APPENDIX A
Tourism

Antarctic tourists, for the purpose of this report, are fare-paying passengers, private expedition members, or adventurers visiting the continent by privately-organized travel by ship or aircraft. The numbers given do not include officers, crew, and cruise staff of tour ships; Distinguished Visitors of the U.S. Antarctic Program and other national antarctic program personnel; government officials; journalists, official inspection team members; or passengers overflying the continent.

Tourists first visited Antarctica in the 1957/58 season when Chile and Argentina operated four cruises, taking more than 500 tourists to the South Shetland Islands. The first voyage organized by a U.S.-based company was conducted in 1966 aboard the Lapataia, a chartered Argentine naval ship. Expedition cruising, as we now know it, with a focus on education, began in 1969 when the Lindblad Explorer (98 passengers1) was built specifically' for cruising in polar regions. The Lindblad Explorer dominated the U.S. market throughout the 1970s, but voyages were also offered on Spanish, Argentine, and Chilean vessels. In the mid-to-late 1980s, four ships employed by three U.S.-based companies operated a series of trips on the Society Explorer (formerly the Lindblad Explorer), World Discoverer (138 passengers), Illiria (140 passengers), and Ocean Princess (440 passengers). Argentina continued to be involved in operating frequent cruises with the Bahia Paraiso , a naval resupply ship that ran aground near Palmer Station in January 1989. Since 1990, several other ships operated by U.S. companies have entered the market, including Frontier Spirit (160 passengers), Columbus Caravelle (250 passengers), Akademik Sergey Vavilov (38 passengers), Kapitan Khlebnikov (112 passengers) and Professor Molchanov (38 passengers). Two previously dominant companies disappeared from the market, and new companies have

1  

Passenger capacities listed below for this and other ships are maximums, not necessarily the numbers carried by a ship on a particular cruise.



