SUSTAINING OUR WATER RESOURCES

Water Science and Technology Board

Tenth Anniversary Symposium

November 9, 1992

Water Science and Technology Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1993



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Sustaining our Water Resources SUSTAINING OUR WATER RESOURCES Water Science and Technology Board Tenth Anniversary Symposium November 9, 1992 Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1993

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Sustaining our Water Resources NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the board responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Support for this project was provided by the following agreements: Research was supported, in part, by a DOE award (Agreement No. DE-FG05-89ER60743) and such support does not constitute an endorsement by DOE of the views expressed here. Research supported by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, under USGS Agreement No. 1434-92-C-1122. The views contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Government. The work that provided the basis for this publication was supported by funding under a grant with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (Agreement No. EMW-85-K-2063/C). The substance and findings of this work are dedicated to the public. The author and publisher are solely responsible for the accuracy of the statements and interpretations contained in this publication. Such interpretations do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government. The National Science Foundation under Agreement No. BCS-9215040/R. Although the results described in this document have been funded in part by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under Assistance Agreement X820546-01-0 to the National Academy of Sciences, it has not been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review and therefore may not necessarily reflect the views of the Agency and no official endorsement should be inferred. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 93-84799 International Standard Book Number 0-309-04948-2 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) B-173 Copyright 1993 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Sustaining our Water Resources AUTHORS OF PAPERS KENNETH D. FREDERICK, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM L. GRAF, Arizona State University, Tempe GEORGE M. HORNBERGER, University of Virginia, Charlottesville WALTER R. LYNN, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York JUDY L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens A. DAN TARLOCK, IIT Chicago Kent College of Law, Illinois EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, D.C. SYMPOSIUM CHAIR A. DAN TARLOCK, IIT Chicago Kent College of Law, Illinois SYMPOSIUM COORDINATORS SHEILA D. DAVID, Senior Staff Officer JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Associate

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Sustaining our Water Resources WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BOARD DANIEL A. OKUN, Chair, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill A. DAN TARLOCK, Vice Chair, lit Chicago Kent College of Law, Illinois J. DAN ALLEN, Chevron USA, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana KENNETH D. FREDERICK, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. DAVID L. FREYBERG, Stanford University, California WILFORD R. GARDNER, University of California, Berkeley DUANE L. GEORGESON, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Los Angeles LYNN R. GOLDMAN, California Department of Health Services, Emeryville WILLIAM L. GRAF, Arizona State University, Tempe THOMAS M. HELLMAN, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, New York, New York ROBERT J. HUGGETT, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, Virginia CHARLES C. JOHNSON, Consultant, Bethesda, Maryland JUDY L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens STAVROS S. PAPADOPULOS, S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland KENNETH W. POTTER, University of Wisconsin-Madison BRUCE E. RITTMANN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois PHILIP C. SINGER, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill JOY B. ZEDLER, San Diego State University, California STAFF STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director SARAH CONNICK, Senior Staff Officer SHEILA D. DAVID, Senior Staff Officer CHRIS ELFRING, Senior Staff Officer GARY D. KRAUSS, Staff Officer JACQUELINE MACDONALD, Staff Officer JEANNE AQUILINO, Administrative Associate ANITA A. HALL, Administrative Assistant PATRICIA L. CICERO, Senior Project Assistant GREGORY K. NYCE, Senior Project Assistant

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Sustaining our Water Resources Other Recent Reports of the Water Science and Technology Board Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas (1993) Ground Water Vulnerability Assessment: Predicting Contamination Potential Under Conditions of Uncertainty (1993) Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy (1992) Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment (1992) Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (1991) Preparing for the Twenty-First Century: A Report to the USGS Water Resources Division (1991) Toward Sustainability: Soil and Water Research Priorities for Developing Countries (1991) Ground Water Models: Science and Regulatory Applications (1990) Managing Coastal Erosion (1990) A Review of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Pilot Program (1990) Surface Coal Mining Effects on Ground Water Recharge (1990) Ground Water and Soil Contamination Remediation: Toward Compatible Science, Policy, and Public Perception (1990) Irrigation Induced Water Quality Problems: What Can Be Learned from the San Joaquin Valley Experience? (1989) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academy Press (800) 624-6242

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Sustaining our Water Resources The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Sustaining our Water Resources "If there is magic on this planet, it is in water." Loren Eiseley, in "The Flow of the River," The Immense Journey

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Sustaining our Water Resources Contents     Introductory Remarks, by Stephen D. Parker   1 1   Intergenerational Fairness and Water Resources, by Edith Brown Weiss   3 2   Landscapes, Commodities, and Ecosystems: The Relationship Between Policy and Science for American Rivers, by William L. Graf   11 3   Hydrologic Science: Keeping Pace with Changing Values and Perceptions, by George M. Hornberger   43 4   Changing Patterns of Water Resources Decision Making, by Walter R. Lynn   59 5   Changing Water Resources Institutions, by Kenneth D. Frederick   66 6   Changing Concepts of System Management, by Judy L. Meyer   78 7   The Water Science and Technology Board: A Success Story of a Run Down the Rapids of Science Policy, by A. Dan Tarlock   92     APPENDIXES         A Symposium Program   105     B Biographical Sketches of Authors   107     C WSTB Publications   110

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Sustaining our Water Resources SUSTAINING OUR WATER RESOURCES

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