Index

A

Aberdeen Proving Ground (Maryland), 24, 27t, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t, 221 t, 223t, 224t, 226f, 230f

Acetylcholene, 41-42

Acetylcholinesterase, 41 n.5, 41-42

Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, 114-115

Acid chorinolysis, 111, 117

Activated-carbon filtering

action of, 107

in baseline technology, 17, 18, 28-29, 108

of chlorinated dioxin, 86

disposal of waste from, 107-108

role of, 13, 14, 19, 20, 106-107, 108, 194-195

in storage and certification, 88

in wet-air oxidation, 144

Adams process

advantages, 183

applications, 182-183

chlorinated compounds in, 182

development status, 180-182

disadvantages, 183

research needs, 183-184

technology of, 180, 181f

waste streams in, 183

Advanced Research Projects Agency, 135, 148

Afterburner processing

in alternative technologies, 19, 205

in baseline approach, 2, 19, 24, 194, 203, 205

catalytic oxidation for, 13, 19, 174, 176, 192, 205

chlorinated dioxin synthesis in, 86

in high-temperature pyrolysis, 12

molten salt systems for, 19, 205

role of, 19, 21, 205, 207

supercritical water oxidation for, 11, 19

techniques, 19, 21, 199, 207

in thermal treatment, 97-98

Alcohol, 113 n.1

GB neutralization in, 113-114, 186

in low-temperature detoxification, 6, 113-114, 186

in neutralization process, 62, 186

Alkanes, C2-C7, 148

Alternative technologies

afterburners in, 19, 205

assessment of, 2-3, 5, 34-36, 83-84, 92-94, 259-261

categories of, 6, 185

cost considerations, 5, 91-92

development/demonstration times, 4-5, 20, 89-90, 91t

development of, 29-30

energy consumption in, 92

hazardous byproducts from, 85-86

high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 12-13

high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 12

low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase

detoxification, 6-10, 16, 109-110

low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase oxidation, 10-11, 16, 109-110

metal parts in, 21, 207

moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation, 11, 16

monitoring of, 87

non-viable, 35

in other countries, 62, 74

sources for, 2, 34-35

for Strategy 1, 15-17, 32-33, 200-201

for Strategy 2, 17-19, 33-34, 201-205, 202t

summary of processes, 7-9t, 187-189t

toxic air emissions in, 19-20, 205-206

use of, 3, 29

See also specific technology

Aluminum, in M55 rockets, 97

Ambrose, James R., 31, 210



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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Index A Aberdeen Proving Ground (Maryland), 24, 27t, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t, 221 t, 223t, 224t, 226f, 230f Acetylcholene, 41-42 Acetylcholinesterase, 41 n.5, 41-42 Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, 114-115 Acid chorinolysis, 111, 117 Activated-carbon filtering action of, 107 in baseline technology, 17, 18, 28-29, 108 of chlorinated dioxin, 86 disposal of waste from, 107-108 role of, 13, 14, 19, 20, 106-107, 108, 194-195 in storage and certification, 88 in wet-air oxidation, 144 Adams process advantages, 183 applications, 182-183 chlorinated compounds in, 182 development status, 180-182 disadvantages, 183 research needs, 183-184 technology of, 180, 181f waste streams in, 183 Advanced Research Projects Agency, 135, 148 Afterburner processing in alternative technologies, 19, 205 in baseline approach, 2, 19, 24, 194, 203, 205 catalytic oxidation for, 13, 19, 174, 176, 192, 205 chlorinated dioxin synthesis in, 86 in high-temperature pyrolysis, 12 molten salt systems for, 19, 205 role of, 19, 21, 205, 207 supercritical water oxidation for, 11, 19 techniques, 19, 21, 199, 207 in thermal treatment, 97-98 Alcohol, 113 n.1 GB neutralization in, 113-114, 186 in low-temperature detoxification, 6, 113-114, 186 in neutralization process, 62, 186 Alkanes, C2-C7, 148 Alternative technologies afterburners in, 19, 205 assessment of, 2-3, 5, 34-36, 83-84, 92-94, 259-261 categories of, 6, 185 cost considerations, 5, 91-92 development/demonstration times, 4-5, 20, 89-90, 91t development of, 29-30 energy consumption in, 92 hazardous byproducts from, 85-86 high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 12-13 high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 12 low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification, 6-10, 16, 109-110 low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase oxidation, 10-11, 16, 109-110 metal parts in, 21, 207 moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation, 11, 16 monitoring of, 87 non-viable, 35 in other countries, 62, 74 sources for, 2, 34-35 for Strategy 1, 15-17, 32-33, 200-201 for Strategy 2, 17-19, 33-34, 201-205, 202t summary of processes, 7-9t, 187-189t toxic air emissions in, 19-20, 205-206 use of, 3, 29 See also specific technology Aluminum, in M55 rockets, 97 Ambrose, James R., 31, 210