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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic APPENDIX A Tourism Antarctic tourists, for the purpose of this report, are fare-paying passengers, private expedition members, or adventurers visiting the continent by privately-organized travel by ship or aircraft. The numbers given do not include officers, crew, and cruise staff of tour ships; Distinguished Visitors of the U.S. Antarctic Program and other national antarctic program personnel; government officials; journalists, official inspection team members; or passengers overflying the continent. Tourists first visited Antarctica in the 1957/58 season when Chile and Argentina operated four cruises, taking more than 500 tourists to the South Shetland Islands. The first voyage organized by a U.S.-based company was conducted in 1966 aboard the Lapataia, a chartered Argentine naval ship. Expedition cruising, as we now know it, with a focus on education, began in 1969 when the Lindblad Explorer (98 passengers1) was built specifically' for cruising in polar regions. The Lindblad Explorer dominated the U.S. market throughout the 1970s, but voyages were also offered on Spanish, Argentine, and Chilean vessels. In the mid-to-late 1980s, four ships employed by three U.S.-based companies operated a series of trips on the Society Explorer (formerly the Lindblad Explorer), World Discoverer (138 passengers), Illiria (140 passengers), and Ocean Princess (440 passengers). Argentina continued to be involved in operating frequent cruises with the Bahia Paraiso , a naval resupply ship that ran aground near Palmer Station in January 1989. Since 1990, several other ships operated by U.S. companies have entered the market, including Frontier Spirit (160 passengers), Columbus Caravelle (250 passengers), Akademik Sergey Vavilov (38 passengers), Kapitan Khlebnikov (112 passengers) and Professor Molchanov (38 passengers). Two previously dominant companies disappeared from the market, and new companies have 1   Passenger capacities listed below for this and other ships are maximums, not necessarily the numbers carried by a ship on a particular cruise.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic taken their place. Ships, too, have changed. For example, Society Explorer was purchased and renamed Explorer. Private yachts, carrying up to 20 passengers, have been used by U.S.-based and foreign tour companies, as well as by private individuals; however the numbers of passengers visiting Antarctica by yacht adds only slightly to the numbers of tourists visiting each year. During the 1992–93 season, several foreign vessels operated by non-U.S.-based companies conducted tours on board the Northern Ranger (95 passengers estimated), Vistamar (300 passengers estimated), and Europa (600 passengers estimated). Accurate data on the number of tourists that have visited Antarctica are difficult to obtain because of non-uniform reporting procedures. Although Article VII(5) of the Antarctic Treaty requires each Contracting Party to provide advance notification to other Contracting Parties of ''all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part Of its ships or nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory,'' some visits undoubtedly go unreported by foreign tour companies and operators of small yachts. Any tour company, U.S.-based or not, that carries any U.S. citizen to Antarctica is subject to the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-541) and must file advance notification of expeditions to, and within, Antarctica. Collecting accurate data on ships has also been difficult because the number of passengers carried per ship and per operator has varied widely from year to year; in some years (e.g., 1959–60 to 1964–65) no activity has been reported (see Table A. 1). Different ships have been employed by the same operator during the same season, which also makes it difficult to assess passenger counts accurately. Some ships are only employed for a few trips per season, whereas others operate tours to Antarctica throughout the austral summer (November through March). Additionally, a ship's design capacity may not reflect the actual number of passengers carried. For example, although the Ocean Princess can carry 440 passengers, the tour operator has limited occupancy to a maximum of 400 while the vessel is employed in Antarctica. Tour operators also attest that more single occupancy cabins are sold for antarctic trips than for other destinations, which further reduces the number of passengers on board at a given time. The coastal areas of the Antarctic Peninsula have been the primary destination of tour ships, but voyages to McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea were conducted occasionally in the 1970s and 1980s and more recently by the World Discoverer (1990–91 season) and Frontier Spirit (1990–91 and 1992–93 seasons). The Kapitan Khlebnikov visited East Antarctica and the Ross Sea during the 1992–93 season. Most companies have preferred to operate voyages to the Antarctic Peninsula region because of its proximity to South American ports and airports, a localized number of scientific stations, a profusion of diverse wildlife, a milder climate, and lighter pack ice than is encountered in other areas of the Antarctic.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic TABLE A.1 Estimated numbers of seaborne tourists in Antarctica from 1957/58 to 1992/93 (Note the lack of activity between 1958/59 to 1965/66). YEAR TOURISTS YEAR TOURISTS 1957/58 194 1978/79 1,048 1958/59 344 1979/80 855 1965/66 58 1980/81 855 1966/67 94 1981/82 1,441 1967/68 147 1982/83 719 1968/69 1,312 1983/84 834 1969/70 972 1984/85 544 1970/71 943 1985/86 631 1971/72 984 1986/87 1,797 1972/73 1,175 1987/88 2,782 1973/74 1,876 1988/89 3,146 1974/75 3,644 1989/90 2,460 1975/76 1,890 1990/91 4,698 1976/77 1,068 1991/92 7,103 1977/78 845 1992/93 6,166 (Yacht numbers are included after the 1979/80 season—where known.) Sources: Enzenbacher (1992), National Science Foundation (1992a), N. Kennedy, National Science Foundation, personal communication (1993). Itineraries presently being offered range in length from 15 to 30 days, depending on the places visited. Some itineraries include only the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetlands, and South Orkneys, while others include destinations outside of the Antarctic Treaty Area, such as the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, the Chilean fjords, or the subantarctic islands of Australia and New Zealand. A typical voyage includes scenic cruising and visits to wildlife sites, scientific research stations, and historic sites and huts. Whale watching is also popular. Most ships use a fleet of inflatable rubber boats (e.g., Zodiacs)

