Click for next page ( 112


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 111
REFERENCES Alfrey, T., and W. J. Schrenk. 1980. Multipolymer systems. Science 208:813-818. Ashby, M. F. 1989. On the engineering properties of materials. Acta Metallurgica 37~5~: 1273-1293. Ashton, J. E., J. C. Halpin, and P. H. Petit. 1969. Primer on Composite Materials: Analysis. Westport, Connecticut: Technomic. Baer, E., A. Hiltner, and R. Morgan. 1992. Biological and synthetic hierarchical composites. Physics Today. October: 60~7. Bangham, A. D., M. M. Standish, and I. C. Watkins. 1965. Diffusion of univalent ions across the lamellae of swollen phospholipids. Journal of Molecular Biology 13~1~:238-252. Becher, P. F. 1991. Microstructural design of toughened ceramics. Journal of the American Ceramic Society 74~2~:255-269. Ben-Bassat, A., R. Bruner, S. P. Shoemaker, Y. Aloni, H. Wong, D. C. Johnson, and A. N. Neogi.1986. Reticulated Cellulose, Product Sheets Formed Therefrom, Methods and Microorganisms for Their Production. European Patent Application 0 228 779. Bloom, M., E. Evans, and O. Mouritsen. 1991. Physical properties of the fluid lipid bilayer component of cell membranes. Quarterly Review of Biophysics 24~3~:293-397. Broutman, L. I., and R. H. Crock, eds. 1967. Modern Composite Materials. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. 111

OCR for page 111
2 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Afatenals Technology Calvert, P. 1994. Biomimetic mineralization: Processes and prospects. Materials Science and Engineering C1:69-74. Calvert, P., and S. Mann. 1988. Review: Synthetic and biological composites formed by in situ precipitation. Journal of Materials Science 23(11):3801 -3815. Cappello, J., I. Crissman, M. Dorman, M. Mikolajczak, G. Textor, M. Marquet, and F. Ferrari. l 990a. Genetic engineering of structural protein polymers. Biotechnology Progress 6:198-202. Cappello, I., and K. P. McGrath. 1994. Spinning of protein polymer fibers. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 544:311-327. Carriker, M. R., J. G. Schaadt, and V. Peters. 1974. Analysis by slow- motion picture photography and scanning electron microscopy of radulari function in Urosalpinx-cinerea- follysensis (murcidae, gastropoda) during shell penetration. Marine Biology 25:63-75. Chaudhury, M. K., and A. M. Whitesides. 1992. How to make water run uphill. Science 256:1539-1541. Chawla, K. K. 1987. Composite Materials Science and Engineering. New York: Springer-Verlag. Cima, L. G., J. P. Vacanti, D. Ingber, D. Mooney, and R. Langer. 1991. Tissue engineering by cell transplantation using degradable polymer substrates. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 113~2~: 143-151. Clegg, W. J., K. Kendall, N. M. Alford, T. W. Button, and J. D. Birchall. 1990. A simple way to make tough ceramics. Nature 347(6292):455~57. Cook, I., and J. E. Gordon. 1964. A mechanism for the control of crack propagation in all-brittle systems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A282:51 S-520. Cowie, D. B., and G. N. Cohen. 1957. Biosynthesis by Escherichia cold of active altered proteins containing selenium instead of sulfur. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 26:252-261.

