

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH JOBS project, 291 selective interventions, 21, 25, 494 universal interventions, 21, 25, 368, 494 Costs and expenditures, see Block grants, and state prevention offices; Cost effectiveness; Economic costs of mental illness; Fellowships and stipends; Funding of research; Health insurance; Medical costs; Productivity losses Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 138 Crime, 178-179, 526 Cross-sectional studies, 77, 116, 498 Cultural factors, 48, 68, 249, 327, 377, 407, 498 health promotion, 335, 337-339, 341-344, 346, 515 and researcher competence, 327, 384, 391-397, 482, 523-524, 549 Cycle of research, 15, 16, 360-373, 415, 482, 515-517, 518-519, 549 D Day care, 241-248 passim, 480, 547 Definitions of prevention, 19-22, 24, 468, 493-494 Gordon system, 20-22, 23, 25, 493, 494 and program accounting, 472, 539 and research conduct, 13-14, 27-28, 361, 437-438, 468, 477, 482, 535 variation in, 13-14, 469, 492, 534 see also Diagnostic criteria and classification Delay of onset, 26 Delinquency, 84, 179, 190, 438, 512 Dementia, see Alzheimer's disease Dementia pugilistica, 135 Demonstration projects, 46, 478, 483, 531, 545, 550 Department of Defense, 457, 463, 465, 467, 472, 477, 481, 482, 534, 538, 544, 548, 549 Department of Education, 463, 465, 467, 472, 477, 481, 482, 534, 538, 544, 548, 549 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 463, 467, 472, 480, 534, 536-537, 538, 547 funding, 449, 450, 531 national health objectives, 14 see also Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institute of Mental Health; National Institutes of Health; Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Department of Housing and Urban Development, 468, 472, 534 Department of Justice, 465, 467, 472, 477, 481, 482, 534, 538, 544, 548, 549 Department of Labor, 467, 472, 534, 538 Depression and depressive disorders, 15, 86-93 age of onset, 91, 92-93, 116 children, 66, 92, 93, 112-113, 114, 320 classification, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 115 developmental approaches, 65-66, 92 interventions, 87, 91-92, 286-289, 291, 300, 318, 320, 322, 502, 512 postpartum, 65-66, 280-281 and poverty, 165, 167, 168, 286, 502 related disability, 5, 87 risk and protective factors, 57, 63, 64, 68, 163-171, 502 transient, 13 Developmental transitions and psychopathology, 62, 64-68, 73, 75-76, 116-117, 476, 498, 542, 546 and adaptation, 498 and depression, 166 epidemiological studies, 114-115, 116-117, 476-477, 500, 543-544

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH genetic factors, 56 interventions, 216, 222-223, 224, 275-276, 298-299, 300, 504 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), 12, 13, 75, 382 Diagnostic criteria and classification, 11-13, 22, 75-77, 361, 382, 492 conduct disorder, 12, 80-82, 83-86, 438-440 depression, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 115 and developmental transitions, 476, 500, 543 reliability, 12 validity, 12, 75, 114 and variation in prevalence estimates, 4, 75 see also Precursor signs and symptoms; Prodrome Disability, 19, 20, 493 Disruptive behavior, 150-151, 317, 320, 513 Dissemination of research, 7, 328, 415-416, 419-427, 432-434, 473, 516, 527-528, 539-540 Alzheimer's disease, 138 funding, 475, 539-540, 541 population laboratory proposal, 477, 544 service program evaluations, 473, 539 specialized prevention research centers, 482, 549 Divorce and separation, 278-279, 479, 546 and children, 251-254 and depression, 87, 165, 168, 502 Documentation and manuals, 220, 222, 326, 389-391, 424, 512, 520, 522-523, 527, 528 Domestic violence, 177 and firearms, 44 Down's syndrome (DS), 59, 131-132 Drug abuse, 4-5, 12, 13, 87 and alcohol abuse, 97, 481, 488 childhood interventions, 