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic to ferry passengers to shore. The use of Zodiacs has revolutionized the industry, enabling the operator to transport passengers to shore in remote areas that might previously have been inaccessible to tourism. Since the 1989–90 season the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) has compiled information on the sites visited by tour ships with data provided by U.S.-based tour operators in response to Treaty reporting requirements. Each company records on a standardized form detailed information for each itinerary, including the dates, locations, and total number of passengers and crew (if any) that landed at each site in Antarctica. Most operators include information on all sites visited, not just those within the Antarctic Treaty Area. NSF compiles these data for inclusion in the U.S. Treaty Report's Modifications of Planned Activities, and provides the data to the U.S.-based tour operators attending NSF's annual tour operators meeting, and to other interested parties. NSF also compiles a more-detailed set of information on specific sites visited each season. Information per site includes: total number of visits (including whether a landing was made or whether the visits consisted only of a Zodiac tour), total number of passengers landed, average number of passengers landed, average number of days between visits, maximum number of days between visits, and minimum number of days between visits. A total of 35 sites in the Antarctic Treaty Area were visited during the 1989–90 season; 33 sites during the 1990–91 season; 49 sites during the 1991–92 season; and 108 sites during the 1992–93 season. Table A.2 shows the landing sites visited most often during the past four seasons as reported by U.S.-based tour operators. Although several types of ships are now employed for antarctic tourism, the industry has maintained a remarkable safety record. To date, no ship solely dedicated to tourism has been lost Or caused serious environmental damage. However, each additional ship increases likelihood of disaster (Stonehouse, 1992). Such fears became reality when, on January 28, 1989, the Bahia Paraiso, an Argentine Naval supply ship that was carrying 81 fare-paying passengers, ran aground in Arthur Harbor, near Palmer Station, the U.S. research base on Anvers Island. The grounding resulted in localized pollution when a large quantity of oil—primarily diesel and aviation fuel—was released into Arthur Harbor. Fortunately, two tour ships (well equipped with rescue equipment, medical facilities, food, bedding, clothes, and other items needed in an emergency) were in the vicinity and assisted in rescuing and transporting the crew and passengers from the Bahia Paraiso, thus relieving the research

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic TABLE A.2 Landing sites visited most often as reported by U.S.-based tour operators 1989–90 Season Site Number of visits Number of tourists Whalers Bay, Deception Island 17 1682 Palmer Station, Anvers Island 11 1252 Almirante Brown Station, Paradise Bay 10 1191 Half Moon Island 10 1191 Gonzalez Videla/Waterboat Point, Paradise Bay 9 1038 Arctowski Station (King George Island) 8 930 Cuverville Island 8 883 1990–91 Season Site Number of visits Number of tourists Almirante Brown Station, Paradise Bay 16 1471 Whalers Bay, Deception island 13 1496 Petermann Island 11 1084 Gonzalez Videla/Waterboat Point, Paradise Bay 10 1965 Pendulum Cove, Deception Island 10 1215 Palmer Station, Anvers Island 9 923 1991–92 Season Site Number of visits Number of tourists Almirante Brown Station, Paradise Bay 26 2889 Half Moon Island 25 2984 Whalers Bay, Deception Island 23 2889 Cuverville Island 21 2565 Port Lockroy, Wiencke bland 19 2615 Pendulum Cove, Deception Island 19 2011 1992–93 Season: Site Number of visits Number of tourists Cuverville Island 25 1589 Pendulum Cove, Deception Island 23 1936 Port Lockroy, Wiendre Island 22 2139 Whalers Bay, Deception Island 22 1711 Gonzalez Videla/Waterboat Point, Paradise Bay 19 1671 Almirante Brown Station, Paradise Bay 19 1659 Half Moon Island 14 585 These figures account only for visits reported by U.S.-based tour operators. Actual passenger numbers for these sites may therefore be higher than indicated (N. Kennedy, National Science Foundation, personal communication, 1993).

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic station of responsibility for their care. In this instance, the presence of tour ships alleviated a potentially difficult situation. To date, U.S. citizens comprise the largest percentage of tourists visiting Antarctica (Beck, 1990). This may be due to several factors, one being that the majority of ship tour operators are U.S.-based companies. Marketing efforts have been strongly directed at Americans who have disposable income, and the opportunity and interest to travel to this area of the world. But the antarctic tourist is very different from the typical tourist. The Antarctic attracts adventurers who are well traveled, affluent, socially conscious, college educated professionals, seeking to step beyond the familiar. They are eager to experience firsthand the wealth of unusual opportunities that a unique ecosystem such as Antarctica can offer them and to understand the role that they play in protecting the continent. Most return home eager to support scientific research and groups working to protect Antarctica. The desire to learn is also important and can be attested to by the fact that the majority of tour ships currently operating to Antarctica offer on-board educational programs to inform and educate passengers about the continent. The instructors often have years of direct antarctic experience and also guide passengers ashore. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources' report "A Strategy for Antarctic Conservation" (IUCN, 1991) discusses some of the pros and cons of antarctic tourism: Tourism offers both benefits and threats to Antarctic conservation. On the one hand, all who experience its magnificent scenery and wildlife gain a greatly enhanced appreciation of Antarctica's global importance and of the requirements for its conservation. Such visits also bring fulfillment to those seeking personal challenge and wilderness adventure. Moreover, scientific activities may also benefit, since tourist visits can provide a useful link with the outside world and strengthen political support for Antarctic science, and small, independent expeditions to remote areas often make valuable scientific observations. On the other hand, there is the potential for undesirable impacts such as disturbance at wildlife breeding sites, trampling of vegetation, disruption of routines at stations and of scientific programmes, and the environmental hazards of accidents, which may require time-consuming and costly search-and-rescue and environmental cleanup operations. There could, in the future, be added pressure for facilities such as wharves, airstrips and hotels, the construction of which would incur environmental disturbance on a greater scale than has been caused by tourism hitherto. Experience to date suggests that, in general, tourist operations have been conducted in a responsible manner and undesirable impacts

