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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 GERARD PETER KUIPER December 7, 1905-December 24, 1973 BY DALE P. CRUIKSHANK HOW DID THE SUN and planets form in the cloud of gas and dust called the solar nebula, and how does this genesis relate to the formation of other star systems? What is the nature of the atmospheres and the surfaces of the planets in the contemporary solar system, and what have been their evolutionary histories? These were the driving intellectual questions that inspired Gerard Kuiper's life of observational study of stellar evolution, the properties of star systems, and the physics and chemistry of the Sun's family of planets. Gerard Peter Kuiper (originally Gerrit Pieter Kuiper) was born in The Netherlands in the municipality of Haringcarspel, now Harenkarspel, on December 7, 1905, son of Gerrit and Antje (de Vries) Kuiper. He died in Mexico City on December 24, 1973, while on a trip with his wife and his long-time friend and colleague, Fred Whipple. He was the first of four children; his sister, Augusta, was a teacher before marriage, and his brothers, Pieter and Nicolaas, were trained as engineers. Kuiper's father was a tailor. Young Kuiper was an outstanding grade school student, but for a high school education he was obliged to leave his small town and go to Haarlem to a special institution that would lead him to a career as a primary school teacher.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The path to a university education in Holland was normally through proper high schools for that purpose, but Kuiper was intent on university admission and passed an especially difficult special examination that allowed him to enter Leiden University. In the same year, he passed an examination for certification to teach high school mathematics. Kuiper's, drive, persistence, and self-assurance, already well developed in his student days, moved him to succeed in spite of an atmosphere of discrimination at Leiden against poorer students and those who had not studied in the proper high schools. At a young age, Kuiper's interest in astronomy was sparked when he read the philosophical and cosmological writings of Descartes. This interest was encouraged by his father and his grandfather, who gave him a small telescope. With his naked eye, Kuiper made sketches throughout an entire winter to record the faintest members of the Pleiades star cluster that he could detect. On his master chart, Leiden Observatory astronomers, to whom he sent the results, found the limiting magnitude 7.5, nearly four times fainter than those visible to the normal human eye. Even in his later years, Kuiper's visual acuity was exceptional. Kuiper entered Leiden University in September 1924. His fellow student and long-time friend Bart J. Bok recalled the day they met as incoming students in the library of the Institute of Theoretical Physics. Kuiper explained to Bok that he intended to pursue astronomical problems of a fundamental nature, specifically the three-body problem and related questions about the nature and origin of the solar system. He completed a B.Sc. at Leiden in 1927 and immediately went on to postgraduate studies. Among Kuiper's professors at Leiden were Ejnar Hertzsprung, Antonie Pannekoek, and the theoretical physicist Paul Ehrenfest.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Kuiper became a friend of the Ehrenfest family in his role as tutor to the physicist's son. Kuiper, Bok, and fellow student Piet Oosterhoff pursued their studies in astronomy together, learning from Willem de Sitter, Jan Woltjer, and Jan Oort, in addition to those named above. In his student years, Kuiper joined the Dutch solar eclipse expedition to Sumatra for eight months in 1929. He learned Malay and wandered among the native villages painting beach scenes and studying the local customs. Then, on the eve of the eclipse he discovered that another astronomer had incorrectly oriented the spectrograph slit on one of the cameras; the correction was made just in time to secure important data during the eclipse the next day. In 1929, Kuiper began correspondence with the great double-star astronomer Robert Grant Aitken, at Lick Observatory of the University of California, and submitted his earliest measurements for criticism. He also outlined for Aitken the essence of the statistical study which was to occupy him for over a decade. Kuiper did his doctoral thesis on binary stars with Hertzsprung, and he received his Ph.D. on completion of this work in 1933. That same year he traveled to the United States to become a Kellogg Fellow (and then a Morrison Fellow) at Lick Observatory near San Jose on Mount Hamilton. Under Aitken's tutelage, Kuiper continued his work on binary stars at Lick, where he systematically examined stars of large parallax for duplicity. He had delayed publication of his thesis until he could improve the observational data for double stars with large differences in brightness between the components. Observing visual doubles with the 12- and 36-inch refractors and making color-index measurements with the Crossley 36-inch reflector, he discovered numerous binaries and many white dwarf stars.