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Ammonia in GB detoxifiation, 113 sodium metal ha, 122 in supercritical water oxidation, 148 Ammonium peroxydisulfate, 120 Anniston Army Depot, 27t, 50f, 51t, 52t Army Research Office, 135, 148 Artillery, 42, 44f, 47t, 48t Aryl chlorides, 114 Atomic Energy Commission, 171 Atomization, 103 Azoxy compounds, 114 B Baseline technology activated-carbon filters in, 17, 18, 108 afterburners in, 2, 19, 24, 194, 203, 205 augmentation strategies, 17, 18 development of, 24-26 efficiency of, 26 n.4 elements of, 23, 24, 25f energetics in, 203-204, 204t gas waste in, 24, 28, 104, 194, 203-204 implementation schedule, 230-232f liquid waste in, 196 metal parts in, 24, 98, 193, 203-204, 204t munitions disassembly in, 77-78 objections to, 2, 30 operational verification testing of, 24-26 process of, 1-2, 3, 94, 203 storage and certification in, 88 Benzene, 148 Binary chemical weapons, 1 n.1, 22 n.1 Biological processes applications, 10-11, 110, 126-128, 136, 190 batch bioreactor size, 134 concerns about, 127 diffusional limitations, 85 in direct destruction of agents, 128-130, 133-134 for energetics, 132 enzyme-based capabilities, 129t, 130 for GB reaction products, 131-132 in initial detoxification, 127 methane by-products, 132 for mustard agents, 132 oxygen dilution of emissions from, 135 processing time in, 133-134 for reaction products, 131-32, 134-135 research needs in, 21, 109-110, 132-134, 206 for VX reaction products, 131-132 waste from, 132, 134-135 for wet-air oxidation wastes, 144, 145 whole cells method, 133 bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, 38 Blister agents. See Mustard agents Bombs, 42, 42 n.6, 44f, 45f, 47t See also Munitions Bulk material biodegradation of, 131 chemical processes for, 111 high-temperature systems for, 204 Bursters, 48, 48 n.7, 77 Butyl alcohol, 119 By-products of Adams process, 180, 183 of biological processes, 127, 131 of catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 170 chlorinated dioxins, 85-86 in electrochemical oxidation, 278 in HD-peracid interaction, 120 of hydrogenation processes, 178-179 hydrogenation processing of, 176, 178 of indirect heating, 97 of ionizing radiation procedure, 272 of molten metal pyrolysis, 153, 156 of sodium hydroxide neutralization of GB, 112-113 in sodium hydroxide neutralization of VX, 113-114 of supercritical water oxidation, 151 valuable, 92, 179 water as, 101-102 of wet-air oxidation, 144 See also Reaction products; Waste streams/management C Calcium carbonate, 76, 99 Calcium fluoride, 99 Calcium hydroxide, 6, 10, 99 HD reaction with, 119, 186 Calcium salts, 77 Canada, 62, 63t, 64t, 65t, 113 Carbon dioxide, 76, 190 lime in capturing, 20, 104, 106, 196, 205 salt waste formation and, 99, 193 storage systems, 88-89, 105

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Catalytic extraction, 153 Catalytic fixed bed, 13, 192 Catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation advantages, 170-171 application, 170 bed composition, 169, 170, 171 development status, 170 disadvantages, 171 explosives destruction in, 169-170 process, 169-170 research needs, 171 waste streams in, 170 See also High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation Catalytic hydrogenation. See Hydrogenation processes Catalytic oxidation advantages, 175-176 as afterburner, 19, 205 applications, 174, 175, 176 development status, 175 disadvantages, 176 process, 174-175 research needs, 176 waste streams, 175 in wet-air oxidation, 144 See also Catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation; High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation Caustic hydrolysis, 29 Center for Hazardous Material Research, 180 Ceramic materials, 151 Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS)24, 54, 56t, 57t, 59t, 62 See also Tooele Army Depot Chemical agents additives in, 41, 41 n.4 breakdown products, 76-77 chemical composition of, 1 n.2, 76 classes of, 1 n.1, 23 demilitarization strategies for, 15-18, 197-200 distribution in munitions, 47t, 48t lethal doses of, 82t permissible air concentrations of, 82t, 87 properties of, 37-41 toxicity of, 41-42 See also Organophosphate nerve agents; specific agents Chemical detoxification advantages of, 110-111 battlefield systems, 111, 123 biodegradation of reaction products from, 131-132 decontamination standards and, 84, 118 diffusional limitations in, 84-85 experience with, 6-10 of metal parts, 84, 98, 118-119 obstacles to, 110 reducing agents in organic synthesis, 121-122 role of, 20-21, 29, 206 See also Hydrolysis; Low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification; neutralization processes Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) binary chemical weapons in, 1 n.1 completion date, 22, 78-80, 197 environmental impact studies for, 26, 28 goals of, 1, 31-32, 196-197 legislative history, 22, 24-26 schedule for, 22, 26, 27t, 78-80, 197 strategies for complying with, 15-19, 32-34, 197-200 Chemical stockpiles contents of, 1, 23, 37, 49, 52t locations of, 1, 26, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t munitions in, 42-49 Chemical Weapons Convention, 3-4, 22-23, 35 Chloride ions, corrosion from, 150, 152 Chlorine/Chlorinated compounds, 6, 77, 85-86, 122 in Adams process, 182 hydrogenation processes for, 176, 177f, 178 as oxidizing agent for VX, 117 salt waste from, 30 in supercritical water oxidation, 146, 148 Chloromethane, 271 m-chloroperbenzoic acid, 120 Circulating Bed Combustor, 169 Clean Air Act, 145 Closed-loop gas containment, 14, 18, 28 See also Storage and certification Coal gasification, 160-163 Commonwealth of Independent States, 22-23, 74, 116 disposal experiences in, 62, 67t, 68t Concerned Citizens for Maryland's Environment, 36 Corrosion. See Equipment corrosion Cost considerations, 5, 91-92 cost per pound of agent, 92 full-scale production, 220-224

