References and Bibliography

Adams, H.W. 1990. Processes for Destruction of Toxic Organic Chemicals and the Resultant Inert Polymer By-Product. U.S. Patent 4,921,936 (May 1).

Anderson, R.S., H.D. Durst, and W.G. Landis. 1988. Organofluorophosphatehydrolyzing activity in an estuarine clam Rangia cuneata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 91:575-578.

Aune, J.A. 1991. Cost-Efficient Solutions To Solid Waste Treatment Through Metals Recovery Combined With Ultimate Thermal Destruction. Oslo, Norway: Elkem Technology.

Attaway, H., J.O. Nelson, A.M. Baya, M.J. Voll, W.E. White, D.J. Grimes, and R.R. Colwell. 1987. Bacterial detoxification of diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:1685-1689.


Barner, H.E., C.Y. Huang, T. Johnson, G. Jacobs, M.A. Martech, and W.R. Killilea. 1991. Supercritical water oxidation: an emerging technology. Presented at ACHEME, June 9, 1991. J. Haz. Mat. In press.

Baronian, C. 1992a. Information sent to Dr. John P. Longwell, Chairman (August 7). Letter. See Appendix C.

Baronian, C. 1992b. Presentation to the National Research Council's Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C., October 9, 1992.

Baronian, C., and P.E. Wojciechowski. 1992. Presentation to the committee at its meeting, Washington, D.C., March 9-10, 1992.



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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions References and Bibliography Adams, H.W. 1990. Processes for Destruction of Toxic Organic Chemicals and the Resultant Inert Polymer By-Product. U.S. Patent 4,921,936 (May 1). Anderson, R.S., H.D. Durst, and W.G. Landis. 1988. Organofluorophosphatehydrolyzing activity in an estuarine clam Rangia cuneata. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 91:575-578. Aune, J.A. 1991. Cost-Efficient Solutions To Solid Waste Treatment Through Metals Recovery Combined With Ultimate Thermal Destruction. Oslo, Norway: Elkem Technology. Attaway, H., J.O. Nelson, A.M. Baya, M.J. Voll, W.E. White, D.J. Grimes, and R.R. Colwell. 1987. Bacterial detoxification of diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:1685-1689. Barner, H.E., C.Y. Huang, T. Johnson, G. Jacobs, M.A. Martech, and W.R. Killilea. 1991. Supercritical water oxidation: an emerging technology. Presented at ACHEME, June 9, 1991. J. Haz. Mat. In press. Baronian, C. 1992a. Information sent to Dr. John P. Longwell, Chairman (August 7). Letter. See Appendix C. Baronian, C. 1992b. Presentation to the National Research Council's Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C., October 9, 1992. Baronian, C., and P.E. Wojciechowski. 1992. Presentation to the committee at its meeting, Washington, D.C., March 9-10, 1992.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Barrass, R.C. 1992. Information sent to Dr. Matthew Meselson, committee member (December 3). Letter. Bartlett, P.D., and C.G. Swain. 1949. Kinetics of hydrolysis and displacement reactions of β, β'-dichlorodiethyl sulfide (mustard gas) and of β-chloro-β'-hydroxydiethyl sulfide (mustard chlorohydrin). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71:1406-1415. Beaudry, W.T., J.H. Buchanan, D.K. Rohrbaugh, J.B. Samuel, L.L. Szafraniec, and J.R. Ward. 1992. Analysis of Decontaminated Solutions of G Agents to Detect Reformation of Agent. Report from the Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Berkey, E., and J. Hendricks. 1992. The Adams Process for conversion to a sulfur polymer. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Information also available from Chemloop, L.P., Applied Research Center, University of Pittsburgh. Bronson, R. 1992. Personal communication with Mr. Gene H. Dyer, committee member. Chicago Bridge and Iron Company, Chicago. Broomfield, C.A., J.S. Little, D.E. Lenz, and R. Ray. 1989. Organophosphorus acid anhydride hydrolases that lack chiral specificity. Pp. 79-89 in Enzymes Hydrolyzing Organophosphorus Compounds, E. Reiner, W.N. Aldridge, and F.C.G. Hoskin, eds. Chichester, U.K.: Elllis Horwood Ltd. Buckingham, J., ed. 1982. Dictionary of Organic Compounds. 5th ed. Vol. 2:2381. London: Chapman and Hall. Caldwell, S.R., and F.M. Raushel. 1991. Detoxification of organophosphate pesticides using a nylon based immobilized phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 31:59-73. Chettur, G., J.J. DeFrank, B.J. Gallo, F.C.G. Soskin, S. Mainer, F.M. Robbins, K.E. Steinmann, and J.E. Walker. 1988. Soman-hydrolyzing and-detoxifying properties of an enzyme from a thermophilic bacterium. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 11:373-380. Coale, E., and S. DePew. 1992. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Compton, J.A.F. 1987. Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and Toxicological Properties. Caldwell, N.J.: Telford. Conference on Disarmament. 1981. CD/173, Geneva (April 3). Conference on Disarmament. 1991. CD/CW/WP.367, Geneva (October 7). Conference on Disarmament. 1992. CD/CW/WP.374, Geneva. Cooper, J.F. 1992. Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents by Oxidation Using Catalyzed Peroxydisulfate and Peroxide in a Closed System. Technical Memorandum. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. (December 21). Copa, W.M. 1992. Personal communication. Zimpro, Inc. Rothschild, Wisc. Copa, W.M., and W.B. Gitchel. 1989. Wet oxidation. Pp. 8.77-8.90 in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal, H.M. Freeman, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Copa, W.M., and R.W. Lehmann. 1992. Wet-air oxidation for the destruction of chemical agents. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Crosby, D.G. 1990. Applications of photocatalysis to pesticide residues in the field. Paper presented to Symposium on Advanced Oxidation Processes, Toronto, June 4-5, 1990. Dave, K.L., C.F. Miller, and J.R. Wild. 1993. Characterization of the organophosphorus hycrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Chem. Biol. Interact. In press. DeFrank, J.J. 1991. Organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors: detoxification by microbial enzymes. In IUCCP Symposium on Bioremediation and Biotechnology. Texas A&M University, Bryant College Station, Tex. DeFrank, J.J., and T.C. Cheng. 1991. Purification and properties of an organophosphorus acid anhydrase from a halophilic bacterial isolate. J. Bacteriol. 173:1938-1943. de Jong, L.P.A., C.V. Dijik, and H.P. Benschop. 1989. Stereoselective hydrolysis of soman and other chiral organophosphates by mammalian

