FIGURE 2-1 Total number of U.S. physicians by gender for selected years, 1970–1990. (Source: American Medical Association, 1991.)

percent) in 1990 (Figure 2-1) (American Medical Association, 1991). Moreover, women constitute more than 28 percent of the estimated 134,872 physicians under the age of 35. The growing number of women in the physician workforce implies that particular attention should be paid to clinical research career pathways for this subset as well.

Both the AMA and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) collect data on medical school faculty, and both sets of data are useful in describing the clinical research workforce. Data collected by the AMA for the Liaison Committee for Medical Education reveal that there were 80,086 medical school faculty in the 1991–1992 academic year (Jolin et al., 1992). The AAMC, however, reports that there were about 75,144 medical school faculty in 1993. Of the latter, 44,838 (59.7 percent) were M.D.s, another 5.4 percent (4,076) were M.D.-Ph.D.s or M.D.s with another health degree (for example, D.Sc., D.P.H., and the like), and the remainder had either a Ph.D. (19,589) or another degree (6,641) (Figure 2-2) (Association of American Medical Colleges, 1993).

Using Institute of Medicine, AMA, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) data, Ahrens has shown that distribution of faculty between clinical and preclinical departments is about 80 percent and 20 percent, respectively (Table 2-1) (Ahrens, 1992). Moreover, the proportion of Ph.D.s on medical school faculties has remained fairly stable, at about 29 percent, since 1970. Whereas



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