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions reverse assembly function in, 92 technology development, 91-92, 219-220 transportation, 33 waste shipments from Johnston Atoll, 235-236 Coumaphos, 130 Cresol, 178 Cryofracture process, 24 n3, 95-95, 205 D DeChlor/KGME process, 114 Decontamination fluid, 33, 33 n.7, 78, 99, 114, 196 DS2, 114 Decontamination standards, 4, 82-83, 84-85 Level 1X, 82 See also Level 3X decontamination; Level 5X decontamination Demilitarization Protective Ensemble, 81 Department of Defense, 135 Department of Energy, 148, 171 Detection, 84 of charcoal bed contamination, 107 of chlorinated dioxins, 86-87 difficulties in, 84-85 false positives in, 87 of GB, 84 minimum limits of, 233-234 process, 87 research needs in, 87 Detoxification alternative strategies for, 200-202, 201t biological processes for, 126-128 of charcoal filter materials, 107-108 with deferred oxidation, 20, 32-33, 80, 197-198, 206 in demilitarization strategies, 15-18, 197-200 of energetics, 16-17, 18-19, 200 ionizing radiation for, 122-123 low-temperature, liquid-phase processes for, 6-10, 109, 186-190 of metal parts, 16, 32-33, 84, 197 peroxydisulfate salts in, 124 See also Chemical detoxification Development times, 91t, 220, 223-224, 226-228f for alternative technologies, 20, 198, 206, 226-228 in assessing alternative technologies, 4-5 for cryofracture process, 95-95 estimating, 5, 92 n3 factors in, 89-90, 217-218 opportunities for shortening, 90 sodium hydroxide hydrolysis of GB, 200 for wet air oxidation, 146 Diethylenetriamine, 114 Diisopropyl carbodiimide, 41 n.4 Dimethyl surfoxide, 276 Dioxins. See Chlorinated dioxins Dioxins, chlorinated, 85-86 Disposal sites, 2, 26 Drain-in-furnace, 29 DS2, 33 n.7, 114 Dunnage, 48-49 agent in crevices of, 84-85 alternative technologies for, 21, 203, 204t in baseline approach, 24 in catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 170 decontamination strategies, 1, 2, 2 n.3, 16-17, 97 low-temperature processes for, 110 munitions, 78 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167 thermal treatments for, 97 E Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, 24 Electric kilns, 12, 18, 191 Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. furnace, 159f Electrochemical oxidation, 206 advantages, 277 applications, 21, 124, 206, 276 development status, 275-276 disadvantages, 277 energy use in, 277 GB in, 276 potential operating limits, 277-278 process, 124-125, 274-275 research needs, 125, 278 waste streams in, 278 Electrolytic regeneration, 10, 190 Elkem Multipurpose Furnace, 153, 155f Elkera Technology, 153 Emulsification in HD detoxification, 119-120, 186 in low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification, 10 Energetics, 1, 48 in Adams process, 182 alternative technologies for, 21, 203, 204, 204t in baseline approach, 24, 203-204, 204t