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions phosphrylphosphatases. Pp. 65-78 in Enzymes Hydrolysing Organophosphorns Compounds, E. Reiner, W.N. Aldridge, and F.C.G. Hoskin, eds. Chichester, U.K.: Ellis Horwood Ltd. Department of Defense Authorization Act 1986, Public Law No. 99-145. Statute 99, Stat.583 (1985). Dumas, D.P., S.R. Caldwell, J.R. Wild, and F.M. Raushel. 1989a. Purification and properties of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta . J. Biol. Chem. 33:19659-19665. Dumas, D.P., J.R. Wild, and F.M. Raushel. 1989b. Diisopropylfluorophosphate hydrolysis by a phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 11:235-243. Dumas, D.P., H.D. Durst, W.G. Landis, F.M. Raushel, and J.R. Wild. 1990. Inactivation of organophosphorus nerve agents by the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 227:155-159. Durst, H.D. 1992. Comments at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. Durst, H.D., E.W. Sarver, H.W. Yurow, W.T. Beaudry, P.A. D'Eramo, D.M. Jackson, H. Salem, J.B. Samuel, L.L. Szafraniec, F.P. Ward, and J.R. Ward. 1988. Support for the Delisting of Cecontaminated Liquid Chemical Surety Materials as Listed Hazardous Waste from Specific Sources (State) MD02 in COMAR 10.51.02.16-1. Report CRDEC-TR-009. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.: U.S. Army Armament Munitions Chemical Command. Ember, L.R. June 29, 1992. Army's plans for destroying chemical weapons likely to be waylaid. Chemical and Engineering News. 19-20. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1991. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program: Technology Profiles, Fourth Edition (November). EPA/540/5-91/008. Cincinnati: Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. Enzminger, J.D., D. Robertson, R.C. Ahlert, and D.S. Kosson. 1987. Treatment of Leachates/Liquids from Land Disposal Sites. J. of Haz. Mat. 14(1):83-101.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Epstein, J. 1992a. Briefing presented to the committee at its workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Epstein, J. 1992b. Telephone conversations with Dr. Joseph F. Bunnett, committee member (July 11 and August 30). Epstein, J., V.E. Bauer, M. Saxe, and M.M. Demek. 1956. The chlorine-catalyzed hydrolysis of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Sarin) in aqueous solution. J. Am. Chem Soc. 78:4068-4071. Epstein, J., G.T. Davis, L. Eng, and M.M. Demek. 1977. Potential hazards associated with spray drying operations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 11:70-75. Evans, M. 1993. Information supplied by the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, Md. Farrauto, R. 1992. Personal communication with Dr. Henry Shaw, committee member. Engelhard, Menlo Park, Edison, N.J. Flamm, K.J., Q. Kwan, and W.B. McNulty. 1987. Chemical Agent and Munition Disposal; Summary of the U.S. Army's Experience. Report SAPEO-CDE-IS-87005. Available from Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. Fossey, R.D., D.A. Summers, J.G. Blaine, and L.J. Tyler. 1991. Son of wombat (lessons learned in the development of an automated explosive removal system). Pp. 479-485 (Chapter 33) in Jet Cutting Technology: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. Froelich, E.M. 1990. The perox-pureTM oxidation system: a comparative study. Presented to Symposium on Advanced Oxidation Processes, Toronto, June 4-5, 1990. Froment, D. 1993. Briefing of the Task Force on Scientific Aspects of the Destruction of Chemical Warfare Agents of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Salisbury, U.K., February 23, 1993. Frye, G.C., S.J. Martin, R.W. Cernosek, and K.B. Pfeifer. Portable acoustic wave sensor systems for on-line monitoring of volatile organics. Int. J. of Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing. In press.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Furlong, C.E., R.J. Richter, C. Chaplin, and J.W. Crabb. 1991. Purification of rabbit and human serum paraoxonase. Biochemistry 30:101433-10140. Galloway, T.R. 1992. Personal communication with Dr. Walter May, committee member. Galloway, T.R. 1989. Thermolytica Detoxifier Performance. Final Report, California Hazardous Waste Reduction Grant Program, Contract No. 86-T0119 A-1. California State Department of Health Services, Alternative Technology Section (August 15). Gan, K.N., A. Smolen, H.W. Eckerson, and B.N. LaDu. 1991. Purification of human serum paraoxonase/arylesterase: evidence for one esterase catalyzing both activities. Drug. Metab. Disp. 19:100-106. General Atomics. 1982. Research and Development Services for Mechanical Process Development/Laboratory Studies in Support of the Munition/Agent Process Development Program. Phase I Final Report. No. GA-A16891, GACP 23-216. Vol. I. Books 1-4. Technical Report. San Diego: General Atomics Company. Goodman, A. and A. Gilman. 