1
Introduction

From the first landings on Antarctica in the early part of the 19th century Until World War II, the motivation for human presence on the continent and in the surrounding seas was twofold: a quest for knowledge and a quest for economic gain. With the rise of territorial claims and the advent of the Cold War, other reasons for human presence in Antarctica also emerged that provided the impetus for the negotiation of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The scientific quest became the one objective on which the nations on both sides of the Iron Curtain and nations making territorial claims could all agree. Thus, under the Treaty, science became the vehicle whereby political decisions to maintain a presence are exercised. Figures 1.1a, 1.1b and 1.1c show maps of Antarctica, including the locations of the more than 40 scientific stations operated there by Treaty Parties.

Since the signing of the Treaty in 1959, antarctic science has thrived and expanded in scope. With the advent of aerial and space surveillance and measurement techniques, and ever more sophisticated ocean-and ground-based instrumentation, science has evolved both in character and global significance. Many of today's scientific questions can only be addressed adequately with results from Antarctica. Compelling scientific rationales now exist for conducting research in the Antarctic regardless of political imperatives (Weller et al., 1987).

At the same time that antarctic science has evolved, political imperatives have changed with the end of the Cold War. In recent years, stewardship of Antarctica has been recognized as an important new objective by the Antarctic Treaty nations specifically, and the global community as a whole. Stewardship means making reasoned, forward-looking decisions based on scientific knowledge for the preservation, protection, and conservation of Antarctica for current and future generations, and for Earth as a system. A new context now exists for scientific research—one that links science and environmental issues, and leads to the concept of stewardship as a philosophy and a framework for human activities on the continent.



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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic 1 Introduction From the first landings on Antarctica in the early part of the 19th century Until World War II, the motivation for human presence on the continent and in the surrounding seas was twofold: a quest for knowledge and a quest for economic gain. With the rise of territorial claims and the advent of the Cold War, other reasons for human presence in Antarctica also emerged that provided the impetus for the negotiation of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. The scientific quest became the one objective on which the nations on both sides of the Iron Curtain and nations making territorial claims could all agree. Thus, under the Treaty, science became the vehicle whereby political decisions to maintain a presence are exercised. Figures 1.1a, 1.1b and 1.1c show maps of Antarctica, including the locations of the more than 40 scientific stations operated there by Treaty Parties. Since the signing of the Treaty in 1959, antarctic science has thrived and expanded in scope. With the advent of aerial and space surveillance and measurement techniques, and ever more sophisticated ocean-and ground-based instrumentation, science has evolved both in character and global significance. Many of today's scientific questions can only be addressed adequately with results from Antarctica. Compelling scientific rationales now exist for conducting research in the Antarctic regardless of political imperatives (Weller et al., 1987). At the same time that antarctic science has evolved, political imperatives have changed with the end of the Cold War. In recent years, stewardship of Antarctica has been recognized as an important new objective by the Antarctic Treaty nations specifically, and the global community as a whole. Stewardship means making reasoned, forward-looking decisions based on scientific knowledge for the preservation, protection, and conservation of Antarctica for current and future generations, and for Earth as a system. A new context now exists for scientific research—one that links science and environmental issues, and leads to the concept of stewardship as a philosophy and a framework for human activities on the continent.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic The objectives of this report are: (1) to outline the role of science in the stewardship of the Antarctic, and (2) to describe the nature and characteristics of the governance process for the United States that will enable scientific investigations to contribute to that stewardship effectively. SCIENCE: A PRIMARY AND ENDURING OBJECTIVE The observations and reports by the first expeditions to the Antarctic related specifically to the exploration of the continent itself and its surroundings and, by-and-large, were painstakingly done, demonstrating dedication and objectivity on the part of the investigators. Such observations included not only the obvious, such as snow and ice cover, indigenous life forms, and weather, but also the less obvious such as cosmic ray and geomagnetic field measurements (the latter was of considerable practical importance to navigation). These early investigations were invaluable as they provided increasingly complete descriptions of a major part of the Earth that had truly been terra incognita. Science has endured as a primary objective through the transitions from exploration to international cooperation to the new notion of stewardship because the case for science has been strengthened by an expanded scientific scope obtained through the results and insights of antarctic research. Over past decades, research in Antarctica has built a new understanding of Antarctica itself, of Earth both the past and present, of our solar system, and of the universe. Advances in research in the future will likely expand our understanding in ways that cannot be foretold. The following sections highlight different aspects of the case for science in Antarctica today. A more comprehensive list of antarctic research can be found in U.S. Research in Antarctica in 2000 A.D. and Beyond: A Preliminary Assessment (NRC, 1986a), Glaciers, Ice Sheets, and Sea Level. Effects of a CO2—Induced Climatic Change (NRC, 1985), The Polar Regions and Climatic Change (NRC, 1984), Research Emphases for the U. S. Antarctic Program (NRC, 1983) and A History of Antarctic Science (Fogg, 1992). These detailed discussions illustrate several key elements of current research in the Antarctic: (1) the scientific problems are of global nature and significance, (2) solutions to such problems are often critical to an effective understanding of the antarctic environment itself, and (3) the problems often require more than just passive observations and frequently require active experimentation.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic FIGURE 1.1a  Map of Antarctica showing locations of scientific stations. (Courtesy of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research).