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions bioremediation of, 132 in catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 169-170 detoxification strategies, 16-17, 18-19, 200 disposal problems with, 33 in high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 13 in high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 191 in low-temperature oxidation, 11 mechanical separation of, 96 in molten salt oxidation, 173, 174 munitions disassembly and, 77-78 in plasma arc processes, 157 reaction with potassium hydroxide, 114 reaction with sodium hydroxide, 114 in supercritical water oxidation, 11, 148, 149, 150, 152, 191 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 166-167, 169, 291 thermal treatments for, 97 in wet air oxidation, 11, 141, 146, 191 Energy use in Adams process, 183 in alternative technologies, 92 in electrochemical oxidation, 277 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 168, 290 Environmental Protection Agency, 81 Environmental risk of air emissions, 19-20, 205-206 permissible agent concentrations in air, 81, 82t, 87 in waste storage, 4, 106 Enzyme-based hydrolysis, 128-130 research needs in, 133-134 Equipment corrosion, 117 from acid catalysts, 115 in gasification pros, 161, 163 in supercritical water oxidation, 149, 150-151, 152 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167 in wet air oxidation, 142-143 Ethanolamine, 6, 186 in destruction of GB, 62, 67t, 115-116, 131, 186 in destruction of mustard agents, 62, 67t, 121, 186 salt wastes and, 99 Ethyl-N, N-dimethyl phosphoramidocyanidate. See GA Ethylene glycol, 113 Explosives. See Energetics F Fenton's reagents, 124 Flue gas recycling, 102-103 Fluidized bed oxidation, 12-13, 17, 18, 21 See also Catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation Fluoride/Fluorine, 30, 77, 149 in supercritical water oxidation, 150, 152 in wet air oxidation, 143 France, 74 Fuzes, 48, 48 n.7, 77 G GA, 23, 65t chemical structure, 37, 37 n.1 lethal doses of, 82t permissible air concentrations, 82t, 83 storage of, 42 toxicity of, 41 Galson process, 114 Gas storage advantages of, 19-20, 205 estimating requirements for, 103-104 techniques for, 14, 88-89, 105-106, 195 See also Gas wastes; Storage and certification Gas wastes, 4, 11, 194 activated-carbon adsorption for, 14, 20, 106-108, 194-195 in Adams process, 180, 183 afterburner technologies for, 19, 21, 199 in baseline approach, 24, 28, 86, 104, 194, 203-204 in biodegradation of reaction products, 134-135 in hydrogenation processes, 178, 179 in hydrolysis, 33 in molten metal pyrolysis, 153, 156 monitoring technology for, 87 in plasma arc processes, 157 recirculated, 14, 102-103 reducing volume of, 14, 16, 20, 102-104, 192-193, 194, 195, 205-206 strategies for managing, 13-14, 16, 17-18, 18-19, 88-89, 194, 205 -206 in supercritical water oxidation, 16, 151, 190 in thermal decomposition, 97 in wet air oxidation, 16, 144, 145t See also Carbon dioxide; Gas storage Gasification processes advantages, 163

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions applications, 161 development status, 160 disadvantages, 163 research needs, 161, 163 technology of, 160, 161t, 162t wastes products from, 163 GB, 1, 20-21, 23 acid-catalyzed hydrolysis for, 114-115 biodegradation of reaction products from, 131-132 chemical neutralization of, 62, 65t, 67t, 70t, 73t chemical structure, 37, 37 n.1, 38f detection levels, 84, 233-234 direct biological destruction of, 128-130, 133-134 ethanolamine in destruction of, 62, 67t, 115-116, 131, 186 lethal doses of, 82t level 5X decontamination of, 263-264, 265 low-temperature detoxification for, 6, 10, 109, 186 moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation for, 11 nitrogen compounds in, 101 organic synthesis agents and, 121-122 oxidation reaction for, 276 past disposal experiences, 54, 56t, 57t, 58t, 62 permissible air concentrations, 82t, 83 properties, 38, 39-40t reaction with alkali in alcohol, 113-114 reaction with sodium hydroxide, 112-114, 186, 200 salt wastes, 99, 100t, 193 storage, 42 in supercritical water oxidation, 149, 281, 287 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167, 287-291 toxicity of, 41 wet air oxidation of, after hydrolysis, 141-142, 143, 144 GD, chemical neutralization of, 67t General Electric KPEG process, 114 Germany, 66t Greenpeace International, 30, 35, 36 H H, 1, 23 lethal doses of, 82t low-temperature detoxification for, 109 organic synthesis agents and, 121-122 past disposal experiences, 54, 55t permissible air concentrations, 82t with potassium hydroxide in methanol, 113-114 properties, 38, 39-40t, 41 See also Mustard agents Hazardous materials, definition of, 37 n.2 HD, 1, 23 calcium hydroxide in detoxification of, 186 chemical structure, 38f convened to thiodiethanol, 119 emulsification, 119-120, 186 ethanolamine in detoxification of, 116, 121 lethal doses of, 82t level 5X decontamination of, 265, 266 in low-temperature, liquid-phase detoxification, 6, 10, 118-121,186 minimum detection limits, 233-234 nitrogen compounds in, 101 past disposal experiences, 61t permissible air concentrations, 82t properties, 38, 39-40t, 41 reaction with oxidizing agents, 119-120 reaction with peracids, 120 solubility, 118, 119 See also Mustard agents Heteroatoms in Adams process, 183 in catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 171 in electrochemical oxidation, 275, 277 in form of stable salts, 76 in hydrogenation processes, 176, 179 in plasma arc processes, 156 in supercritical water oxidation, 146, 149 Hexachloroethane, 271 HF. See Hydrofluoric acid High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 137 application of, 12-13, 192, 203 summary of processes, 9t, 189t, 192-193 See also Catalytic oxidation; Molten salt oxidation High-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 29, 137, 191-192 application of, 12 gasification processes, 160-163 summary of processes, 9t, 189t See also Molten metal pyrolysis; Plasma arc processes; Synthetica Steam Detoxifier HPO2, 122 HT, 1, 23 lethal doses of, 82t permissible air concentrations, 82t