1985. The Pharmacological Basis for Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gordon, M.R. September 2, 1992. Negotiators agree on accord to ban chemical weapons. New York Times. Greenhalgh, R., and M.A. Weinberger. 1967. The selective phosphylation of ethanolamine. Can. J. Chem. 45:495-500. Harkhess, D.R. 1986. Bacterial growth on aminoalkylphosphonic acids. J. Bacteriol., 92:623-627. Harvey, S.P., and J.J. DeFrank. 1992. Biodegradation of chemical warfare agents: demilitarization applications. Proceedings of the 1992 Conference on Chemical Warfare Research. In press. Hassett, C., R.J. Richter, R. Humbert, C. Chaplin, J.W. Crabb, C.J. Omiecinski, and C.E. Furlong. 1991. Characterization of cDNA encoding rabbit and human serum paraoxonase: the mature protein retains its signal sequence. Biochemistry 30:10141-10149.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Hedden, D. 1992. Hydrogenation processes. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Helling, R.K. 1986. Oxidation Kinetics of Simple Compounds in Supercritical Water: Carbon Monoxide, Ammonia and Ethanol. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Helling, R.K., and J.W. Tester. 1987. Oxidation of simple compounds and mixtures in supercritical water. Energy Fuels 1:417. Helling, R.K., and J.W. Tester. 1988. Oxidation of simple compounds and mixtures in supercritical water: carbon monoxide, ammonia and ethanol. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22:1319. Hickinbottom, W.J. 1957. Reactions of Organic Compounds. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ho, M.-D. 1992. Personal letter to Mr. Gene H. Dyer, committee member, from ProxAir, Inc. (Linde), along with a set of brochures (October 20). Hoke, R.C., H. Shaw, and A. Skopp. 1972. A regenerative limestone process for fluidized bed coal combustion and desulfurization. Presented at the Third International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion, College Comer, Ohio, October 29-November 1, 1972. Holgate, H.R., and J.W. Tester. 1991. Fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of hydrogen oxidation in supercritical water. Presentation at the Second International Conference on Supercritical Fluids, Boston, May 20-22, 1992. Cambridge Science Technology. Submitted. Hoskin, F.C.G. 1990. An organophosphorus detoxifying enzyme unique to squid. Pp. 469-480 in Squid as Experimental Animals, D.L. Gilbert, W.J. Adelman, Jr., and J.M. Arnold, eds. New York: Plenum Press. Hoskin, F.C.G., and A-H. Roush. 1982. Hydrolysis of nerve gas by squid-type diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate hydrolyzing enzyme on agarose resin. Science 215:1255-1257. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1975. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Vol. 9, Some Aziridines, N-, S-and O-Mustards and Selenium. Lyon: IARC.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Irvine, R.L., and L.H. Ketchum. 1989. Sequencing batch reactions for biological wastewater treatment. CRC Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 18:255-294. Jody, B.J., G. Chettur, R.J. Dihu, M. Schurger, and R.H. Snow. 1983. Development of Chemical Processes for Chemical Demilitarization-Phase I. Report to U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. Chicago: IIT Research Institute. Kalfadelis, C.D. 1977. An environmental assessment of 638 MWe molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. Pp. 681-688 in Proceedings of the Twelfth Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, G. Ciprios, H.H. Horowitz, and H. Shaw, eds. Vol. 1. Kaplan, D.L. 1993. Biotechnology and bioremediation for organic energetic compounds. In Organic Energetic Compounds, P. Marinkas, ed. Nova Science. In press. Kalyon, D.M. 1992. Information submitted to the committee from the Highly Filled Materials Institute, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. See Appendix E. Keairns, D.L., D.F. McLaughlin, and S.V. Dighe. 1992. Westinghouse Plasma System for Chemical Demilitarization. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Kearney, P.C., J.S. Karns, M.T. Muldoon, and J.M. Ruth. 1986. Coumaphos disposal by combined microbial and UV-ozonation reactions. Agric. Biol. Chem. 34:702-706. Landis, W.G. 1991. Distribution and nature of the aquatic organophosphorus acid anhydrases: enzymes for organophosphate detoxification. Rev. Aquatic Sci. 5:267-285. Landis, W.G., and J.J. DeFrank. 1991. Enzymatic hydrolysis of toxic organo fluorophosphate compounds. Pp. 183-201 in Biotechnology and Biodegradation: Methods and Applications in Biodegradation, D. Kamely, A. Chakrabarty, and G.S. Omenn, eds. The Woodslands, Tex.: Portfolio Publishing. Landis, W.G., D.M. Haley, M.V. Haley, D.W. Johnson, H.D. Durst, and R.E. Savage. 1987. Discovery of multiple organofluorophosphate hydrolyzing

