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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure IN OUR OWN BACKYARD Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure COMMITTEE ON INFRASTRUCTURE BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD COMMISSION ON ENGINEERING AND TECHNICAL SYSTEMS NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Albert A. Grant Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1993
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was established by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Funding for the project was provided through the following agreements between the indicated federal agency and the National Academy of Sciences: Department of the Army Agreement CECWXX-90-N-5301 and DACA88-92-M-0283; Federal Highway Administration Agreement DTFH61-92-P-01352; and National Science Foundation Grant No. MSS-9009343, under master agreement 8618642. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-87112 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04878-8 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-134 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure COMMITTEE ON INFRASTRUCTURE Chairman ALBERT A. GRANT, Consultant, Potomac, Maryland Members CLAIRE BARRETT, Special Assistant to the Director of Aviation, MASSPORT, Logan International Airport, East Boston, Massachusetts MICHAEL COHEN, Chief of the Urban Development Division, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM COLEMAN, President, Leggatt McCall Properties Management, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts ELLIS LANE JOHNSON, IBM Fellow and Coca-Cola Professor, IBM T. J. Watson Research Center of Technology, Yorktown Heights, New York GORDON S. KINO, Associate Dean of Engineering, Edward L. Ginzon Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California DAVID HUNTER MARKS, Director, Programs in Environmental Engineering Education and Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge WILLIAM REES MORRISH, Dayton Hudson Professor in Urban Design, and Director, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis JOSEPH PERKOWSKI, Manager, Advanced Civil Systems Research & Development, Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, California JANICE ELAINE PERLMAN, Executive Director, Mega-Cities Project, Urban Research Center, New York University, New York, New York SERGIO RODRIGUEZ, AICP, Assistant City Manager/Planning Director, City of Miami, Florida GEORGE ROWE, Director of Public Works, Department of Public Works, City of Cincinnati, Ohio
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure RICHARD L. SIEGLE, P.E. Director of Facilities Services, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. RAYMOND L. STERLING, Associate Professor and Director, Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NAN STOCKHOLM, Director, Presidio Council, Golden Gate National Park Association, San Francisco, California National Research Council Liaison Representatives NANCY CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine Federal Liaison Representatives KEN P. CHONG, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. CHARLES W. NEISSNER, Federal Highway Administration, Reston, Virginia KYLE SCHILLING, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Belvoir, Virginia ROBERT STEARNS, Department of the Army, Washington, D.C. Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Staff Officer PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant Acknowledgements The committee would like to acknowledge the assistance of the many people in Phoenix, Cincinnati, and Boston who guided and participated in this study. While many of these individuals are listed in the Appendixes of this report there were many others who provided invaluable services. In particular the committee would like to thank the American Public Works Association for providing meeting rooms, hotel and other logistical arrangements in Boston.
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure BUILDING RESEARCH BOARD (1992–1993) Chairman HAROLD J. PARMELEE, President, Turner Construction Company, New York, New York Members RICHARD T. BAUM*, (Retired) Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York LYNN S. BEEDLE, University Distinguished Professor of Civil Engineering and Director, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania CATHERINE BROWN, Director of Special Projects, Design Center for American Urban Landscape, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis GERALD L. CARLISLE*, Secretary-Treasurer, International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen, Washington, D.C. NANCY RUTLEDGE CONNERY, Consultant, Woolwich, Maine C. CHRISTOPHER DEGENHARDT*, Chairman, EDAW, Inc., San Francisco, California AUGUSTINE A. DiGIACOMO, Partner, Jaros, Baum and Bolles, Consulting Engineers, New York, New York ELISHA C. FREEDMAN*, Regional Manager, The Par Group—Paul A. Reaume, Ltd., West Hartford, Connecticut DELON HAMPTON, Delon Hampton & Associates, Washington, D.C. DONALD G. ISELIN, U.S.N. Retired, Consultant, Santa Barbara, California FREDERICK KRIMGOLD*, Associate Dean for Research and Extension, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Alexandria GARY T. MOORE, Professor of Architecture and Director, Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure WALTER P. MOORE, President and Chairman of the Board, Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc., Houston, Texas J. W. MORRIS, U.S.A. Retired, President, J. W. Morris Ltd., Arlington, Virginia BRIAN P. MURPHY, Senior Vice President, Prudential Property Company, Prudential Plaza, Newark, New Jersey LESLIE E. ROBERTSON*, Director, Design and Construction, Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York, New York JEROME J. SINCOFF, AIA, President, Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri JAMES E. WOODS*, William E. Jamerson Professor of Building Construction, College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg APRIL L. YOUNG*, CRA Coordinator, First American Metro Corporation, McLean, Virginia Staff ANDREW C. LEMER, Director HENRY A. BORGER, Executive Secretary, Federal Construction Council PATRICIA M. WHOLEY, Staff Associate SUZETTE CODY, Project Assistant LENA B. GRAYSON, Program Assistant MARY McCORMACK, Project Assistant * Term completed