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions properties, 38, 39-40t, 41 See also Mustard agents Hydrocarbons oxidation of, 274-275 in supercritical water oxidation, 146, 149 Hydrofluoric acid in acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, 115 in ethanolamine processing, 115-116 in hydrolysis of GB, 113 Hydrogen, in disposal process, 76 Hydrogen chloride, 175 Hydrogen peroxide, 6, 21 in chemical oxidation, 124, 206 sodium hydroxide and, 116 VX in sodium hydroxide and, 116, 186 Hydrogen sulfide, 175 Hydrogenation processes, 189t advantages, 179 applications, 176, 178 catalysts in, 178 development status, 178 process, 176, 177f research needs, 179 waste streams, 178-179 Hydrolysis acid-catalyzed, 114-115 caustic, 29 enzyme-based, 128-130 of GB, 112-116 of mustard agents, 118-119 role of, 3, 32 salt wastes from, 100 of VX, 116-117 waste products from, 3, 33, 100, 110 See also Chemical detoxification I In-shell combustion, 29 Incineration in baseline technology, 2, 8, 24, 28, 94 chlorinated dioxin synthesis in, 85-86 of contaminated carbon filters, 107 of GB, 62 level 5X standard for, 4, 32, 83, 84 of M55 rockets, 78 nitrogen oxides in, 101 opposition to, 28, 30 of VX, 62 See also, High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation; High-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis Indirect heating techniques, 97-98 International agreements Chemical Weapons Convention, 3-4, 22-23, 197 compliance with, 20, 32, 80, 197-198, 206 Ionizing radiation, 122-123 advantages, 272 applications, 271-272 development needs, 273 development status, 271 disadvantages, 272 technology, 271 waste streams in, 272 Iraq, 37, 72t, 73t Isopropyl methyl phosphonofluoridate. See GB J Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), 1, 2, 24-26 , 27t, 49, 51t, 52t, 60t, 61t, 62 chlorinated dioxin reaction products in, 86 demilitarization process, 77-78, 79f gas storage requirements, 104 nitrogen oxide generation at, 101 solid waste in, 82 transportation of waste from, 235-236 K Kentucky Environmental Foundation, 36 L Land mines, 42, 43f, 47t, 77 Landfill, 33 contaminated carbon filters in, 107, 108 dunnage materials in, 2 n.3 salt wastes in, 99 Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, 124 Lethal definition of, 37 n.2 doses of chemical agents, 82t Level 1X decontamination, 82 Level 3X decontamination, 4, 82-83, 84 of metal, chemical processes for, 98 salt wastes, shipment of, 100-101 Level 5X decontamination, 4, 32, 83, 84

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions data sources, 262-263, 266-267 equivalency, 83 of GB, 263-264, 265 of HD, 265, 266 indirect heating methods for, 97 of M55 rocket, 263-264 of metal wastes, 98-99 of VX, 263-264, 265, 266 for waste salts, 195 Lewisite (L), 41, 42, 82t Lexington-Blue Grass Army Depot, 27t, 30, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t, 222t, 223t, 224t, 228f, 232f LiAlH4, 122 Lime, 20, 104, 205 Liquid waste, 4, 32, 196 from biological degradation, 134-135 biological oxidation for, 10-11 in hydrogenation processes, 178-179 internal recycling for, 81 source of, 15 standards for, 81 in supercritical water oxidation, 151 water, 101-102 Locations of stockpiles, 1, 26, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t Low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification applications, 6-10, 16, 17, 32, 186, 200-201 for GB, 112-116, 186 irreversibility of, 109, 186-190 for mustard agents, 118-121, 186 research needs, 10 summary of processes in, 7t, 187t technology, 6-10, 186 for VX, 116-117, 186 See also Biological processes; Chemical detoxification Low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase oxidation application, 10-11, 16 electrochemical, 21, 124, 206, 275-278 prospects for, 109, 203 role of, 123, 190 summary of processes in, 8t, 188t technology, 10, 190 ultraviolet radiation in, 123, 124, 125-126, 190 See also Biological processes; Oxidation processes M M34 bomblet dusters, 34 M55 rockets, 29, 33, 42, 43f, 47t, 48t disposal productivity, 80 in indirect thermal decomposition, 97 level 5X decontamination of, 263-264 removal of agent from, 77-78 sheer machine for, 77 Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 54 MC-1 bomb, 42 n.6 Mechanized processes, for disassembly, 96 Mediated electrochemical oxidation, 124-125, 274, 277 Metal parts alternative technologies for, 14, 21, 203, 204t, 207 in baseline approach, 1-2, 14, 24, 193, 203-204, 240t in catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 170 chemical detoxification of, 84 detoxification of, 16, 32-33, 193 high-temperature processes for, 12 indirect heating of, 97-98 low-temperature processes for, 110 in molten metal pyrolysis, 19, 153 oxidation of, 17 postprocessing operations, 98-99 in supercritical water oxidation, 149 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167 thermal treatments for, 19, 97, 191 Methane as biological process by-product, 132 in supercritical water oxidation, 148 Methanol, 113 2-methoxyethanol, 113 Methylene chloride, 175 Mineralization, 17-19 alternative strategies, 201-205, 202t definition of, 32 n.6 of gas wastes, 196 goals, 33-34, 198-200, 199f See also Oxidation processes Mitre Corporation, 26 MK-94 bomb, 42 n.6 MK-116 bomb, 42 n.6 Moderate-temperature, high-pressure processes, 138 application of, 11, 16, 17, 191