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Kuiper always considered himself a double-star astronomer, and he was strongly influenced by Aitken. Aitken had learned from E. E. Barnard, and he in turn had learned the art from the great S. W. Burnham. Concerning this work, in 1971 Kuiper recalled that at the beginning of his career he had been asked to review a book on the origin of the solar system. The analytical part of the book impressed me greatly. The second, synthetic part was entirely disappointing. After the review was written, I continued to struggle with this problem and had to conclude that the state of astronomy did not permit its solution. . . . I then determined to find a closely related problem, that with finite effort would probably lend itself to a solution . . . the origin of double stars.1 Eventually, Kuiper announced that at least 50 percent of the nearest stars are binaries or multiple-star systems. He more clearly defined the mass-luminosity relation for main-sequence stars and showed that the white dwarfs are high-mass objects departing from the empirical law. His 1938 paper in the Astrophysical Journal on the mass-luminosity relation is still considered a standard work on the subject. Though intellectually stimulating and productive, the two years at the Lick Observatory were not an unqualified success. Sensitivities in the small, remote mountaintop community of astronomers were acute, and Kuiper was perceived by some as talented but somewhat outspoken and abrasive. He was not to become the heir to Aitken's legacy, and in August 1935 he left for a year at Harvard College Observatory. At the time he arrived in Cambridge, Kuiper intended to go to Java to continue his career at the Bosscha Observatory. Instead, he met and married (on June 20, 1936) Sarah Parker Fuller, whose family had donated the land

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 on which Harvard's Oak Ridge Observatory is built. During that year he was offered a position at the Yerkes Observatory of the University of Chicago by the director, Otto Struve. In November 1935, Kuiper telegraphed to Java that he would decline the position there. Kuiper felt that he could make an important contribution to astronomy by moving to Yerkes, but lamented in a letter to W. H. Wright of Lick Observatory (October 30, 1935) that ''. . . it will mean a real sacrifice to me not to go to the beautiful and happy island of Java." In fact, he might not have been able to escape the Japanese prison camps after the invasion a few years later. Even before Kuiper moved to Yerkes, Struve sought his advice on matters related to the addition of new senior staff members at that institution. In 1936 Kuiper was appointed assistant professor at the University of Chicago. He was associate professor from 1937 to 1943 and was then appointed professor. As a new staff astronomer at Yerkes, Kuiper contributed heavily to what W. W. Morgan has called the renaissance of the Observatory. That rebirth was initiated by Struve, who, as the new director from 1932, brought Kuiper, S. Chandrasekhar, and Bengt Strömgren to the staff; Morgan was a graduate student there and was appointed instructor in 1932. Bok has noted that Kuiper's marriage and appointment at Yerkes Observatory were strong positive stimuli to his scientific work in the late 1930s and 1940s. In his new post Kuiper worked with Struve and Strömgren on the eclipsing binary Epsilon Aurigae, proposing in a major joint paper in 1937 that a large star surrounded by a partly transparent gas halo eclipses an F supergiant whose ultraviolet radiation has ionized part of the larger star's tenuous atmosphere. This model spawned numerous additional observational and theoretical studies of the unique Epsilon Aurigae system.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 To determine evolutionary tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russell temperature-luminosity diagram, Kuiper combined Strömgren's theoretical studies with Robert Trumpler's observations of clusters. In 1937, Kuiper published in the Astrophysical Journal a historic color-magnitude diagram for galactic clusters, interpreting the tracks shown as Strömgren's lines of constant hydrogen content and pointing out that this hypothesis explains several other observational results. The next year he derived the corrections needed to convert photographic stellar magnitudes, providing the basis for the stellar temperature scale that was in wide use until the advent of ultraviolet satellite astronomy. Kuiper joined Struve and other members