261, 262-269, 270, 274-275, 512 and conduct disorder, 83, 84, 176-177 and schizophrenia, 103, 152 Drug therapy, 55, 322-323, 497 for alcohol abuse, 99 for Alzheimer's disease, 109-110, 139-140, 141, 501 for schizophrenia, 104, 322-323 Duke University Family Support Program, 293-294 Duplication of research, 469, 535-536 Dysthymia, 86, 87, 92, 320 E Early childhood education, 241-246, 512 Early Intervention for Preterm Infants study, 236 Eastern spirituality and meditation, 342-343 Ecological model, 235, 301 Economic costs of mental illness, 4-5 Alzheimer's disease, 105, 107 conduct disorder, 83 depression, 87, 481, 548 schizophrenia, 102, 103 Education, schools of, 474, 541 Educational attainment, and Alzheimer's disease, 136-137, 141 Educational performance and failure, 58, 84, 184, 191, 479, 480, 546 and alcoholism, 158 and conduct disorder, 174-175, 181, 219, 512 interventions, 238-239, 249, 256-259, 260, 262 school reorganization, 257-259, 270-273 Effectiveness, 315, 372 Efficacy, 315, 372 Electrophysiological markers, 149, 156, 162 Emotional disturbances, 57

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Environmental factors, 6, 61, 67, 186 Alzheimer's disease, 138, 501 and genetics, 57-59, 67-68, 368-369, 497 in interventions, 324-325 Epidemiological studies, 61-62, 68, 497-498 children's mental health, 13, 117, 476, 478, 500, 543, 545 conduct disorder, 502 funding, 478, 543, 545 intervention evaluations, 517 precursor signs and symptoms, 118, 499 Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, 3-4, 74-75 age of onset data, 62, 74, 75, 77, 498 Epidemiology and epidemiologists, 60-62, 67, 459, 461,473, 474, 497, 533, 540, 542. see also Epidemiological studies Ethical issues, 22, 326-327, 397-405, 429-430, 482, 524-525, 549 gene therapy, 60 Ethnic groups, see Racial and ethnic groups Etiology, see Causal chains and processes; Risk factors Evaluations, see Documentation and manuals; Methodological problems and standards; Service programs evaluation Exchange of knowledge, see Collaboration in research; Dissemination of research Executive Office of the President, 471, 537, 538 Eye movement, schizophrenia marker, 127-128, 147, 500 F Facilitators, 528-529 Family Bereavement Program, 253-254 Family Development Research Program, 239 Family relations and parenting, 6, 58, 182-183, 184-185, 186, 187, 299, 325, 328, 339-340, 478, 479, 501, 503, 545, 546 and alcohol abuse, 4, 155, 159, 160, 161, 162, 502 and conduct disorder, 83-84, 173-174, 176-178, 179, 180, 481, 512, 548 and depression, 26, 65-66, 91, 168, 169-171, 260-261, 502 preservation programs, 250-251, 259 and schizophrenia, 104, 142, 143, 150, 153, 501 training programs, 232-251 passim, 259, 480, 547 see also Caregivers; Child abuse and neglect Federal government agency activities, 448-449, 467-468, 529-530, 534 aid to states, 472, 539 see also Advisory councils and panels; Coordination of programs; Funding of research; Interagency cooperation; names of specific agencies and programs Fellowships and stipends, 457, 473-474, 475, 533, 540, 542 Fetal alcohol syndrome, 96 Field trials, 370-372, 399-400, 482, 483, 516, 549, 550 Firearms, 44-45, 95 Flush reactions, 161 Ford Foundation, 449, 530 Forums, 478, 545 Foster care, 4, 191 Funding of research, 13-14, 437-454, 468, 476, 483, 529-531, 535, 543, 549-550 academic, 474, 538 Alzheimer's disease, 138 competition for, 13, 546 data retrieval systems, 529 epidemiological studies, 478, 543, 545