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions activities in the protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila. J. Appl. Toxicol. 7:35-71. Lee, C.C. 1989. Plasma systems. Pp. 8.169-8.177 in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal, H. M. Freeman, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Leonov, G.S. 1991. Complex for the destruction of faulty chemical munitions (KUASI). Report presented to a United Nations committee on chemical demilitarization; also presented to Dr. Joseph F. Bunnett, committee member, Moscow (December). Lepore, J.V., R.C. Ahlert, and D.S. Kosson. 1990a. Migration and treatment of a dense aqueous contaminant source and plume. Haztech International Conference, Houston, May, 1990. Lepore, J.V., L.H. Turner, and D.S. Kosson. 1990b. Process development for in-situ remediation of a highly contaminated groundwater plume. J. Haz. Mat. 25:289-307. Lepore, J.V., R.C. Ahlert, and D.S. Kosson. 1991. Migration and treatment of a dense aqueous contaminant source and plume. J. Env. Sci. Health, Part A, 26(1). Lepore, J.V., R.C. Ahlert, and D.S. Kosson. 1989. Migration and treatment of a dense aqueous contaminant source and plume. American Chemical Society 199th National Meeting, Dallas, April, 1989. Lester, G. 1992. Personal communication with Dr. Henry Shaw, committee member. Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plains, Ill. Lewis, V.E., W.J. Donarski, J.R. Wild, and F.M. Raushel. 1988. The mechanism and stereochemical course at phosphorus of the reaction catalyzed by a bacterial phosphotriesterase. Biochemistry. 27:1591-1597. Liljegren, R. 1992. Personal communication with Mr. Gene H. Dyer, committee member. Brown Minneapolis Company, Minneapolis. Liota, R., and J. Santos. 1978. Fluidized-Bed Incinerator for Disposal of Propellants and Explosives. U.S Army Research and Development Command. Large Caliber Weapon Systems Laboratory. Technical Report ARLCD-TR-78032 (October). Dover, N.J.