OCR for page 111
References 113 Creel, H. S., M. I. Fournier, T. L. Mason, and D. A. Tirrell. 1991. Genetically directed syntheses of new polymeric materials: Efficient expression of monodisperse copolypeptide containing tandemly repeated - (AlaGly)4ProGluGly Macromolecules 24: 1213-12 14. - elements. Currey, J. D. 1979. Mechanical properties of bone with greatly differing functions. Journal of Biomechanics 12:313 - 319. Currey, I. D. 1984. The Mechanical Adaptations of Bones. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Diefendorf, R. J., and E. Tokarsky. 1975. High-Performance carbon fibers. Polymer Engineering and Science 15~3~: 150 - 159. Dieter, G. E., Ir. 1976. Mechanical Metallurgy, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Doi, Y., and C. Abe. 1990. Biosynthesis and characterization of a new bacterial copolyester of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and 3-hydroxy- omega-chloroalkanoates. Macromolecules 23~15~:3705-3707. Dorn, J. E., and C. D. Starr. 1954. Relation of Properties to Microstructure, pp. 71-94. American Society of Metals, Metals Park, OH. Dresselhaus, M. S. 1987. Intercalation in layered materials. Materials Research Society Bulletin 12~3~:24-28. Edie, D. D., and E. G. Stoner. 1993. The effect of microstructure and shape on carbon fiber properties. Pp. 41~7 in Carbon-Carbon Materials and Composites. J. D. Buckley and D. D. Edie, eds. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Publications. Elwing, H., and C.-G. Golonder. 1990. Protein and detergent interaction phenomena on solid surfaces with gradients in chemical composition. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 32:317-339. Endo, M. 1988. Structures of mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers. Journal of Materials Science 23:598~05. Evans, E. 1985. Molecular structure and viscoelastic properties of biomembranes. Advances in Solid State Physics 25:735-74S.

OCR for page 111
114 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Materials Technology Evans, E., and R. Skalak. 1980. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Biomembranes. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. Frankel, R. B., and R. P. Blakemore. 1984. Precipitation of magnetite in magnetotactic bacteria. Philosophical Transactions, Royal Society of London. B304:567-574. Fossey, S. A., G. Nemthy, K. D. Gibson, and H. A. Scheraga. 1991. Conformational energy studies of model silk fibroin peptides. Pp. 253-255 in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium. Vol. 218, Materials Synthesis Based on Biological Processes. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. Fraser, R. B. D., and T. P. MacRae. 1973. Conformation of Fibrous Proteins and Related Synthetic Polypeptides. New York: Academic Press. Glimcher, M. J. 1984. Recent studies of the mineral phase in bone and its possible linkage to the organic matrix by protein-bound phosphate bonds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B304(1 121~:479. Gosline, J. M. 1971. Structure, composition and viscoelastic properties of mesoglea. Journal of Experimental Biology 55:763-795. Gunderson, S. L., and J. M. Whitney. 1991. Analysis of a composite laminate having a novel unsymmetrical ply orientation. Pp. 309-318 in Proceedings of the 6th Technical Conference. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: American Society of Composites. Gunderson, S. L., and J. M. Whitney. 1992. A controlled unsymmetrical ply orientation for improved isotropic properties. Pp. 99-109 in Advances in Composite Mechanics and Biomimetics. Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Winter Meeting, AD29/AMD146. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Haimes, Y. Y. 1977. Hierarchical Analysis of Water Resource Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill.

OCR for page 111
References 115 Hogan, L. M., R. W. Kraft, and F. D. Lemkey. 1971. Eutectic grains. Pp. 83-216 in Advances in Materials Research, Vol. 5. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Hauser, H. O., M. C. Phillips, and M. Stubbs. 1972. Ion permeability of phospholipid bilayers. Nature 239~5371):342-344. Hua, C., and F. K. Ko. 1989. Properties of 3D braided commingled PEEK/carbon composites. Pp.688-699 in Advanced Materials: the Big Payoff. Covina, California: Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. Hull, D. 1981. An Introduction to Composite Materials. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Jackson, A. P., J. F. V. Vincent, and R. M. Turner. 1988. The mechanical design of nacre. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B234(1277~:415-440. Jacobs, P. F., and D. T. Reid. 1992. Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing - Fundamentals of Stereolithography. Dearborn, Michigan: Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Jeronimidis, G. 1980. Wood, one of nature's challenging composites. Pp. 169-182 in The Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials (Society of Experimental Biology Symposium 34), J. F. V. Vincent and I. D. Currey, eds. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Jeronimidis, G. 1976. The fracture of wood in relation to its structure. Leiden Botanical Series (3~:253-265. Johnson, D. J. 1987. Structure-property relationships in carbon fibers. Journal of Physics, D: Applied Physics 20~3~:286-291. Johnson, D. C., A. N. Neogi, H. A. LeBlanc. 1989. Bacterial Cellulose as Surface Treatment for Fibrous Web. U.S. Patent 4,861,427. Johnson, S. M., and A. D. Bangham. 1969. Potassium permeability of single compartment liposomes with and without valinomycin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 193~1~:82-91. Jones, R. M. 1975. Mechanics of Composite Materials. Washington, D.C.: Scripta Book Company.