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1. INTRODUCTION 13 What the Report Contains 15 Thinking Broadly, Observing Locally 16 2. THINKING BROADLY ABOUT INFRASTRUCTURE 19 Infrastructure's Many Services 20 Public Works and Private 23 Evolving Technologies 24 Institutions and Infrastructure 31 3. OBSERVING LOCALLY 37 The Colloquia Series 37 Phoenix, Arizona 41 Background 41 Asphalt Pavement Using Recycled Rubber Tires and Other Design Features 45 Papago Freeway and Margaret Hance Park 47 Squaw Peak Parkway and Thomas Road Overpass 48 27th Avenue Solid Waste Management Facility 51 Water Resources and Canals 52 Grass-Roots Initiative and Sunnyslope Village 55 How Representative Is the Phoenix Experience? 56 Extracting More General Principles 58 Cincinnati, Ohio 60 Background 60 The Stormwater Management Utility 62
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure The Infrastructure Commission, 65 The Infrastructure Improvement Program, 69 How Representative Is the Cincinnati Experience?, 72 Extracting More General Principles, 74 Boston, Massachusetts, 76 Background, 76 Public Transport, Public Involvement, and the Southwest Corridor, 78 Building the Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnel, 81 Massachusetts Water Resource Authority "Turning the Tide on Pollution," 83 How Representative Is the Boston Experience?, 85 Extracting More General Principles, 87 4. PRINCIPLES FOR ACTION ON INFRASTRUCTURE 89 Three Key Principles for Action, 90 Principle 1: Geography Matters, 90 Principle 2: The Paradigm Is Broadening, 92 Principle 3: Value the "Public" in Public Works, 94 Toward National Policy and Beyond, 98 APPENDIXES Appendix A. Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff, 103 Appendix B. The BRB/CETS/NRC Strategic Program in Infrastructure, 108 Appendix C. Study Participants, 113 List of Tables Table 3-1 Summary Statistics on Workshop Cities 42, 43 List of Pictures 1-A. Many elements of the infrastructure interact underground, hidden from view. Here water supply pipelines surface and are supported by a bridge across a concrete-lined stormwater drainage channel that replaced a creek 18
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In Our Own Backyard: Principles for Effective Improvement of the Nation's Infrastructure 2-A. Cincinnati's cable suspension bridge across the Ohio River continues to carry traffic more than 100 years after its construction. The bridge, in 1866 America's longest span, was designed by John Roebling, whose technical achievement and artistry in the Brooklyn Bridge established him as one of the most famous of America's infrastructure professionals 29 3-A. By questioning the state's standard bridge design originally planned for the Thomas Road Overpass, part of the Squaw Peak Parkway in Phoenix, the artist invited to "beautify" an austere structure motivated a money-saving custom design and created an award-winning community asset 49 3-B. The engineer-artist team responsible for design of Phoenix's 27th Avenue Solid Waste Management Facility, here under construction, created an entry to the building that would illustrate to the public something about how structures work 53 3-C. Accumulated "superficial" deterioration and subsequent structural damage on Cincinnati's Ludlow Viaduct were a direct result of the neglect of maintenance, attributable to legislative budgetary decisions. Until repairs could be made, the bridge had to be closed to truck traffic, adding substantially to street congestion and the costs to businesses located in the area 66 3-D. Cincinnati's Ault Park Pavilion was renovated in 1992 and returned to service as a popular place for strolling and a center for community recreation. Parks, open space, and such public facilities are likely to become increasingly important as elements of infrastructure 73 3-E. This approach to downtown Boston—lined with houses and small shops, and passing through flower and vegetable gardens, parks and playgrounds—is built above the Metropolitan Boston Transportation Authority's Orange Line. Much of the rapid rail transit line is, in turn, located in a right of way cleared in the 1960s for construction of a segment of the interstate highway system. Community questioning of the balance and distribution of costs and benefits of this segment led to the nation's first major reprogramming of federal transportation funds from one mode to another 80 3-F. Infrastructure construction projects are often among the largest and most complex and costly civil engineering undertakings. Operations of this dredge working on Boston's Third Harbor Tunnel project adjust to seasonal fish migrations as well as tides and storms 86 4-A. In Boston's South End neighborhood, matching the design of the subway transit's ventilation tower to the style of adjacent residences converted a potential eyesore and source of community resentment to an attractive and accepted addition to the urban landscape 96
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