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Little, J. S., C.A. Broomfield, M. K. Fox-Talbot, L. J. Boucher, B. MacIver, and D.E. Lenz. 1989. Partial characterization of an enzyme that hydrolyzes sarin, soman, tabun, and diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP). Biochem. Pharmacol. 38:23-29. Mackness, M.I., and C.H. Walker. 1981. A-esterase activity in the lipoprotein fraction of sheep serum. Biochem. Pharmacol. 30:903-906. Magee, E.M., C.E. Jahnig, and H. Shaw. 1974. Evaluation of Pollution Control in Fossil Fuel Conversion Process; Gasification; Section 1: Koppers-Totzek Process. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, PB #231,675, 53 p. (Also EPA-650/2-74-009a and EXXON/GRU.3DJ.74). Main, A.R. 1960. The differentiation of the A-esterases in sheep serum. Biochem. J. 75:188-195. Manley, R. 1992a. Briefing presented to the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Manley R. 1992b. Information sent to Mr. Donald L. Siebenaler, Senior Staff Officer, Board on Army Science and Technology, National Research Council (October 16). Letter. Martens, H. 1992. Information sent to Dr. Matthew Meselson, committee member (October 27). Letter. Matthews, S.M. 1992. Briefing to the committee on activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Mazur, A. 1946. An enzyme in animal tissues capable of hydrolysing the phosphorus fluorine bond of alkyl fluorophosphates. J. Biol. Chem. 164:271-289. McAndless, J. 1992a. Briefing presented at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. McAndless, J. 1992b. Information sent to Mr. Donald L. Siebenaler, Senior Staff Officer, Board on Army Science and Technology, National Research Council (October 14).

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Munnecke, D.M. 1976. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides, a possible pesticide disposal method. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:7-13. Nagel, C.J. 1992. Molten metal applications via the catalytic extraction process. Presented at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5, 1992. See Appendix F. Information also available from Molten Metal Technology, Cambridge, Mass. Namba, T. 1971. Cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus compounds and its clinical effects. Bull. World Health Organ. 44:289-307. National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1969. Report of the Disposal Hazards of Certain Chemical Warfare Agents and Munitions. Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Defense Authorization Act Fiscal Year 1989. Public Law No. 100-456. Statute 102, Stat. 1918 (1988). National Defense Authorization Act Fiscal Year 1991. H.R. 4739, Public Law No. 101-510 (1990). National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993. S. 3114. Congressional Record, Vol. 138. No. 129 (September 21, 1992). National Research Council (NRC). 1984. Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents. Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1991. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons by Cryofracture: A Technical Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1993. Review of Monitoring Activities within the Chemical Demilitarization Program. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress. 1992. Disposal of Chemical Weapons: An Analysis of Alternatives to Incineration. Background Paper. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

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