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH linkage to publication record, 473, 474, 539-540, 541, 549 and prevention definition, 13-14, 437, 477, 529 program coordination, 464-465, 469, 471, 474-475, 536, 541-542 risk factors, 476, 478, 545 specialized prevention research centers, 474, 479, 480, 483, 541, 546-547, 549-550 training programs, 456-458, 461, 464, 473-475, 532, 534, 541-542 treatment interventions, 477 G Gangs, 179 Gaps in research, 469, 536 Gender, 61, 68, 182, 377, 477, 498, 543 and alcohol abuse, 97 and Alzheimer's disease, 97, 131 and conduct disorder, 82, 84, 173 and depression, 66, 87 and schizophrenia, 104 Generalization techniques, 324-325 Gene therapy, 60, 497 Genetic counseling, 59-60, 497 Genetics and genetic factors, 5, 55-60, 61, 67, 68, 182, 191, 476, 493, 497, 542 alcohol abuse, 57, 68, 155-156, 161-162, 501-502 Alzheimer's disease, 110, 118, 130-135, 501 conduct disorder, 171-172 depression, 163-164 environmental interaction, 57-59, 67-68, 368-369, 497 schizophrenia, 142-145, 153-154, 501 Gordon classification system, 20-22, 23, 25, 493, 494 Grants, 473, 474, 479-480, 481, 540, 541, 546 Group norms, 159, 160, 162, 263-266, 502 H Haddon Matrix, 42 Hazard function, 388, 390-391, 522 Head trauma, see Brain injury and head trauma Health care delivery and use, 63, 68 alcohol abuse, 99 and depression, 92, 167, 286, 288 Health insurance, 473, 539 Health maintenance organizations, 63 Health promotion, 26-27 alternative practices, 249, 340-344, 346-347, 348-349 inventories, 478, 515, 545 programs, 333-335, 339-349, 495, 514-515 Healthy Communities Initiative, 345 Healthy People 2000, 14 Healthy Start in Hawaii, 239-240 Helmets, 135, 479, 546 Helplessness, 165, 168, 502 Henry Kaiser Family Foundation, 449, 531 High-risk groups, see Developmental transitions and psychopathology; Indicated preventive interventions; Risk factors; Selective preventive interventions High/Scope Preschool Curriculum Comparison Study, 245 Hispanics, 98, 233, 393, 394, 396 HIV/AIDS, 4, 394 Hmong refugees, 395, 524 Homebuilders Program, 250-251 Homelessness, 97 Home visitation, 234-246 passim, 248, 281-282, 300, 324, 480, 504, 524, 547 Homicide, 43, 44, 95, 168 Hopelessness, 165, 502 Hopis, 393 Houston Parent-Child Developmental Centers, 242-243 Huntington's disease, 77 Hyperactivity, 83, 174, 179

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH I I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving (ICPS) Program, 246-248, 258, 340 Identifying factors, see Markers Immunization, 19, 232-234, 479, 480, 488, 512, 546, 547 Impulse control, 241 Incidence, 20, 60, 76, 112-113, 117 see also Epidemiological studies; names of specific disorders Indicated preventive interventions, 21-22, 23, 25-26, 29, 118, 193, 219, 493, 494-495, 535 federal accounting of, 472, 539 research on, 479, 546 schizophrenia, 154, 501 Infant Health and Development Program, 236-237, 372, 427, 480, 547 Infants, 63-64, 187, 191 interventions, 223, 225-226, 232-241, 504, 506 and postpartum depression, 66 Infectious disease model, 19 Influenza, and schizophrenia, 146 Informed consent, 402-404, 525 Infrastructure, 468, 529, 534. see also Coordination of programs; Funding of research; Training of researchers Injury prevention, 41-46, 479, 546 and alcohol abuse, 481, 548 Institutional review boards, 524-525 Insurance, see Health insurance Intelligence levels, 61, 182, 183, 184, 186, 502 and alcohol abuse, 157 and conduct disorder, 174-175 and depression, 167 see also Mental retardation Interagency cooperation, 48, 463, 533, 535-536, 537 research conferences, 424, 427, 463, 473, 528, 540 specialized prevention research centers, 482, 548-549 see also Coordination of programs Interdisciplinary research, 401, 432, 455, 458-459, 460, 461, 496 International Classification of Diseases, 13, 382 Internships, 460, 533 Interpersonal transactions, 63 Interrupted time series trials, 374-375 Intervention Campaign Against Bully-Victim Problems, 273 Interventions, see Indicated preventive interventions; Michigan Prevention Research Center; Selective