molecular biology, medicine, and medical informatics will create a need in the future for substantially more expertise (Kelley, 1988). Fully trained physicians and other health professionals in academia, government service, and industry will be particularly crucial in the transformation of these discoveries into cost-effective treatments for human disease. Thus, clinical investigators trained in academia will also be needed in industry to help in the translation of advances in biomedical research to the development and application of new products. Given the monumental opportunities that will soon be available and the current nature of the enterprise, the critical human resource pool will be seriously deficient. The pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have a special interest in facilitating training and in the initial discovery process, which often occurs in academia.

The translation and application of advances in research to patient care require a strong partnership between the academic institutions and industry. Facilitation of technology transfer by both parties is important and deserves special support. The relationship among faculty, the academic institution, and industry is changing dramatically and represents a new paradigm. This will require new standards in the definition and resolution of conflicts of interest at all levels in support of this change. Issues related to conflicts of interest must be explicitly defined, and for the alleviation of both individual and institutional conflict of interest must be implemented at the local level.

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