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions examples of, 137, 190 process, 11, 190-191 research needs, 11 See also Supercritical water oxidation; Wet air oxidation Molten metal pyrolysis applications, 19, 21, 153, 156, 191 development status, 153 process, 12, 152-153, 154-155f reaction products, 153 research needs, 156 waste streams, 18 See also High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation Molten Metal Technology, 153, 154f Molten salt oxidation, 12-13, 17, 18, 21 advantages, 174, 192 as afterburner, 19, 205 application, 173 development status, 171-172 disadvantages, 173, 174 energetics in, 173, 174, 204 energy use, 92 process, 171, 173 research needs, 174 waste streams 173 See also High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation Mortar cartridges, 42, 47t Moving bed evaporator, 163-164, 166, 169 Munitions, 49>42 in baseline technology, 77-78 composition of, 47t, 48t dunnage, 78 geographic distribution, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t ionizing radiation for, 122-123, 272 mechanical disassembly of, 96 plasma are processes for, 157 reverse assembly of, 23, 77-78, 80, 92, 94, 95-96, 201 storage conditions, 77 waste streams, 77-78 work environment for disposal of, 78 Mustard agents action of, 42 Army code designations, 23 biological processes for, 132 calcium chloride generation in disposal of, 99 chemical detoxification of, 63t, 67t, 118 chemical properties, 38n.3, 39-40t, 41 containers for, 16 disposal in Iraq, 72t gas, 1, 3 in gel form, 10, 41, 96 hydrolysis of, 118-119 long-term exposure to, 42 mediated electrochemical oxidation of, 125 moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation for, 11 past disposal experiences, 54, 55t permissible air concentrations, 82t, 83 sodium hypochlorite reactions, 119-120 storage of, 42 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 169 See also H; HD; HT N NaBH4, 122 NaOH. See Sodium hydroxide Napthalene, 148 National Academy of Sciences, 29, 54 National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 148 National Defense Authorization Act, 23 n.2, 30 National Environmental Technology Application Corporation, 180 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 81 National Research Council, 23, 26, 29, 34 National Science Foundation, 148 Nerve agents. See Organophosphate nerve agents Nervous system, nerve agent action in, 41-42 Neutralization processes, 54, 56t, 62, 65t, 67t, 74 alkali in alcohol, 113-114 ammonia in, 113 for GB, 62, 65t, 70t, 73t, 112-114 for mustard agents, 63t, 67t potassium hydroxide in, 113-114 for salt wastes, 99 See also Chemical detoxification; Ethanolamine; Sodium hydroxide Newport Army Ammunition Plant (Indiana), 26, 27t, 49, 50f, 51t, 221t, 223t, 224f, 227f, 231f Nickel, in fluidized-bed oxidation, 170, 171 Nitrogen in combustion, 102-103 in supercritical water oxidation, 148 Nitrogen oxides, 101 from ethanolamine, 115-116, 121