preventive interventions; Universal preventive interventions J J.M. Foundation, 449, 531 JOBS Project for the Unemployed, 284-286, 291 Job stress and satisfaction, 282-286 and depression, 168, 502 John Henry effect, 375 K Knowledge base expansion, 432-433, 475-478, 492-493, 496, 515-516, 534, 542-545 core sciences, 496-498, 542, 545 exchange process, 415-427, 526-529 see also Applied research; Basic research; Coordination of programs; Dissemination of research; Funding of research L Labelling, 26, 326-327, 512 Language skills training, 56, 241, 513 Latchkey children, 258-259 Latent Structural Equation Modeling, 385

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Learning disorders, 83, 168, 502 Lifetime risk and prevalence, 3, 29, 60, 487, 494, 534 alcohol abuse, 99 depression, 92 schizophrenia, 104 Lilly Endowment, Inc., 449, 531 Lithium, 87, 147 Liver damage, alcohol-related, 96 Local governments, 50 Longitudinal studies, 61 age of onset, 62, 77, 500 developmental transitions, 64, 65, 476-477, 543-544 randomized trials, 521-522 Loss and bereavement, 87, 165-166, 168, 253-254, 292, 294-297, 477, 479, 502, 546 Low birthweight, 65, 182, 183, 225, 234-239, 502 Low income, see Poverty and low income Low IQ, see Intelligence levels M Maintenance therapy, 23-24, 325, 493 for depression, 91 Major depressive disorder, 55, 86-87, 93, 112-113, 320, 480, 481, 512, 547, 548 Manuals, see Documentation and manuals Markers, 127-128, 192, 500-503 alcohol abuse, 156-157, 162, 502 electrophysiological, 149, 156, 162 schizophrenia, 127-128, 144-145, 147-149, 192, 500 Marriage and marital difficulty, 25, 84, 166, 168, 177, 182, 191, 276-279, 477, 543 Mass media, 35, 47-48, 318-319 and violence, 43 Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB), 449, 451-453, 457, 465, 477, 480, 544, 547 Maturation, see Developmental transitions and psychopathology Measles, 233 Medical costs, 14 alcohol abuse, 99 Alzheimer's disease, 107-108 of depression, 87 health promotion, 514-515 schizophrenia, 103 Medical schools, 474, 541 Meditation, 342-343 Meningitis, 233 Mental health promotion, see Health promotion Mental retardation, 59, 225, 479, 546 Mentoring programs, for researchers, 461-462, 473, 540 Methodological problems and standards, 218, 220-221, 299, 326, 359-360, 373-389, 434, 505, 512-513, 515-516, 517, 520-522, 545 age of onset data, 77-80, 111-113 Mexican-Americans, 92, 98, 288-289 Meyer Memorial Trust, 449, 531 Michigan Prevention Research Center, 423 Mid-career researchers, 461, 463, 473, 474, 480, 540-541 Midwestern Prevention Project, 266-267 Mini-mental Status Exam, 111 Minority groups, see Racial and ethnic groups Model community programs, 417-418, 527, 533 Modular treatment approach, 321-322 Molecular biology, 55, 496-497 Montreal Longitudinal-Experimental Study, 255-256 Mood disorders, 86, 92, 168, 169-171, see also Bipolar disorder; Depression and depressive disorders Mother-Child Home Program of Verbal Interaction Project, 243-244

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Mothers, and infants, 63-64, 232, 279-282, 504 and alcohol abuse, 96 and postpartum depression, 66 see also Pregnancy, and complications Multidomain risk factors, 299, 504-505 Multimodal interventions, 322-323 Multiple disorders developmental, 480-481, 547 N National Association of Prevention Professionals and Advocates, 454 National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, 424 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 41 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), 439, 477, 480, 544, 547 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 14, 463, 469, 472, 477, 481, 482, 536, 539, 544, 547, 548 funding, 439, 444, 445, 447, 456-457, 531, 532 see also Epidemiologic Catchment Area study; Prevention