of the Yerkes staff in planning for the University of Texas 82-inch reflecting telescope, to be operated jointly by Yerkes and the University. McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas, was dedicated in 1939, and with the new instrument and its high-quality spectrographs, Kuiper continued his search for white dwarfs and spectroscopic studies of stars with large proper motions. He took up residence at the remote observing site in west Texas during the breaking-in period of the 82-inch telescope and began to acquire data on stars that had been too faint for the telescopes previously available to him. Although life at the remote and poorly developed observatory site was a strain on his family, the McDonald telescope was at that time the second largest in the world and a vital tool for the work he had set out to accomplish. An early target of Kuiper's new work was Beta Lyrae. In his monumental 1941 paper on this double-star system, Kuiper introduced the term "contact binaries." In this work he also recognized that material accreted by the smaller star would form a ring around it; he thus anticipated the accretion disks of mass-exchange binary stars that are now known to be of great importance.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 During World War II (1943 to 1945), Kuiper took a leave of absence from the University of Chicago and joined the faculty of Harvard's Radio Research Laboratory, where he was involved in radar countermeasures. In this connection he went to England with the Eighth Air Force Headquarters in 1944. He returned to Europe in January 1945 as a member of the ALSOS Mission of the U.S. War Department, to assess the state of German science. Kuiper accomplished a rather daring rescue of Max Planck, who he learned was in the eastern zone of Germany in dire circumstances and in danger of being captured by Soviet troops. He took a vehicle and driver and raced across the countryside to Planck's location, arriving only hours ahead of the Soviets. Planck and his wife were taken to the western zone and then on to Göttingen and to the care of friends and relatives. During a brief respite from war work in the winter of 1943-44, Kuiper returned to McDonald Observatory and included in his observing program a spectroscopic study of the major planets, the Galilean satellites of Jupiter, Triton, and four of Saturn's satellites, including Titan. He found the 6,190-angstrom band of methane in Titan, the first detection of an atmosphere on a satellite. In 1944 he wrote, "It is of special interest that this atmosphere contains gases that are rich in hydrogen atoms; such gases had previously been associated with bodies having a large surface gravity." Concerning the discovery of Titan's atmosphere, Kuiper noted in a letter to J. H. Moore (February 29, 1944), then director of Lick Observatory, "The only reason I happened to observe the planets and the 10 brightest satellites was that they were nicely lined up in a region of the sky where I had run out of program stars (stars of large proper motion and parallax)."

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 While the discovery of Titan's atmosphere may have been serendipitous, it stimulated the studies of planetary atmospheres which were to occupy Kuiper until the end of his life. His interest was further stimulated by contacts with Bernard Lyot in France during and just after the war, whence he brought back reports of excellent planetary work in progress at Pic du Midi Observatory. Kuiper was greatly impressed with the heroism of the French astronomers during the occupation and wrote of this in news notes to astronomical journals. In 1947, he was awarded the Janssen Medal of the Astronomical Society of France. In Germany following its surrender, Kuiper learned from German scientists details of the new lead sulfide infrared detectors being developed on both sides during the war, and he was impressed by their astronomical possibilities. The American detectors were declassified in September 1946, and Kuiper soon collaborated with the detector's developer, Robert J. Cashman, on construction of an infrared spectrometer for the study of stellar spectra in the wavelength region of 1-3 micrometers. Kuiper's first near-infrared spectra of stars and planets, made with a two-prism spectrometer later the same year, were of low resolution, but they laid the groundwork for the study of planetary atmospheres for the next quarter of a century. Between 1946 and the 1980s the near-infrared spectral resolution increased more than 100,000-fold, with a corresponding improvement in knowledge of planetary and stellar atmospheres. Kuiper's earliest spectra in 1947 revealed carbon dioxide on Mars. He was the first to see the near-infrared spectra of Jupiter and Saturn, as well as those of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn. His intuitive interpretation has largely been borne out as the data have since improved. At the fiftieth anniversary of Yerkes Observatory in 1947,