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic FIGURE 1.1b Inset of King George Island showing locations of scientific stations. (Courtesy of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). FIGURE 1.1c Map of the southern latitudes showing Antarctica in relation to surrounding islands. Sixty degrees south latitude, which demarks the Antarctic Treaty System area, is shown. (Courtesy of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research).

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Earth's History and Climatic Change The limits of climatic variability are given by the geologic record, which shows that sediments have been deposited from water for the past 4.0 billion years; in other words, it has never been so hot that all water has evaporated nor so cold that it has all been frozen. Mean global surface temperatures, therefore, must have been confined to a range between the freezing and boiling points of water, 0° and 100°C. Within those limits, Earth has a record of ice ages and of worldwide equable warm conditions. Climatic change, as reflected in glaciation, takes place on at least two timescales: over geologically short periods of about 100,000 years (i.e., between interglacial and glacial eras such as between today and the last major expansion of ice across North America), and over geologically long periods lasting tens of millions of years (i.e., between ice ages when ice sheets are present somewhere on Earth and more equable times when no ice sheet is present anywhere on Earth). The controls on climatic change for these two timescales probably differ. The changes over short timescales may be assessed through ice cores and other high resolution but short timespan records, whereas changes over long timescales can be assessed only through the geologic record. The information from such studies is important for the evaluation and testing of numerical models of global climate. Global circulation models are unable to reproduce current climate conditions in polar regions, particularly Antarctica. When successful models have been achieved, the geologic record will provide a powerful tool for checking hindcasts (i.e., simulations of past conditions) with present continental and oceanic distributions, and with very different land and sea distributions such as existed during the ice age 250 million years ago when all the southern continents were joined in the super-continent of Gondwanaland. The breakup of that super-continent led to the arrangement of the continents today and therefore has implications for understanding the evolution of the present day temperature-and salinity-driven circulation of the oceans, biogeographic patterns, and the nature of the lithospheric boundary of the West Antarctic ice sheet. The West Antarctic ice sheet is the only existing ice sheet grounded below sea level and is thought to be more vulnerable to climate change than either the Greenland or East Antarctic ice sheets. Its stability is important because its disappearance would lead to a worldwide sea level rise of about 5 meters. The discovery of evidence for active or recently active volcanoes beneath the ice sheet (see Box 1.1) introduces a new and significant factor into the assessment of the controls on ice sheet behavior, and predictions of the ice sheet's response to climate change. Knowledge of the dynamics of the interrelated ocean, ice, and atmospheric systems of the south polar regions is needed for complete understanding of global climate and essential for accurate modeling of climate change. For

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic BOX 1.1 POSSIBLE LINKAGES BETWEEN ICE SHEET DYNAMICS AND GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE IN WEST ANTARCTICA West Antarctica is the site of the world's only existing marine ice sheet. This vast ice mass covers more than 2 million square kilometers (0.71 million square miles) and is grounded several hundred meters below sea level for much of its extent. If the ice were removed from West Antarctica, the continental mass would form an archipelago, most of which would lie well below sea level, with local depths as great as 2,500 meters. Few other regions on Earth share the geologic characteristics found in this portion of the Antarctic continent. The volcanoes of West Antarctica, which are found along the western margin of the Ross Sea from Mt. Erebus to Cape Adare, are typical of rift regions such as the Great Rift Valley of East Africa. In such regions, geological processes are known to cause the thinning and stretching of the continental crust. Because of the geological similarities, it is hypothesized that similar processes are at work in West Antarctica. To test this hypothesis and to better understand the nature and evolution of the ice covered areas of West Antarctica, aerial surveys of ice thickness, magnetic field intensity, and gravity are being conducted. Initial results suggest that active or recently active volcanoes are present at the base of the ice sheet, supporting the rift hypothesis. The ice sheet of West Antarctica also holds significant interest for glaciologists. Rather than being a static mass, the ice sheet is a dynamic and complex glacial formation. It drains, in part, into the Ross Ice Shelf through fast moving ice streams bounded by slow moving regions. The dynamics and movement of the ice sheet are a subject of continuing debate. It is inferred that the ice sheet collapsed during the last interglacial period 120,000 years ago when temperatures were as high as those today and sea level was five meters higher. It is hypothesized that, during the current warm period the West Antarctic ice sheet could collapse again, leading to a catastrophic five meter rise in sea level. The testing of the rift hypothesis and study of ice dynamics in West Antarctica are closely linked to the development of a better understanding of the stability of the marine ice sheet. In other continental rift regions, enhanced flow of heat from the Earth's interior promotes fluid flow through the sediments in the basins of the