Intervention Research Centers; Prevention Research Branches National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 463, 472, 477, 482, 539, 544, 548 funding, 456-457, 531, 532 National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), 463, 472, 477, 482, 539, 544, 548 funding, 444-446, 447, 456-457, 531, 532 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 54, 438, 440, 464 National Mental Health Association, 454 National Prevention Coalition, 424 National Science Foundation (NSF), 54 National scientific council (proposed), 475, 535, 537-539, 541 training needs evaluation, 474, 541 Native Americans and Native Alaskans, 98, 341-342, 394-396, 524 Navajo, 338-339, 384, 395-396, 524 Neighborhoods, 178-179, 478, 545 Neurological deficits, 182 and conduct disorder, 174-175, 481, 548 and schizophrenia, 148-149, 151, 153 Neuroscience, 53-55, 67, 476, 496-497, 540 postdoctoral trainees, 474 Nursing, 455, 459, 461, 474, 532, 540 schools of, 474, 541 Nursing homes Alzheimer's patients, 107-108, 109 depression among residents, 4, 92-93, 488 O Office of Disease Prevention, NIH, 469, 536 Office of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, DHHS, 427, 465, 470, 537 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), 470, 471, 537, 538 Office of Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP), 440, 444 Office of Technology Assessment, 470, 537 Older and elderly persons depression, 4, 91, 92-93, 300, 488, 512 home visitation, 300, 504 interventions, 231, 292-297, 300, 504, 511, 541 see also Alzheimer's disease Out-of-home placement, 249-251

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH P Panic disorder, 97, 116, 318, 322, 323 Parent-Child Interaction Training, 244-245 Parents, see Family relations and parenting; Mothers, and infants Path models, 58 Pediatrics, 459, 474, 540 Peer- and Professionally-Led Groups to Support Family Caregivers, 289-291 Peer relations, 59, 84, 159, 176, 179, 180, 478, 479, 544, 546 Peer-reviewed journals, 419-424, 482, 522, 527, 549 Peer-reviewed research projects, 465, 473, 480, 540, 547 Perceived Personal Control (PPC) Preventive Intervention for a Caesarean Birth Population, 280, 292 Perry Preschool Program, 245-246, 379, 407-408, 480, 526, 547 Personality, 61, 158-159, 503 Personnel and staffing, 454, 532-533 program coordination, 469, 471, 536, 538, 539 see also Training of researchers Pew Charitable Trusts, 449, 531 Pharmacology, see Drug therapy Phenylketonuria, 57, 134 Phobia, 319, 320 Physical health and disorders, 5, 6, 11, 14, 63, 182, 479, 488, 546 and alcohol abuse, 96, 481, 548 and conduct disorder, 172, 175 and depression, 164, 168, 481, 502, 548 researchers, 455, 461, 473, 533 and risk reduction model, 6, 495 universal interventions, 33-46, 496 Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC), 470, 537 Piggybacking of research projects, 469, 535 Pilot studies, 365, 482, 516, 548, 549 Point prevalence, 60 Population laboratory (proposed), 476-477, 543-544 funding, 478, 545 Positive Youth Development Program, 263 Postdoctoral training, 460-461, 473-474, 533, 540-541 Postpartum depression, 65-66, 280-281 Post-traumatic stress disorder, 43 Poverty and low income, 58, 182, 183, 242, 479, 541, 546 and alcohol abuse, 159 and conduct disorder, 178-179, 481, 548 and depression, 165, 167, 168, 286, 502 and immunization, 233 and schizophrenia, 149-150 Power calculations, 389, 522 Practicums, 459, 460, 533 Precursor signs and symptoms, 65, 76-77, 115, 116, 117, 118, 317, 320, 477, 499-500, 543 and children, 112, 128 conduct disorder, 175-176 Pregnancy, and complications, 59 and Alzheimer's disease, 136 and schizophrenia, 145-146, 153, 225 see also Low birthweight Premature births, 65, 182, 234-239 Prenatal and perinatal care, 225, 232, 234-235, 479, 480, 512, 546, 547 Prenatal/Early Infancy Project, 190, 234-235, 281-282, 428, 480, 547 Preschool programs, 241-248, 480, 512, 547 Presidential commissions, 537 Prevalence, 3-4, 20, 60, 61, 62, 487, 497, 498, 534 among children and adolescents, 4, 487-488 see also Epidemiological studies; Lifetime risk and prevalence; names of specific disorders