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions in supercritical water oxidation, 149 Norepinephrine, 41 O LO-ethyl-S-[2-diisopropyl aminoethyl]methylphosphonothiolate. See VX Occupational, Safety and Health Act, 81 Ocean dumping, 29, 54 Office of Naval Research, 135 Office of Technology Assessment, 30 Ogden Environmental Services, 169 Organic synthesis, 121-122 Organophosphate nerve agents, 23 biological detoxification of, 127, 129t, 130 chemical composition, 37 See also Chemical agents Ortho-iodosobenzoate catalyst, 112 Oxidation processes acidic products of, 98 carbon dioxide in, 76, 190 deferred, 20, 32-33, 80, 197-198, 206 in demilitarization strategies, 2, 17-18, 32, 34, 190 Fenton's reagents in, 124 GB in, 276 lid in, 119-121 hydrocarbons in, 274-275 hydrogen peroxide in, 124 low-temperature, liquid-phase, 109 nitrogen oxides in, 101 one-step approaches, 17 peroxydisulfate salts in, 124 reducing gas waste volume in, 102-103 ultraviolet light in, 125-126 for VX in acid, 117 See also High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation; Low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase oxidation; moderate-temperature, high-pressure processes OXONE, 116, 117, 120 Oxygen, pure in afterburners, 19 in combustion processes, 11, 13, 196 in diluting gaseous emissions from bioremediation, 135 in gas waste management, 14, 16, 20, 196, 203-204 in high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 192-193 in molten salt oxidation, 173 in reducing gas waste volume, 102-103, 192-193, 194, 195 research needs, 203 risks of, 103 in supercritical water oxidation, 148, 190, 196 n.1 in waste gas storage, 104, 106 in wet air oxidation, 143-144, 190 Ozone, 125-126 P Packaging. See Dunnage Peracids, 120 Peroxydisulfates, 21, 206 in low-temperature oxidation, 10, 124, 190 mustard reactions, 120 Pesticides, 139 Phosphorous, 77, 148 Pilot plants, 89, 91t Adams process, 180-182, 183 catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 170-171 development times, 5 for high-pressure oxidation processes, 11 molten metal pyrolysis, 156 molten salt oxidation, 174 recycled flue gases in, 102-103 Pine Bluff Arsenal, 27t, 50f, 51t, 52t Plasma arc processes, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 191 advantages of, 160 application, 157 development status, 157 disadvantages of, 160 energy use, 92 oxygen sources for, 157 process, 156-157, 158-159f research needs, 160 waste stream, 157-159 Poisonous substance, definition of, 37 n.2 Pollution abatement afterburner exhaust, 2 assessment of systems for, 95 in baseline approach, 23 liquid waste in, 196 toxic air emissions, 19-20 water wastes in, 101-102 See also Waste streams/management Polychlorinated biphenyls, 49, 114, 178 in plasma arc processes, 157

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Polyethylene glycol, 113, 114 Potassium hydroxide in alcohol, GB reaction with, 113-114, 131 in DeChlor/KGME process, 114 in neutralization of H, 113-114 in polyethylene glycol, 113, 114 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, 28, 28 n.5, 31 Propellants. See Energetics Propytene carbonate, 276 Public interest groups, 36 Public opinion health concerns, 28 n.5 opposition to incineration, 30 Pueblo Depot, 27t, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t Pyrolysis steam, 29, 192 See also High-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis R Reaction products bioticgradation of, 126, 127, 131-132, 134-135 in chemical detoxification, 10, 20 in ethanolamine processing, 115-116 GB, 115-116, 131-132 in indirect heating, 97 in low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification, 10 in neutralization with alkali in alcohol, 113-114 in pyrolysis, 137 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167, 168 VX, 116, 117, 131-132 See also By-products Recirculated flue gas, 102-103 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 81, 145 Reverse assembly, 23, 75, 77-78, 80, 94, 201 cost of, 92 cryofracture alternative, 95-96 mechanical, 96 Rocky Mountain Arsenal, 54, 55t, 56t Rutgers University, 135 S Safety standards decontamination levels, 4, 82-83, 84-85 for pure oxygen use, 103 for work environments, 81 Salt wastes, 15, 99, 193-194 in biodegradation of reaction products, 135 composition of, 76 disposal of, 77 drying of, 100 heteroatoms in, 30 in hydrolysis of mustard, 118, 119 level 5X decontamination of, 195 in molten salt oxidation, 171, 173, 174 from neutralization of GB, 99, 193 shipment of, 100-101 in sodium hydroxide neutralization of GB, 112 solubility, 77, 99 source of, 98, 99 in supercritical water oxidation reactor, 149-150, 151, 152 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167, 168 Satin. See GB Scientists Against Nuclear Arms, 35 (CH3CH2CH2CH2)3SnH, 122 Sodium fluoride, 99 Sodium hydroxide, 6, 99 in DS2 decontamination fluid, 114 GB and, 112-114, 186, 200 hydrogen peroxide and, 116 hydrolysis of mustard agents and, 118, 119 in VX detoxification, 116, 186 Sodium hypochlorite, HD and, 120 Sodium metal, 122 Spectrometry, agent-specific, 87 Steam gasification, 12, 17, 21 Steam pyrolysis, 29, 192 Storage bulk liquid, 42 of chemical munitions, 42-49, 77 of contaminated carbon filter material, 108 See also Gas storage; Storage and certification Storage and certification, 28, 88, 195 alternatives to, 88-89 need for, 30, 103 retention times, 76, 88-89 Strategy 1, 15-17, 32-33, 197-198, 200-201, 201t Strategy 2, 17-19, 33-34, 198-200, 201-205, 202t Sulfur, 77 in Adams process, 180 dioxide, 175 in hydrogenation processes, 176 in supercritical water oxidation, 148 trioxide, 175 vapor, 76