OCR for page 111
116 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Materials Technology Kastelic, J., and E. Baer. 1980. Deformation in tendon collagen. Pp. 397~35 in Mechanical Properties of Biological Materials. Society for Experimental Biology Symposium IIIIV. J. F. V. Vincent and I. D. Currey, eds. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Kelly, A., and G. J. Davies. 1965. The principles of the fibre reinforcement of metals. Metallurgical Reviews 10~37~:12. Ker, R. F., M. B. Bennet, S. R. Bibby, R. C. Kester, and R. M. Alexander. 1987. The spring in the arch of the human foot. Nature 325: 147-1 49. Ker, R. F. 1977. Some Structural and Mechanical Properties of Locust and Beetle Cuticle. D. Phil. thesis, University of Oxford. Kerkam, K., C. Viney, D. Kaplan, and S. Lombardi. 1991. Liquid crystallinity of natural silk secretions. Nature 349:596-598. Ko, F. K. 1989. Preform fiber architecture for ceramic-matrix composites. Ceramic Bulletin 68~2~:401~14. Kum, D. W., T. Oyama, J. Wadsworth, and O.D. Sherby. 1983. The impact properties of laminated composites containing ultrahigh carbon (UHC) steels. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31~2~:173-186. Lipowsky, R. 1991. The conformation of membranes. Nature 349:475-481. Liu, H., G. L. Graff, M. Hyde, M. Sarikaya, and I. A. Aksay. 1991. Synthesis of ultrafine multicomponent particles using phospholipid vesicles. Pp. 1 15- 121 in Materials Synthesis Based on Biological Processes, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Volume 218. M. Alper, P. D. Calvert, P. C. Rieke, D. A. Tirrell, and R. Frankel, eds. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. Ma, M., K. Vijayan, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and J. Im. 1990a. Thickness effects in microlayer composites of polycarbonate and poly~styrene-acrylonitrile). Journal of Materials Science 25:2039-2046.