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Prevention, see Definitions of prevention Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP): An Empirically Based Preventive Intervention Program for Couples, 277-278 Prevention Intervention Research Centers (PIRCs) funding, 444, 445, 447, 483, 550 publication of results, 422-424, 527 training components, 462, 474, 541 Prevention research, 27-28 Prevention Research Branches (PRBs), 427, 438n, 444-447, 456, 457, 527, 531 Preventive intervention research cycle, 15, 16, 359-409 passim Preventive/Intervention Research Program, 361 Primary prevention, see Definitions of prevention Private foundations, 449, 503, 530-531, 534, 538, 539 and research coordination, 463-464, 468, 472 Prodrome, 76-77, 80, 115, 117, 118, 477, 498, 499, 543 alcohol abuse, 99 and intervention, 317-319, 328, 513 schizophrenia, 105 Productivity losses, 4 and depression, 87, 481, 548 Program Development Evaluation, 271 Projecto Bienestar: An Intervention for Preventing Depression in Hispanic Immigrant Women in the Community, 288-289, 291, 396 Promotion, see Health promotion programs Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (PROPAC), 470, 537 Prospective studies, see Longitudinal studies Protective factors, 6, 20, 65, 127, 128, 129, 183-185, 192, 217, 219-220, 317, 364-365, 479, 485, 500-503, 546 alcohol abuse, 159-162 Alzheimer's disease, 136-137 conduct disorder, 180-181 depression, 165, 167-168 interaction models, 185-187, 191 and multiple disorders, 192, 480, 547 research support, 476, 478, 543, 545 see also Cultural factors Protective model, 186 Psychiatry, 459, 474, 476, 540, 542 Psychoactive Substance Abuse and Dependence, see Alcohol abuse Psychology, 455, 459, 474, 533, 540 Psychopharmacology, 477, 544 Psychosocial factors, 6, 191, 276, 500 alcohol abuse, 157-161, 501-502 Alzheimer's disease, 136-138 conduct disorder, 175-179 depression, 165-168 high-risk groups, 494 protective, 335, 501 research funding, 476, 478, 543 schizophrenia, 149-152, 501 Publication, see Dissemination of research; Peer-reviewed journals Public education and outreach, 318-319, 513. see also Universal preventive interventions Public health, 459, 474, 540 intervention classification, 7, 19-20 schools of, 474, 541 Q Quality assurance, 429 Quasi-experimental trials, 374-375

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH R Racial and ethnic groups, 61, 68, 377, 477, 498, 523-524, 543 alcohol abuse, 97-98, 161 Alzheimer's disease, 111 depression, 92, 167, 286-289 and immunization, 233 prenatal care, 225 see also Cultural factors Randomized controlled trials, 15, 221, 373-374, 380, 385-399, 479, 504, 506-511, 512, 517, 520, 521-522, 545 developmental interventions, 480, 547 Recurrence, 23, 24 Regression models, 522 Rehabilitation, 24 Relapse, 19, 24, 493 alcohol abuse, 99 schizophrenia, 104 Relative risk, 62, 192, 497 Reliability, 383, 384 Religion, 342 Replication trials, 365, 482, 483, 516, 549, 550 Research, see Coordination of programs; Cycle of research; Dissemination of research; Epidemiological studies; Funding of research; Interdisciplinary research; Methodological problems and standards; Peer-reviewed research projects; Research trials; Training of researchers; names of specific program areas Research knowledge exchange centers, 432-433 Research trials, 6, 316, 326, 361, 365-372, 478, 482, 495, 516, 517 developmental psychopathology, 