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic rift. At the base of the West Antarctic ice sheet may lie sediments of marine origin. These sediments may be saturated with water due to the flow of heat from the Earth's interior that would occur in a rift setting. The flow of water through saturated sediment would weaken the sediments and possibly allow for rapid motion of overlying ice. Thus, the geologic evolution of West Antarctica and the dynamical behavior of the ice sheet may be intimately linked. example, global atmospheric circulation is driven in large part by equator-to-pole temperature gradients. Thus, understanding the global climate system and its susceptibility to perturbations requires detailed knowledge of many processes occurring at the poles. Polar regions are also considered key to many important questions relating to the critical early detection of global change. For example, the antarctic stratosphere's extremely low temperatures coupled with human input of chlorofluorocarbons have led to the formation of an ozone hole—an ozone depletion far more pronounced than that found in more temperate latitudes. Another important connection between global change and the polar regions is the unique records of the past in the polar ice. Perhaps the best known of these is the history of Earth's atmosphere as revealed by air bubbles locked deep within ice sheets. Ice cores have been used to determine the changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations since the industrial revolution and in the more distant past. Permafrost and lake bottom sediments also contain key records of past changes. The polar regions have become a focal point for global change studies in scientific disciplines, including ecology, atmospheric science, oceanography, glaciology, and geology. Biology and Ecology Research on the flora and fauna (see Figure 1.2) of Antarctica remains a major emphasis in current scientific investigations. Antarctica has many unique features compared to the other world regions. For example, it contains some of the highest, brightest, coldest, and driest places on Earth, and the continental shelf areas contain environments that have been environmentally stable for millions of years. Also, extended periods of continuous daylight or darkness have influenced ecological and biological interactions. In biology, much insight has been gained by study of physiological processes under extreme conditions, evolutionary changes under long-term isolation, and interactions in ecologically simple systems. Thus, Antarctica holds a reservoir of unique opportunities for biological and ecological research that should be both used and preserved.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic The marine and coastal areas are excellent sites for studying the evolution of life history phenomena in extreme environments, the physiological adaptations that accompany these phenomena, and the ecological processes through which species interact and that allow for unique ecosystem structures and functions. It has been hypothesized, for example, that higher trophic levels make a greater contribution to carbon flux rates in the Southern Ocean than in other marine ecosystems (Huntley et al., 1991)—considering the potential importance of Earth's changing carbon budget, this hypothesis is of great interest. Studies of turnover and successional sequences in isolated and environmentally stable benthic communities provide insights on evolutionary processes. Studies of predator-prey interactions can provide unique insights because in certain cases they occur in relative isolation and over well-defined timescales and small spatial scales, while in other cases they occur over time and spatial scales that are dependent on physical factors such as ice cover and ocean currents, and are thus less well-defined. In the inland systems, as with the marine systems, studies of physiological adaptation and ecological processes have provided understandings of broad significance. Because of the dominance by microorganisms, these studies extend our understanding of early life on Earth and of the possibility of life on other planets. For example, the lake beds of the dry valleys in South Victoria Land are covered with microbial mats that form modern-day stromatolites whose study can aid in the interpretation of ancient stromatolite deposits. The processes by which cryptoendolithic bacteria are able to grow in porous rocks in the dry valleys provide clues to life forms that might have existed on Mars in the distant past. The lakes and streams are also excellent research sites because of the dominance by microorganisms. An opportunity exists, for example, to study microbial processes in a lake without having to account for the effects of grazing by crustaceans or fish. Important biogeochemical processes in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, such as the flux of methane, are readily studied in these simpler microbial systems. Biological studies in the Antarctic have made significant contributions to the understanding of ecological systems. There is growing consensus among scientists that study of ecological systems and unique organisms of Antarctica is important to better understanding changes taking place in today's global environment, and that the effects of change likely will be measurable in Antarctica before they are widely demonstrable in other regions of the world. Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Astronomy Not only is the Antarctic at high latitude, it is also a land mass at high geomagnetic latitudes (unlike the northern hemisphere, where comparable geomagnetic latitudes occur principally over frozen ocean). This makes the