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Kuiper organized a symposium on planetary atmospheres, assembling astronomers, meteorologists, and other specialists for the first meeting of its kind. An important outcome was the book edited by Kuiper, The Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949 and 1952). In his own classic paper, Kuiper summarized knowledge of the composition of planetary atmospheres, presenting a lucid account of their origins as primary (in the case of the Jovian planets) or secondary (the terrestrial planets) gas envelopes with regard to their interaction with the early solar wind (though the term "solar wind" had yet to be invented). From combined spectroscopic and thermal measurements, he gave the first interpretation of the atmospheric structures of Jupiter and Saturn. Kuiper was among the first to think of planetary phenomena in terms of cosmochemistry, a subject that has been greatly developed in recent years. His table of atmospheric compositions of the planets in the Yerkes symposium volume has been the foundation of much subsequent theoretical and observational work. To this day, improved visible, infrared, and ultraviolet spectra are used to refine Kuiper's abundance estimates, lower the detection limits, and reveal new gases in the atmospheres of the planets. Kuiper typically worked alone up to this time; according to Bok, he was too busy to work with students. With his own energetic self-motivation, and in the atmosphere of selfless service to science inspired by Otto Struve at Yerkes, Kuiper worked with great intensity on his science and in influencing the directions of the Yerkes and McDonald observatories. In the mid-1940s, however, Kuiper's work attracted Daniel E. Harris III, who was to become his first student of planetary astronomy. They collaborated on photometric studies of planets, satellites, and asteroids, and in 1949 Harris completed his Ph.D. work with a disserta-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 tion on the satellite system of Uranus. (Harris died prematurely on April 29, 1962.) In February 1948, Kuiper found and named a fifth satellite (Miranda) of Uranus on photographs taken to determine relative magnitudes of the four known satellites. In a systematic search for outer and inner satellites of the planets, he found Nereid, the second moon of Neptune, in May 1949. Succeeding his long-time friend Otto Struve, Kuiper became director of Yerkes and McDonald observatories in 1947, a post he occupied for two years and then resumed in 1957. His thoughts were returning to the origin of the solar system, as he described in the Kepler Medal discourse in 1971: I felt that I had come to understand the problem of double-star origin, at least in outline; that it was identical to the general process of star formation, from slightly turbulent prestellar clouds upon contraction, with conservation of angular momentum. It followed that the Solar System was no more than an "unsuccessful" double star with the companion mass spread out radially into a disk that in time developed the planets .... The mass partition between [the primary and companion masses] would be random mass fractions of the total, a result I had derived empirically from a statistical study of double-star ratios. Thus, planetary systems clearly had to originate as the low-mass extremity of the almost universal process of double-star formation.... A basis had thus been found for estimating the frequency of planetary systems in our galaxy. In September 1949, Kuiper startled his colleagues and the public with the announcement that the frequency of planetary systems was at least one in a thousand. A year or two later he revised this to be at least one in a hundred, and then as many as half of the total number of stars in the galaxy; earlier workers had considered planetary systems extremely rare, perhaps one in a trillion stars. That same year, Kuiper organized and initiated the Yerkes-McDonald asteroid survey, in order to provide reliable sta-

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1950 On the origin of asteroids. A.J. 55:164. The diameter of Pluto. P.A.S.P. 62:133-37. II diametro di Plutone. Coelum 18:113-16. Planetary and satellite atmospheres. Rep. Prog. Phys. 23:247-72. Waarnemen Met de 200-inch Hale telescope (Observing with the Hale telescope). Hemel Dampkring 48:121-24. 1951 On the origin of the solar system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 37:1-14. On the origin of the irregular satellites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 37:717-21. On the evolution of the protoplanets. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 37:383-93. On the origin of the solar system. In Astrophysics, ed. J. A. Hynek, pp. 357-424. New York: McGraw-Hill. Tables 831, 833, 862, and 871. Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. 1952 Introduction. In The Atmosphere of the Earth and Planets, ed. G. P. Kuiper, pp. 1-15. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Planetary atmospheres and their origin. In The Atmospheres of the Earth and planets, ed. G. P. Kuiper, pp. 306-405. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Report of Commission 16 (Commission pour les observations physiques des planets et des satellites). Trans. I.A.U. 8:216-17. 1953 Satellites, comets and interplanetary material. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 39:1153-58. Note on the origin of the asteroids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 39:1139-61. The Sun (The Solar System, vol. I), ed. G. P. Kuiper. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Comets and the dissipation of the solar nebula. Mem. Soc. R. Liege Ser. 4 13:401-25. On the origin of the lunar surface features. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 40:1096-1112. Determination of the pole of rotation of Venus. Astrophys. J. 120:603-5.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 With I. Groeneveld. Photometric studies of asteroids I. Astrophys. J. 120:200-220. Photometric studies of asteroids II. Astrophys. J. 120:529-50. The Earth as a Planet (The Solar System, vol. II), ed. G. P. Kuiper. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1955 Report of Commission 16 (Commission pour les observations physiques des planetes et des satellites). Trans. I.A.U. 9:250-63. On the martian surface features. P.A.S.P. 67:271-82. On the origin of binary stars. P.A.S.P. 67:387-96. 1956 On the origin of the satellites and the Trojans. In Vistas in Astronomy, vol. 2, ed. A. Beer, pp. 1631-66. New York: Pergamon Press. The formation of the planets, parts I, II, III. J. R. Astron. Soc. Can. 50:57-68, 105-21, 158-76. The origin of the Earth and the planets. J. Geophys. Res. 61:398-405. Planets, satellites, and comets. Smithson. Contrib. Astron. 1:89-93. Note on Dr. McLaughlin's paper. P.A.S.P. 68:219. With J. W. Chamberlain. Rotational temperature and phase variation of the carbon dioxide bands of Venus. Astrophys. J. 124:399-405. With J. R. Johnson. Dimensions of contact surfaces in close binaries. Astrophys. J. 123:90-94. Mars. I.A.U. Circ. no. 1563. De Oppervlakte van Mars (The martian surface). Hemel Dampkring 54:113-20. The planet Pluto. Science 124:322. 1957 Mars in 1956. Hemel Dampkring 55:1-6. Further studies on the origin of Pluto. Astrophys. J. 125:287-89. Visual observations of Mars, 1956. Astrophys. J. 125:307-17. Origin, age and possible ultimate fate of the Earth. In The Planet Earth, ed. D. R. Bates, pp. 12-30. London: Pergamon Press. The atmosphere and the cloud layer of Venus. In The Threshold of Space, ed. M. Zelinkoff, pp. 78-86. London: Pergamon Press. Infrared observations of planets and satellites [abstract]. A. J. 62: 245. Drawings of Mars in Mars symposium report. Sky Telesc. 16:268-70.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1958 With Y. Fujita, T. Gehrels, I. Groenevelt, J. Kent, G. Van Biesbroeck, and C.J. Van Houten. Survey of asteroids. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 3:289-427. Lunar crater Alphonsus. H.A.C. no. 1419 Statistics of asteroids [abstract]. Astrophys. J. 127:799-780. Report of Commission 16 (Commission pour l'etude physique des planetes et des satellites). Trans. I.A.U. 10:249-59. 1959 Further reports of observatories. Yerkes Observatory, Univ. of Chicago, Williams Bay, Wisconsin; McDonald Observatory, Univ. of Texas, Fort Davis, Texas. A. J. 64:473-82. The Moon. J Geophys. Res. 64:1713-19. With G. R. Miczaika. A new observatory in Chile [abstract]. A. J. 64:338. The exploration of the Moon. In Vistas in Astronautics, vol. 2, eds. M. Alperin and H. F. Gregory, pp. 273-312. New York: Pergamon Press. Lunar crater Alphonsus [letter to editor]. Sky Telesc. 18:307. The Moon. In The Exploration of Space, ed. R. Jastrow, pp. 70-76. New York: McGraw-Hill. Moon. In Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, pp. 589-97. New York: McGraw-Hill. With B. Middlehurst. Appendix. In Telescopes (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. 1), eds. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst, pp. 239-52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. General editor. Stellar Atmospheres (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. VI), ed. J. L. Greenstein. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The environments of the Moon and the planets. In The Physics and Medicine of the Atmosphere and Space, pp. 577-83. New York: John Wiley. With D. W. G. Arthur, E. Moore, J. W. Tapscott, and E. A. Whitaker. Photographic Atlas of the Moon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1961 The bluish planet Earth and the ochre-colored moon—a tale of two planets. Grad. J. 4(2):332-49. Reprinted in Univ. Chile Bol. (1962). Planets and Satellites (The Solar System, vol. III), eds. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst, pp. 575-91. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 With D. W. G. Arthur and E. A. Whitaker. Orthographic Atlas of the Moon. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Micrometer measures of double stars. Astrophys. J. 6:1-36. 1962 Histoire de deux planètes. Bull. Soc. Astron. France 76:288-94, 32238. Organization and programs of the Laboratory. Commun. LPL 1(1):120. With W. K. Hartmann. Concentric structures surrounding lunar basins. Commun. LPL 1(12):51-66. Infrared spectra of stars and planets, I: Photometry of the infrared spectrum of Venus, 1-2.5 microns. Commun. LPL 1(15):83-117. With R. Goranson, A. Binder, and H. L. Johnson. An infrared stellar spectrometer. Commun. LPL 1(16):119-28. Infrared spectra of stars and planets, II. Water vapor in Omicron Ceti. Commun. LPL 1(23):179-88. General editor. Astronomical Techniques (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. II), ed. W. A. Hiltner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Photometry of the infrared spectrum of Venus, 1-2.5 microns. Mem. Soc. R. Liege Ser. 5 7:269-99. 1963 With H. J. Wood. Photometric studies of asteroids. X. Commun. LPL 2(18):147-53. Also Astrophys. J. 137:1279-85. Infrared spectra of stars and planets, III: Reconnaissance of AO-B8 stars, 1-2.5 microns. Commun. LPL 2(25):17-32. Spectrophotometric records from 0.3-0.55 µ for some A and B stars with special reference to the Balmer series. Commun. LPL 2(26):3347. General editor. Basic Astronomical Data (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. III); ed. K. A. Strand. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Moon, Meteorites and Comets (The Solar System, vol. IV), eds. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. With E. A. Whitaker, W. K. Hartmann, and L. H. Spradley. Rectified lunar atlas. Supplement no. 2 to Photographic Lunar Atlas. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. The surface of the moon. In Space Science, ed. D. P. Le Galley, pp. 630-49. New York: Wiley and Sons.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1964 Infrared spectra of stars and planets, IV: The spectrum of Mars 12.5 microns, and the structure of its atmosphere. Commun. LPL 2(31):79-112. With T. C. Owen. A determination of the composition and surface pressure of the martian atmosphere. Commun. LPL 2(32):113-32. With D. P. Cruikshank. Laboratory spectra for testing the presence of minor constituents in planetary atmospheres, I: CH4, NH3, N2O, CO, COS, region 1-2.5 µ. Commun. LPL 2(34):141-65. Infrared spectra of planets and cool stars: Introductory report. (Meeting of 1963.) Mem. Soc. R. Liege Ser. 5 9:365-91. The lunar and planetary laboratory. Sky Telesc. 27:4-7, 88-92. The surface of the moon, Ranger VII Mission. Trans. I.A.U. 12B:658-62. 1965 Ranger VII, Part II. Experimenters' analyses and interpretations. JPL Technical Report no. 32-700, pp. 9-73. Interpretation of Ranger VII records, Feb. 10, 1965. Lunar results from Rangers 7 and 9. Sky Telesc. 29:294-308. General editor. Galactic Structure (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. V), eds. A. Blaauw and M. Schmidt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. General editor. Stellar Structure (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. VIII), eds. L. H. Aller and D. B. McLaughlin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Interpretation of the Ranger records [abstract], pp. 24-29. (Proceedings of the CalTech-JPL Lunar and Planetary Conference, Sept. 13-18, 1965.) JPL Technical Memorandum no. 33-266. Prospects of astronomy and astrogeophysics in Hawaii, pp. 79-84. (Proceedings of Governor's Conference on Science and Technology, State of Hawaii, Jan. 26-30, 1965.) Department of Planning and Economic Development. Five atlases under direction of G. P. Kuiper and E. A. Whitaker, each containing nearly 200 photographic sheets: Ranger VII photographs of the Moon, Part I, Camera 'A' series; Part II, Camera 'B' series; Part III, Camera 'P' series. Ranger VIII photographs of the Moon. Ranger IX photographs of the Moon. NASA-PL.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1966 Volcanic sublimates on Earth and Moon. Commun. LPL 3(49):33-60. With R. G. Strom, R. S. Le Poole, and E. A. Whitaker. Russian Luna IX pictures: Provisional analysis. Science 151:1561-63. Ranger VIII and IX, Part 2. Experimenters' analyses and interpretation. JPL Technical Report no. 32-800, pp. 35-245. Interpretation of the Ranger records. The surface of the Moon. New Sci. 30:499. The lunar surface and the U.S. Ranger program. Proc. Soc. London 296:399-416. Interpretation of Ranger VII Records. Commun. LPL 4(58):1-70. Reprinted from Ranger VII, Part II: Experimenters' analyses and interpretations. JPL Technical Report 32-700, with slight revisions. The Moon and the planet Mars. In Advances in Earth Sciences, ed. F. Press, pp. 21-70. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. The surface structure of the Moon. In The Nature of the Lunar Surface, eds. W. Hess, D. Menzel, and J. O'Keefe, pp. 99-105. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 1967 With D. E. Gault, J. B. Adams, R.J. Collins, J. Green, H. S. Masursky, J. A. O'Keefe, R. A. Phinney, and E. M. Shoemaker. Surveyor V: Discussion of chemical analysis. Science 158:641-42. With F. F. Forbes and H. L. Johnson. A program of astronomical spectroscopy from aircraft. Commun. LPL 6(93):155-70. With D. L. Steinmetz. Solar comparison spectra, 1.0-2.5 µ. Commun. LPL 6(94):171-76. With F. F. Forbes. High altitude spectra from NASA CV-990 Jet. I: Venus, 1-2.5 microns, resolution 20 cm-1. Commun. LPL 6(95):177-89. With D. P. Cruikshank. Calibration of weak 1.4 and 1.9 µ H2O absorptions in high altitude planetary spectra. Commun. LPL 6(96):191-94. With D. P. Cruikshank. Sulphur compounds in the atmosphere of Venus. I: An upper limit for the abundance of SO2 in the Venus atmosphere. Commun. LPL 6(97) :195-97. With G. T. Sill and D. P. Cruikshank. The infrared spectrum of carbon suboxide, Part I: Region 1-2.5 microns. Part II and addendum by Cruikshank and Sill. Part III by U. Fink. Commun. LPL 6(99):201-206.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The lunar surface and the U.S. Ranger Programme. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 166:399-417. Contribution in lunar theory and processes. Surveyor V Mission Report. JPL Technical Report no. 32-1246, pp. 177-79. The lunar surface and the U.S. Ranger program. In Moon and Planets, ed. A. Dollfus, pp. 23-44. With E. A. Whitaker, R. G. Strom, J. W. Fountain, and S. M. Larson. Consolidated Lunar Atlas. Published for Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory by LPL-University of Arizona. The lunar surface. In The Earth in Space, ed. H. Odishaw, pp. 146-56. Also, Basic Books. Uranus and Neptune. In The Earth in Space, ed. H. Odishaw, pp. 199-210. Basic Books. 1968 With D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, a preliminary report. Commun. LPL 7(123):179-96. With D. P. Cruikshank and L. A. Bijl. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report II. Commun. LPL 7(124):197-216. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report III. Commun. LPL 7(125):221-25. With D. P. Cruikshank and F. A. de Wiess. A high-resolution solar spectrometer for airborne infrared observations. Commun. LPL 7(126):233-38. Contribution in Discussion of chemical analysis. Surveyor V preliminary results. JPL Technical Report no 32-1235, pp. 11-12. Reprinted from Science 158:631-52. Contribution in Theory and processes relating to the lunar maria from the surveyor experiments. Surveyor VI Mission Report. JPL Technical Report no. 32-1262, pp. 171-76. General editor. Nebulae and Interstellar Matter (Stars and Stellar Systems, vol. VII), eds. B. M. Middlehurst and L. H. Aller. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. With D. E. Gault, J. B. Adams, R. J. Collins, H. Masursky, J. A. O'Keefe, R. A. Phinney, and E. M. Shoemaker. Lunar theory and processes, Surveyor VIII, a preliminary report. NASA SP-173, pp. 233-76. With D. E. Gault, R. J. Collins, T. Gold, J. Green, H. Masursky, J. O'Keefe, R. Phinney, and E. M. Shoemaker. Lunar theory and processes. (On Surveyor 3.) J. Geophys. Res. 73:4115-31.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 With D. Gault, J. Adams, R. Collins, H. Masursky, J. O'Keefe, R. Phinney, and E. Shoemaker. Lunar theory and processes. Surveyor VII, Part II, Science results. JPL Technical Report no. 321264, pp. 267-314. With D. Gault, J. Adams, R. Collins, H. Masursky, J. O'Keefe, R. Phinney, and E. Shoemaker. Lunar theory and processes. Surveyor final report. JPL Technical Report no. 32-1265, pp. 389-405. 1969 With L. A. Bijl and D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report IV. Commun. LPL 9(160):1-27. With L. A. Bijl and D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report V. Commun. LPL 9(161):29-51. With A. B. Thomson, L. A. Bijl, and D. C. Benner. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report VI. Commun. LPL 9(162): 53-63. With L. A. Bijl and D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report VII. Commun. LPL 9(163):65-92. With L. A. Bijl and D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report VIII. Commun. LPL 9(164):93-120. With L. A. Bijl and D. P. Cruikshank. Arizona-NASA atlas of infrared solar spectrum, Report IX. Commun. LPL 9(165):121-53. With F. F. Forbes, D. L. Steinmetz, R. I. Mitchell, and U. Fink. High altitude spectral NASA CV-990 Jet. II. Water vapor on Venus. Commun. LPL 6(100):209-28. Identification of the Venus cloud layers. Commun. LPL 6(101):229-50. With J. W. Fountain and S. M. Larson. Venus photographs. Part I: Photographs of Venus taken with the 82-inch telescope at McDonald Observatory, 1950-56. Commun. LPL 6(102):251-62. With G. T. Sill. Identification of the Venus cloud layers [abstract]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 1:351. With R. A. Phinney, J. A. O'Keefe, J. B. Adams, D. E. Gault, H. Masursky, R. J. Collins, and E. M. Shoemaker. Implications of the Surveyor 7 results. J. Geophys. Res. 74:6053-80. 