477, 479, 480-481, 520, 543-544, 547 dissemination of results, 473, 539-540 follow-up, 299, 375-376, 380, 513, 520 methodological issues, 359-360, 373-389, 515-516 outcome criteria, 222, 359, 378-384, 479, 513, 521 prenatal care, 232 scaleup, 299, 483, 531, 550 selective interventions, 479 training for, 473 see also Samples and sampling Resilience, 65, 128, 184, 185, 192, 501, 502-503 and social competence, 299-300, 512 Retention, see Attrition and retention, of study participants Retrospective recall, 77, 80, 190 Risk factors, 6-7, 11, 20, 65, 127-129, 191-193, 217, 219-220, 317, 493, 495, 500-503 for children and youth, 182-191, 223, 476, 502-503, 543 and developmental transitions, 116, 117-118, 192, 223, 476, 500 interaction models, 185-187, 191 multiple disorders, 182-185, 192, 480 see also Attributable risk; Cultural factors; Epidemiological studies; Genetics and genetic factors; Relative risk; Risk reduction model; Risk research; names of specific disorders Risk reduction model, 6-7, 26, 45-50, 215, 366, 479, 495-496, 503, 546 in treatment, 513 Risk research, 476, 478, 495, 542, 543 mid-career transitions, 461,473, 533 see also Epidemiological studies Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 449, 531 RO1 projects, 473, 482, 540, 549

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH S Safety standards, 479, 546 Salutogenesis, 337-338 Samples and sampling, 117, 376-378, 479, 498-499, 520-521, 522 bias, 389, 390, 522 San Francisco Depression Prevention Research Project: A Randomized Trial with Medical Outpatients, 286-288, 291 Schizophrenia, 15, 55, 87, 99-105, 182, 522 age of onset, 104-105 and alcohol abuse, 96 classification, 99-102, 105 interventions, 104, 317-318, 322-323, 501 markers, 127-128, 144-145, 147-149, 192, 500 risk factors, 63, 141-154, 501 School Development Program, 257-258 Schools, see Academic research; Educational performance and failure; Preschool programs School Transitional Environment Project (STEP), 271-273 Seat belts, 41-42, 135, 479, 546 Seattle Social Development Project, 257, 262 Secondary prevention, see Definitions of prevention Selective preventive interventions, 21, 23, 25, 26, 193, 219, 493, 494, 535 developmental, 480 federal accounting of, 472, 539 research on, 479, 546 and schizophrenia, 501 Self-efficacy, 64, 68, 165, 168, 502 Self-esteem, 68, 498 and depression, 165, 168, 502 promotion of, 240, 336-337, 344-345, 495 Self-injurious behavior, 317, 513 Seminars, 473, 540 Sensitive periods, 67, 75-76, 117-118, 324, 498, 500 Serotonin, 54-55 Service program evaluations, see also Documentation and manuals; Methodological problems and standards Service programs evaluation, 417-418, 427-429, 468, 478, 482, 516, 545 feedback to researchers, 48-49, 360-361, 368, 415-416, 429-430, 528 interorganizational issues, 370-372, 431, 432 outcome criteria, 292, 378-385, 405, 418, 478, 545 Sex, see Gender Sexual assault, 165 Sexual behaviors, in abused children, 190 Shyness, 158, 162, 175-176 Siblings, 58, 177, 184, 503 Siting of interventions, 324 Smoking, 34, 38-41, 49, 64 and alcohol abuse, 97 and Alzheimer's disease, 137-138, 141 lung cancer risk, 62 Smoking, Tobacco, and Cancer Program (STCP), 39-40 Social competence and functioning, 184, 249, 479, 502 promotion and enhancement, 56, 246-248, 251-256, 258-259, 260, 263, 299-300, 317, 480, 495, 512, 513, 547 and schizophrenia, 151 Social learning theory, 57 Social relationships and support, 63, 68, 282-283, 498, 503 Social Relations Intervention Program, 254-255 Social sciences, 63-64, 455, 459, 474, 533, 540, see also Behavioral sciences Social Skills Training, 254