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic FIGURE 1.2 A Weddell seal and her pups, on annual sea ice, close to a permanent ice shelf. The evidence of a recent storm is present as both have a good covering of snow on their pelage. (Courtesy of D. Siniff, University of Minnesota). continent ideal for many fundamental investigations in solar-terrestrial physics—both studies of the space around Earth as well as of the sun itself. Further, the interior of the antarctic land mass has ideal atmospheric conditions (i.e., no pollution, extremely low water vapor, relatively stable large-scale circulation pattern) for many types of astronomical studies, particularly those requiring low thermal emissions in the infrared. Finally, the long periods of daylight and darkness are essential for long-term stable observational programs. A fundamental feature of Earth's space environment is its geomagnetic field, which physically organizes much of the space phenomena around Earth. As shown in Figure 1.3, Earth acts as a large bar magnet; magnetic lines of force stretch from one hemisphere to the other. Lines of force originating from Earth's magnetic poles extend farther from the Earth to higher geomagnetic latitudes than those originating nearer the equator. Nearer the magnetic poles, force lines extend to a greater range of geomagnetic latitudes than elsewhere on Earth. Thus, in Antarctica it is possible to measure and study Earth's space environment at different altitudes above the surface. Where the field lines from Antarctica intersect northern hemisphere land regions, measurements can be made at both ends of a field line, providing even more definitive information. Because the northern hemisphere has few such regions, particularly at geomagnetic latitudes greater than 75 degrees, Antarctica represents an important location for studying Earth's space environment.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic FIGURE 1.3 Earth acts like a giant bar magnet, with the north magnetic field polarity in the southern hemisphere and the south magnetic field polarity in the northern hemisphere. Magnetic lines of force stretch from one hemisphere to the other. The lines of force that emerge from closer to the magnetic poles (which do not coincide with the geographic poles) extend farther from Earth's surface than those that emerge closer to the equator. (Courtesy of L. Lanzerotti, AT&T Bell Laboratories). Ground-based, balloon-borne and rocket-borne instrumentation have been used in Antarctica for investigations of solar-terrestrial interactions. The long austral darkness has been essential for continuous optical measurements of the southern aurora and other optical atmospheric emissions. On the other hand, the oscillation modes of the sun have been studied under the long daylight of the austral summer and have led to new understanding of the sun's interior structure. Electromagnetically quiet conditions have facilitated high-sensitivity studies of Earth's natural electromagnetic emissions without contamination by human technologies. Antarctic research in solar-terrestrial physics has led not only to new scientific understanding, but has also been critical for monitoring and predicting space weather conditions. Knowledge of these conditions is crucial for operation of numerous spacecraft systems that orbit Earth. Cosmic ray astrophysics has been pursued for many years in Antarctica, where the geomagnetic field configuration and the high altitude can be used to good advantage. The funnelling of the geomagnetic field lines into the polar regions enables measurement of lower energy cosmic rays than at lower latitudes. The long, highly reliable time series of data that has been obtained provides important information on the time dependence of incident cosmic ray radiation, as influenced by the sun and the solar cycle. Recently, measurements have been made of the emissions and directions of cosmic rays as they