1970 With D. P. Cruikshank and U. Fink. The composition of Saturn's rings. Sky Telesc. 39:80. High altitude sites and IR astronomy. Commun. LPL 8(142):121-64.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 The planet Mercury: Summary of present knowledge. Commun. LPL 8(143):165-74. High altitude observations of Venus [abstract]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 2:235. With G. T. Sill. The nature of Venus clouds [abstract]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 2:236. With R. A. Phinney, D. E. Gault, J. A. O'Keefe, J. B. Adams, H. Masursky, E. M. Shoemaker, and R. J. Collins. Lunar theory and processes: Discussion of chemical analysis. Icarus 12:213-23. With D. E. Gault, J. B. Adams, R. J. Collins, J. A. O'Keefe, R. A. Phinney, and E. M. Shoemaker. Lunar theory and processes: Post-sunset horizon 'afterglow'. Icarus 12:230-32. With R. J. Turner. The northeast rim of Tycho, appendix no. 1. Commun. LPL 8(149):203-34. With U. Fink. High altitude spectra of Mars, 1969 [abstract]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 2:236. With D. P. Cruikshank and U. Fink. The composition of Saturn's rings [abstract]. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 2:235. High altitude sites and IR astronomy, II. Commun. LPL 8(156):337-82. With L. Randi'c. Daytime H2O measures on mountain sites. Commun. LPL 8(158):391-95. 1971 On the nature of the Venus clouds. In Planetary Atmospheres, eds. C. Sagan, T. Owen, and H. Smith, pp. 91-109. New York: Springer-Verlag. With U. Fink. High altitude interferometer spectra of Mars [abstract]. In Planetary Atmospheres, eds. C. Sagan, T. Owen, and H. Smith, p. 246. New York: Springer-Verlag. With B. C. Murray, M.J. S. Belton, G. E. Danielson, M. E. Davies, B. T. O'Leary, V. E. Suomi, and N. J. Trask. Imaging of Mercury and Venus from a flyby. Icarus 15:153-73. With D. Milon, S. Larson, and R. B. Minton. Extensive cloud activity on Mars. I.A.U. Circ. no. 2358. The physics and spectroscopy of planetary atmospheres [abstract]. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 16:1152. Lunar rocks. Nat. Tech. 39(7):1-14. Response to paper on The presence of ferrous chloride in the clouds of Venus, by D. P. Cruikshank and A. B. Thomson. Icarus 15:504.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 1972 Lunar and planetary laboratory studies of Jupiter-I, -II. Sky Telesc. 43:4-8, 75-81. Comets, scientific data and missions. In Proceedings of the Tucson Comet Conference, eds. G. P. Kuiper and E. Roemer, pp. 222. Tucson: LPL-University of Arizona. High resolution planetary observation. In Space Research XII, vol. 2, eds. S. A. Bowhill, L. D. Jaffe, and M. J. Rycroft, pp. 1683-87. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. With U. Fink, H. P. Larson, and R. F. Poppen. Water vapor in the atmosphere of Venus. Icarus 17:617-31. With D. C. Benner, L., and A. B. Thomson. Arizona-NASA atlas of the infrared solar spectrum, Report X. Commun. LPL 9(166):155-70. The lunar and planetary laboratory and its telescopes. Commun. LPL 9(172):199-247. 1973 Interpretation of the Jupiter red spot, I. Commun. LPL 9(173):249-313. Discourse-Following award of Kepler Gold Medal (December 28, 1971). Commun. LPL 9(183):403-407, Comments on the Galilean satellites. Commun. LPL 10(187):28-39. High resolution planetary observations. Commun. LPL 10(192):5459. (Reissued from Space Research XII, 1972, with minor additions.) With L.. Water-vapor measures, Mt. Lemmon area. Commun. LPL 10(193):60-69. The Apollo program and lunar science. Bull. Atomic Sci. 29(10):1926. On the origin of the solar system, I. Celest. Mech. 9:321-47. 1975 With G. de Vaucouleurs, J. Blunck, M. Davies, A. Dollfus, I. K. Koval, H. Masursky, S. Miyamoto, V. I. Moroz, C. Sagan, and B. Smith. The new martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union. Icarus 26:85-98.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 62 Bidelman's Papers On G. P. Kuiper's work on the stars of large proper motion. In The HR Diagram, eds. A. G. Davis Philip and D. S. Hayes, pp. 417-20. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1978. Kuiper's and Lee's classifications of faint proper-motion stars. In The Nearby Stars and the Stellar Luminosity Function, eds. A. G. Davis Philip and A. R. Upgren, pp. 81-84. Schenectady, New York: L. Davis Press, 1983. G. P. Kuiper's spectral classifications of proper-motion stars. Astrophys. J. Suppl 59(1985):197-227.