OCR for page 111
References 117 Ma, M. J. Im, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer. l 990b. Fatigue crack propagation of polycarbonate and poly~styrene-acrylonitrile). Journal of Applied Polymer Science 40:669 - X4. Mann, S., and R. I. P. Williams.1983. Precipitation within unilamellar vesicles. I: Studies of silver oxide formation. Journal of the Chemical Society: Dalton Transaction 1983~2~:311 - 316. Mann, S., and J. P. Hannington. 1988. Formation of iron oxides in unimolecular vesicles. 122~2~:326-335. Mann, S., J. P. Hannington, and R. J. P. Williams.1986. Phospholipid vesicles as a model system for biomineralization. Nature 324 (6097~:565-567. Marcus, H. L., and D. L. Bourell. 1993. Solid free-form fabrication finds new applications. Advanced Materials and Processes Journal of Colloid Interface Science 144(3):28-31. Mayer, G. 1992. Mechanical behavior of hierarchical synthetic composites. Pp. 107-117 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 255. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. Motokowa, T.1984. Connective tissue catch in echinoderms. Biological Review 59:255-270. Mow, V. C., A. Ratcliffe, and S. L. Y. Woo, eds. 1990. Biomechanics of Diarthodial Joints, Vol. I and II. New York: Springer-Verlag. Mow, V. C., A. Ratcliffe, and A. R. Poole. 1992. Cartilage and diarthodial joints as paradigms for hierarchical materials and structures. Biomaterials 13:67-97. NRC. 1984. Reliability of Adhesive Bonds Under Severe Environments. NMAB-422. National Research Council, National Materials Advisory Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 1991. Life Prediction Methodologies for Composites. NMAB- 460. National Research Council, National Materials Advisory Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 111
118 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Materials Technology NRC. In press. Expanding the Vision of Sensor Materials. NMAB- 470. National Research Council, National Materials Advisory Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Newnham, R. E. 1993. Smart, very smart, and intelligent materials. Materials Research Society Bulletin April:24 -26. Newnham, R. E., and G. R. Ruschau. 1990. Smart electroceramics. Plenary Lecture at the Second International Science and Technology Congress, Orlando, Florida, November 12-15,1990. Noren, C. J., S. S. Anthony-Cahill, M. C. Griffith, and P. G. Schultz. 1989. A general method for site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins. Science 244:182-188. Otsuka, K. 1993. Multilayer Ceramic Substrate Technology. London: Elsevier Applied Science. Papahadjopoulos, D. 1971. Na+ - K + discrimination by "pure" phospholipid membranes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 241~1):254-259. Padawer, G. E., and N. Beecher. 1970. On the strength and stiffness of planar reinforced plastic resins. Polymer Engineering and Science 10:185~192. Peterlin, A. 1971. Molecular model of drawing polyethylene and polypropylene. Journal of Materials Science 6~6~:490. Peterlin, A. 1972. Pg. 1 in Advances in Polymer Science and Engineering. K D. Pae, D. R. Morrow, and Y. Chen, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Peterlin, A. 1978. Annealing of drawn crystalline polymers. Polymer Engineering and Science 18~6~:488~95. Peterlin, A. 1979. Mechanical properties of fibrous structure. Pp. 279-320 in Ultra-high Modulus Polymers. A. Peterlin, A. C. Cifferri, and I. M. Ward, eds. Barking, England: Applied Science. Peterlin, A. 1983. Mechanical and transport properties of drawn semicrystalline polymers. Pp. 97- 127 in The Strength and Stiffness of Polymers. A. Zachariades and R. S. Porter, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker.

OCR for page 111
References 119 Perepezko, J. H. 1991. Metal and intermetallic matrix composite research and development in Japan. Pp. 87-116 in Advanced Composites in Japan. Baltimore, Maryland: Japanese Technology Evaluation Center. Ramesh, K. S., and A. J. Markworth. 1993. Functionally Graded Materials - The State of the Art. Richland, Washington: Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Rieke, P. C., D. R. Baer, G. E. Fryxell, M. L. Engelhard, and M. S. Porter. 1993. Beam damage of self-assembled monolayers. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, A (Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films) 11~4~:2292-2297. Riley, V. R. 1968. Fibre/fibre interaction. Journal of Composite Materials 2:436~46. Rogers, C. A. 1992. Intelligent Materials Systems - The Dawn of a New Materials Age. Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Ross, P., R. Mayer, and M. Benziman. l 991. Cellulose biosynthesis and function in bacteria. Microbial Review 55~1~:35-58. Ruiz-Herrera, I., and S. Bartnicki-Garcia. 1974. Synthesis of cell wall microfibrils in vitro by a soluble chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii. Science 186:357-359. Sachs, E., M. Cima, P. Williams, D. Broncazio, and J. Cornie. 1992. Three dimensional printing: Rapid tooling and prototypes directly from a CAD model. Journal of Engineering for Industry. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers 1444:41X. Sarikaya, M., K. E. Gunnison, M. Yasrebi, and I. A. Aksay. 1990. Mechanical property-microstructural relationship in abalone shell. Pp. 109-116 in Proceedings of the Materials Research Society Symposium, Vol. 174. P. Rieke, P. D. Calvert, and M. Alper, eds. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.