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic traverse the clear atmosphere. A new project has also investigated using the ice sheet to detect neutrinos by detecting the light pulses emitted by neutrino-induced interactions in the ice. Especially promising new astronomical investigations take advantage of the reduced atmospheric thermal emissions in the antarctic interior. At a wavelength of 2.4 microns is a unique gap in airglow emissions that may provide a background for telescopic measurements that is two orders of magnitude lower than can be achieved at other sites on Earth, approaching the sensitivities achievable on a space telescope that might be designed for this frequency region. An automated telescope of 1.7 meter aperture is nearing completion at South Pole Station. When operation begins, in 1994, it will enable year-round measurements of the interstellar medium and of star-forming regions in our own and other galaxies. STEWARDSHIP: A NEW APPROACH TO THE FUTURE The compelling reasons for stewardship derive from both environmental and scientific needs, which are interdependent in many ways. In our time, photographs of Earth as seen from the Moon have been a potent image, revealing our planet as a finite and vulnerable home. At the same time, many people have become personally aware of local environmental problems that may have degraded the quality of their air and water, threatened the health of their children, or otherwise impaired their personal quality of life. Most recently, people have come to realize that their actions may adversely affect the global environment, for example, by causing the depletion of ozone through use of chlorofluorocarbons. The growing awareness of the human ability to have harmful and sometimes devastating effects on our environment has caused people to carefully question a broad spectrum of human activities and their impact on the environment. Individuals and governments have spoken of the need to curtail activities that damage the environment, and have called for sustainable development and environmental protection. The concept of Earth as an interconnected environmental system, of which humans are a part, coupled with local, regional, and global experiences of environmental degradation, has raised the perceived value of pristine and wilderness environments around the world. Because of its remoteness and harsh environment, Antarctica has remained largely untouched, particularly in comparison to other continents. However, Antarctica's pristine character and wilderness value have not always been valued or protected by nations and individuals visiting or working there. Some terrestrial, marine, and near-shore benthic habitats have undergone serious alterations. For example, the bottom of Winter Quarters Bay at McMurdo Station is now littered with drums of waste and other debris from the U.S.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Antarctic Program deposited there in the past. Rocks from the construction of a jetty along the shoreline at McMurdo have caused alterations in the unique soft bottom benthic community. Operations and management practices and activities of other nations operating in Antarctica have also resulted in damage to the environment. While remediation of impacts from some past practices may cause greater environmental harm than good, it is clear that those practices should not be repeated. The international system of governance for Antarctica provides an opportunity to fulfill a consensus for stewardship, which is not found in other environments that have come to be valued globally, such as the rainforests of Central and South America. In the 1980s, concerns about the environmental practices in Antarctica and the potential for further damage arising from the possibility of the development of mineral resources have led to a recognition among the treaty nations that enhanced stewardship of Antarctica was needed. In 1991, following a series of negotiations, an international consensus for stewardship and protection of the antarctic environment emerged in the form of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Protecting the antarctic environment not only preserves internationally held values for environmental conservation, but also provides a positive example of stewardship of Earth by the international community. Maintaining the pristine nature of Antarctica and protecting the unique species that live there are also critical for maintaining the continent's value for many important scientific studies. Undisturbed benthic habitats, in which marine communities have been isolated for perhaps 20 million years, provide a unique opportunity for studies of evolution. The astronomical observatory at South Pole Station depends on the dry, unpolluted atmosphere for the viewing conditions that make it the best place for certain observations other than a satellite observatory. The antarctic ice sheets are central to the role of the continent as Earth's most important heat sink, to the dynamics of the atmosphere, and to climatic variability. To understand current conditions, the ice sheets must remain essentially unmodified by human activities. Antarctica plays an essential role in many of Earth's dynamic systems, from the lithosphere to the oceans, the cryosphere, and the atmosphere. The realization that anthropogenic pollutants, such as DDT or chlorofluorocarbons, may have a major impact on our environment has been followed by questions as to how background levels of naturally occurring compounds, such as carbon dioxide and methane, can be established. Few places are so isolated that anthropogenic inputs to the environment are at a minimum—Antarctica is the best example. The continent offers the best opportunity for establishing background levels of many important environmental parameters, and at the same time may offer the best opportunity to detect changes that may be occurring.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic This interrelationship of science and environmental issues forms the basis for stewardship. Stewardship built on that interrelationship also extends into the broader issue of environmental conservation of one of the least disturbed places on Earth. Parties to the Treaty have recognized in the Environmental Protocol and Annexes the uniqueness of the continent and the need for environmental issues to be considered alongside all other existing and proposed activities. The concept of stewardship provides a philosophical basis for governance of the continent. TOWARD DYNAMIC FEEDBACK BETWEEN SCIENCE AND STEWARDSHIP The critical issue as established in the preceding sections is to determine how to preserve the opportunities to conduct leading-edge science in Antarctica and to do so in a manner that ensures that our nation will meet its international commitments and obligations for environmental responsibility and stewardship. The twin objectives of scientific research and environmental stewardship are interactive. The dynamic feedback between these two goals is shown in Figure 1.4. The connections between science and stewardship involve: (1) transfer or preservation of knowledge and (2) controls on the processes through which scientific activities are conducted, and regulations and monitoring programs associated with stewardship are developed and implemented. The specific interactions are discussed below. Information Interactions Understanding A successful stewardship strategy is based on knowledge of Earth's dynamic systems and how they respond to external forces. Synthesis of previous scientific results can provide a knowledge base for stewardship and indicate research needed to fill gaps that are identified. Scientific understanding also provides the basis for designing a monitoring program to track how the system is changing and how key pollutants associated with the human presence are being introduced, transported to, and modified in the environment. Figure 1.5 shows a scientist observing crabeater seals. Better scientific understanding of populations can help managers develop more effective protection strategies.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic FIGURE 1.4 Interactions between science and stewardship in their planning and execution. The diagram shows how science and stewardship goals are interdependent. (Courtesy of D. McKnight, U.S. Geological Survey). FIGURE 1.5 A female crabeater seal with her pup (left side of the picture) accompanied by an adult male (right side of the picture) on an ice flow in the annual pack ice region. A researcher is observing the group of seals. (Courtesy of D. Siniff, University of Minnesota).