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Social work, 455, 459, 461, 474, 533, 540 schools of, 474, 541 Society for Prevention Research, 454 Specialized prevention research centers, 482, 503, 546-547, 548-549 depression, 481, 548, 549 developmental interventions, 480 funding, 474, 479, 480, 483, 541, 546-547, 549-550 training components, 473, 474, 540 Spousal maltreatment, 177, 481, 548 Staffing, see Personnel and staffing; Training of researchers Stanford Five-City Project, 34, 36-37 Stanford Three-Community Study, 34-36 State governments, 534 prevention offices, 472, 539 and program coordination, 50, 427, 432, 463, 468, 472, 538 Statistical analysis, 78-79, 385-389 Stigmatization, 7, 317, 322, 327, 513, 524 Stipends, see Fellowships and stipends Stress and related disorders, 63, 68, 186, 498 alcohol abuse, 159, 162 among caregivers, 4, 26, 140, 140-141, 152-153, 289-291, 292,293-294, 479, 481, 546, 548 coping, 64, 336-337, 503 depression, 87, 165, 166, 168, 502 schizophrenia, 501 work-related, 282-286 Substance abuse, see Alcohol abuse; Drug abuse Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) , 427, 440, 442, 463, 464, 481, 547 population laboratory proposal, 477, 544 Success for All, 259 Suicide, 4, 44, 95, 393 and depression, 87, 91, 93, 481, 548 and schizophrenia, 103 Survival analysis, 386-388, 390-391, 522 Sweat lodges, 341-342 Symptomatology, 498. see also Diagnostic criteria and classification; Precursor signs and symptoms; Prodrome T Tactile/Kinesthetic Stimulation, 235-236 Targeted interventions, see Indicated preventive interventions; Selective preventive interventions Teenage pregnancy, 13, 66, 225 Temperament, 57, 61, 167, 173-174, 182, 184, 502 Terminology, see Definitions of prevention; Diagnostic criteria and classification Tertiary prevention, see Definitions of prevention THEOS, 296-297 Thyroid disorders, 136 Time line, of prevention research, 8-11, 489-492 Timing and duration of intervention, 323-325 Traffic safety, 41-42, 95 Training of researchers, 454-463, 468, 473-474, 532-533, 540-541 faculty support, 474, 533 institutional programs, 456-458, 460, 462-463, 474, 532, 541 mid-career transitions, 461, 463, 473, 474, 540-541 minorities, 457, 474, 541 postdoctoral, 460-461, 473-474, 533, 540-541 in service program evaluation, 454-455, 473, 475, 532 Transformative health movement, 337 Transient symptoms, 13

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REDUCING RISKS FOR Mental Disorders: FRONTIERS FOR PREVENTIVE INTERVENTION RESEARCH Trauma, and depression, 165-166, 168, 502. see also Brain injury and head trauma Treatment, 22-23, 493, 497 effectiveness, 498 receipt of, 5, 488 research, 315-329, 477, 513-514, 544-545 see also Drug therapy; names of specific disorders Trials, see Research trials Twin studies, 57-58, 67 alcohol abuse, 155 Alzheimer's disease, 130-131 conduct disorder, 502 schizophrenia, 142, 144, 154 U Unemployment, 84, 282, 284-286, 546 and depression, 87, 165, 502 Universal preventive interventions, 20-21, 24-25, 26, 28-29, 192-193, 368, 479, 493-494, 535, 546 adverse effects, 326-327 federal accounting of, 472, 539 parenting skills, 249 physical disorders, 33-46, 496 research on, 377-378, 389, 520-521 and schizophrenia, 501 Universities, see Academic research University of Colorado Separation and Divorce Program, 278-279 U.S. Government, see under Federal government User-friendliness, 430 V Validity, 383-384 Violence, 41, 43-45, 49-50, 84, 165, 273-274 Violence Prevention Project, 274 Vulnerability traits, 61, 128, 500 W Welfare, 183 White House Conferences, 470, 537 Widowhood, see Loss and bereavement Widow-to-Widow: A Mutual Help Program for the Widowed, 295-296, 297 William T. Grant Foundation, 449, 530-531 Winter births, 146 W.K. Kellogg Foundation, 345, 449, 531 Women, and depression, 65-66, 87, 166, 167, 168, 280-281, 502 World Health Organization Healthy Cities Project, 26-27, 345