OCR for page 111
120 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Alatenals Technology Sarikaya, M., K. E. Gunnison, M. Yasrebi, D. L. Milins, and I. A. Aksay. 1990. Seashells as a natural model to study laminated composites. Pp. 176-183 in Proceedings of the American Society of Composites, 5th Technical Conference. Lancaster, Pennsylvania Technomic. Sarikaya, M., I. A. Aksay. 1992. Nacre of abalone shell: A natural multifunctional nanolaminated ceramic-polymer composite material. Pp. 1-25 in Structure, Cellular Synthesis and Assembly of Biopolymers, Stevem T. Case, ed. New York: Springer Verlag. Sawyer, L. C., and M. Jaffe. 1986. The structure of thermotropic copolyesters. Journal of Materials Science 21:1897-1913. Sherby, O. D., T. Oyama, D. W. Kum, and J. Wadsworth. 1985. Ultrahigh carbon steels. Journal of Metals 37~6~:50-56. Sherby, O. D., S. Lee, R. Koch, T. Sumi, and J. Wolfenstine. 1990. Multilayer composites based on utrahigh carbon steel and brass. Journal of Materials and Manufacturing Processes 5~3~:363-376. Sinjo, T., and T. Takada, eds. 1987. Metallic Superlattices: Artificially Strong Materials. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Smith, C. S. 1965. The interpretation of microstructures of metallic artifacts. Pp. 20-52 in Application of Science in Examination of Works of Art. Berlin, Germany: Bruder Hartmann. Sutton, W. H. and J. Chorne. 1965. Potential of oxide-fiber reinforced metals. Pp. 173-222 in Fiber Composite Materials. Metals Park, Ohio: American Society of Metals. Tirrell, D. A., M. ]. Fournier, and T. L. Mason. 1991. Genetic engineering of polymeric materials. Materials Research Society Bulletin 16~7~:23-28. Trotter, ]. A., and T. I. Koob. 1989. ColIagen and proteoglycan in a sea urchin ligament with mutable mechanical properties. Cell Tissue Research 258:527-539. Tucker, P., and W. George. 1972. Microfibers within fibers: A review Polymer Engineering and Science 12~5~:364. .

OCR for page 111
References 121 Urry, D. W., C. H. Luan, S. Q. Peng, T. M. Parker, and D. C. Gowda. 1992. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings 255:411~22. Vincent, J. F. V. 1990. Structural Biomaterials. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Vincent, I. F. V. 1993. Nuts. Pp. 35~3 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 292, Biomolecular Materials. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society. Vincent, J. F. V., and A. V. Srinivasan. 1992. Introductory statement. Biomimetics 1 ~ 1):3. Vogel, S. 1992. Copying nature: A biologist's cautionary comments. Biomimetics. 1 ~ 1):70. Wadsworth, J., and O. D. Sherby. 1980. On the Bulat-Damascus steels revisited. Progress in Materials Science 25~1~:3508. Wainwright, S. A., W. D. Biggs, J. D. Coffey, and J. M. Gosline. 1976. Mechanical Design in Organisms. London: Edward Arnold. Wainwright, S. A., F. Vosburgh, and J. H. Hebrank. 1978. Shark skin: function in locomotion. Science 202:747-749. Wainwright, S. A., W. D. Biggs, I. D. Currey, and J. M. Gostine. 1982. Mechanical Design in Organisms. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Waite, J. H. 1990. Marine adhesive proteins: Natural composite thermosets. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 12:139-144. Waite, J. H. 1986. Mussel glue from mytilus californianus Conrad: A comparative study. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 156:491~96. Wallace, I. S., and C. I. Morrow. 1989. Biocatelytic synthesis of polymers: Synthesis of an optically active epoxy-substituted polyester by lipase-catalyzed polymerization. Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry 27~:2553 - 2567. Watanabe, M. E. 1993. More undergrads embrace bioengineering discipline. The Scientist. November 29, 1993.

OCR for page 111
122 Hierarchical Structures in Biology as a Guide for New Afatenals Technology Ward, I. M. 1975. Structure and Properties of Oriented Polymers. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Weng, T., A. Hiltner, and E. Baer. 1989. Failure processes in fiber- reinforced liquid-crystalline polyester composites. Journal of Macromolecular Science: Part A, Chemistry A 26~1~:273 - 307. Yasrebi, M., G. H. Kim, K. E. Gunnison, G. L. Milius, M. Sarikaya, and I. A. Aksay. 1990. Biomimetic processing of ceramics and ceramic-metal composites. Pp. 625~35 in Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 1 X0, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.