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Site Integrity and Site Characterization Because of its extreme conditions and pristine nature, Antarctica can be viewed as a knowledge reservoir for the future. This reservoir could be damaged inadvertently by human activities. Meeting the stewardship goal, therefore, will preserve the quality of the continent as a platform for science of all kinds. Maintenance of site integrity for ecological studies, which involves safeguards against invasive activities and documentation of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, will be particularly enhanced by a greater emphasis on stewardship. Furthermore, because our knowledge of terrestrial processes is incomplete, a balanced and carefully planned monitoring network would yield new data that support, modify, or overthrow existing scientific theories. In this way, monitoring conducted to meet the stewardship goal becomes a source of important new questions to be addressed by scientific research. One example is the discovery of the ozone hole. Process Interactions Constraints To achieve the stewardship goal it will be necessary to place constraints on the conduct of specific scientific studies and the infrastructure that supports them. The constraints associated with environmental protection are additional to those associated with the harsh conditions and logistic resources. Scientists must take innovative approaches to meet the current constraints, but specific experiments and activities can be designed to meet environmental constraints if they are known. Some activities may be constrained because of outright prohibitions, such as the requirement that electrical batteries be removed from the continent (see Box 1.2). Another way in which stewardship may constrain science is by limiting the total resources available. Approach and Technology Antarctic scientists have learned how to execute research activities, and their experience could greatly contribute to the success of specific stewardship activities, such as maintenance of a monitoring program. In addition to sharing this experience in execution, scientists involved in antarctic research could evaluate and review aspects of the environmental program to help keep its approach sound and the methods up-to-date. Finally, antarctic scientists have learned much about performance of instrumentation in harsh conditions and have developed new technologies for these studies. These technologies may be useful in designing or updating monitoring equipment.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Interactions between science and stewardship are already occurring and will increase. The implementing legislation for the Environmental Protocol should firmly establish the nature of these relationships. Because the interactions between science and stewardship are dynamic and will evolve over time, flexibility in the implementing legislation is desirable. BOX 1.2 THE FUTURE OF ANTARCTIC RESEARCH BALLOONING The study of antarctic meteorology dates back to the days of Admiral Byrd, who personally collected the first winter of meteorological data on the ice shelf and nearly died in the endeavor. More recently, atmospheric science has emerged as a key component of polar research, with an emphasis on global change issues that focuses in part on the antarctic ozone hole. Atmospheric science and other research activities rely partly on balloons carrying battery-operated equipment, and their future will depend on the interpretation of the Protocol, which states that electrical batteries shall be removed from the Antarctic Treaty area by the generator of such wastes (Article 2(1)(b)). Studies of the depletion of the antarctic ozone profile rely on small balloon payloads containing electrochemical ozone sondes. The power typically is provided by about a dozen small lithium batteries (camera-type) with negligible environmental impact. Such sondes are launched routinely from McMurdo, South Pole, Halley Bay, Syowa, and other stations. Recovery of the payloads is impossible at many of these stations and extremely difficult and costly at others. Perhaps more importantly, standard meteorological balloons that are essential for weather prediction and navigation also contain batteries and are launched once or twice daily at about a dozen research stations around the continent. It appears that Article 2(1)(b) was directed at the safe and ecologically sound removal of larger and more noxious batteries (especially those used in vehicles), not the batteries used in research balloons or for personal use such as in flashlights. A key question for science and for the routine weather forecasting essential to activities on the continent will be clarification of the intent and practical implementation of the regulation on batteries.