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions Supercritical water oxidation, 11, 16, 17-18, 21, 190-191, 203 advantages of, 151-152 as afterburner, 19 applications, 146, 148, 149, 282-285t by-products, 151 corrosion in, 149, 150-151, 152 development status, 148-149, 202t disadvantages of, 152 energetics in, 148, 149, 150, 152 of GB, 149, 281, 287 kinetic data, 148-149 material balance in, 281, 287 model compounds in, 286f oxygen requirements, 102, 196 n.1 process, 146-148, 147f properties of water in, 146, 149 reaction rate, 149, 152 reactor design, 150, 152 reactor plugging in, 148 research needs, 152 salt precipitation in, 149-150, 151, 152 waste streams in, 151 Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program, 35 Surface interface, 10 in liquid-phase detoxification of HD, 119-120, 186 Synthetica Steam Detoxifier advantages, 168 applications, 166-167 corrosion control in, 167 disadvantages, 168 energetics in, 166-167, 169, 291 energy use in, 168, 290 GB in, 287-291 heat/material balances in, 287-291 moving bed evaporator in, 163-164, 166, 169 operational status, 166 process, 163-166, 164t product gas in, 165-166 research needs, 168-169 test results, 166 waste streams, 167 Synthetica Technologies, Inc., 164 T Tabun. See GA Tetrachloride, 271 Tetraethyl lead, 178 Texas A & M University, 135 Thiodiethanol HD converted to, 119 peracid in detoxification of, 120 Thiodiglycol, biological detoxification of, 127, 132 Titanium, 143 TMU-28/B spray tanks, 42 n.6, 47t TNT, 114, 169-170 Tooele Army Depot, 24, 26, 27t, 42, 49, 50f, 51t, 52t, 54, 56t, 57 t, 59t disposal schedule, 80 Toxic, definition of, 37 n.2 Toxic Substances Control Act, 26, 81 Transportation, 31 in assessing alternative technologies, 35 in baseline approach, 24 of by-product 3X salts, 100-101 in demilitarization strategy options, 15-16, 32, 33, 197 from Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System, 235-236 Treaties, 3-4, 22-23 Tributylamine, 41 n.4 Trichloroethylene, 175, 176 n.9, 178, 271 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, 148 Tris(trimethylsilyl) silane, 122 U Ultraviolet light, 10, 123, 124, 125-126, 190 Umatilla Depot Activity, 27t, 50f, 51t, 52t Underground combustion, 29 Unitary chemical weapons, 1 n.1, 22 n.1 United Kingdom, 69t, 70t, 71t, 113, 119 United Nations, 72t, 73t University of Pittsburgh, 180 University of Washington (Seattle), 135 UOP HyChlor conversion process, 177f, 178 V VX, 1, 23 biodegradation of reaction products from, 131-132 chemical detoxification of, 21, 65t, 67t, 74

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Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions chemical structure, 37, 37n.1, 38f direct biological destruction of, 128-130, 133-134 lethal doses of, 82t level 5X decontamination of, 263-264, 265, 266 low-temperature, low-pressure, liquid-phase detoxification of, 6, 10, 109, 186 minimum detection limits, 233-234 moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation of, 11 nitrogen compounds in, 101 organic synthesis agents and, 121-122 oxidation agents for, in acid, 117 past disposal experiences, 59t, 60t, 62 permissible air concentrations, 82t properties, 38, 39-40t reaction with sodium hydroxide, 113-114, 116, 186 reactions in low pH solutions, 186 storage of, 42 toxicity of, 41, 41n.5 W Waste streams/management, 1, 4, 13-15 in Adams process, 180, 183 assessment of, 93 in baseline technology, 2, 24 biological detoxification of, 126-127, 131, 134-135 in catalytic fluidized-bed oxidation, 170 in catalytic oxidation, 175 chemical breakdown products, 76-77 in coal gasification, 163 demilitarization strategies for, 15-19, 32-33 drying wet wastes, 4, 100 in electrochemical oxidation, 278 heteroatoms in, 30 high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation treatment for, 12-13 in hydrogenation processes, 178-179 in ionizing radiation process, 272 in low-temperature, liquid-phase processes, 10, 109, 110, 111, 190 metal wastes in, 193 in molten metal pyrolysis, 153, 156 in molten salt oxidation, 173, 174 in munitions destruction, 77-78 nitrogen oxides in, 101 in peroxydisulfate salt oxidation, 10, 124 in plasma arc processes, 157-159 solid wastes, 4, 78, 82-83, 98-99, 193-194 in supercritical water oxidation, 151 in Synthetica Steam Detoxifier, 167 water, 101-102 in wet air oxidation, 139, 144 See also Gas wastes; Liquid wastes; Metal parts; Salt wastes; Storage and certification Water wastes, 101-102 Westinghouse plasma system, 158f Wet air oxidation, 11, 16, 17-18, 21, 102, 190-191 addition of caustic in, 142-143 advantages of, 144 application of, 139-141 corrosion concerns in, 142-143 development status, 139 development time, 146 disadvantages of, 145 experience with, 139 of GB, 141-142, 143, 144 material balance in, 279-281 operating temperatures, 141, 142t, 143 process, 138-139, 140f pure oxygen in, 143-144 reaction rate in, 141 reactor design, 141 research needs, 145-146 waste streams, 139, 144, 145t Work environment, 78, 81 Worker protection, 81