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic have not been severe, especially compared to environmental impacts of scientific activity and associated logistical activity. In addition to development and implementation of the Visitor and Tour Operator Guidelines to manage the growing tourism industry, the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) was founded in 1991 by seven experienced tour operators to promote and encourage safe and environmentally-responsible private-sector cruises and expeditions to Antarctica, and to foster close cooperation among member companies. Currently, IAATO has 13 company members, including all of the major U.S.-based companies that conducted tours during the 1992–93 season. IAATO encourages new companies to become members because the ultimate protection of the continent depends on responsibly-conducted tourism by all. IAATO's members have testified at hearings on proposed legislation, pursued active participation in their governments' antarctic advisory committees, and participated in a variety of antarctic-related forums, conferences, and workshops. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty sets forth legally binding environmental protection measures applicable to all human activities in Antarctica, including tourism. The measures may require clarification in regard to tourism. Annex V, Area Protection and Management, designates two categories of protected areas: Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs) and Antarctic Specially Managed Areas (ASMAs). Entry to ASPAs is prohibited except in accordance with a permit that is granted only for "compelling scientific purposes." Entry into ASMAs does not necessarily require a permit, but if an ASMA includes an ASPA, a permit would be required. As ASMAs may include "sites or monuments of recognized historic value," which are of interest to tourists, management plans will be required to detail a "Code of Conduct for activities within the area" as well as identifying which activities are to be managed, restricted, or prohibited. Annex IV, Prevention of Marine Pollution, applies "with respect to each Party, to ships entitled to fly its flag and to any other ship engaged in or supporting its Antarctic operations, while operating in the Antarctic Treaty Area." As U.S.-based companies currently organize voyages to Antarctica using vessels registered in non-Treaty Party nations (e.g., Liberia, Bahamas), the marine pollution obligations under this Annex do not apply to these vessels, and the Protocol cannot apply obligations to vessels of non-Parties, nor can U.S. law Teach such vessels directly. However, since U.S. law can apply obligations to U.S. nationals anywhere, U.S. law could go beyond the Protocol by promulgating legislation and regulations to apply standards to any U.S. citizen or any U.S.-based tour operator (i.e., any person who conducts or supports a commercial tour, expedition, or other excursion to Antarctica, including by advertising, marketing, or organizing such an excursion); or by

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic TABLE A.3 Estimated numbers of ship-and air-borne tourists having visited the continent from 1980/81 to 1992/93. YEAR VIA SHIP VIA AIR TOTAL 1980/81 855 N/A 855 1981/82 * 1,441 N/A 1,411 1982/83 719 2 721 1983/84 834 265 1,099 1984/85 544 92 636 1985/86 631 151 782 1986/87 1,797 30 1,827 1987/88 2,782 244 3,026 1988/89 3,146 370 3,516 1989/90 2,460 121 2,581 1990/91 4,698 144 4,842 1991/92 7,103 ** 78 7,181 1992/93 6,166 ** 127 6,293 *= In 1981/82, some 510 passengers traveled by both ship and air—flying one or both ways to or from President Frei Station as part of a tour offered by a Chilean company which chartered the World Discoverer. This is reflected in the total. **= These figures are comprised only of numbers reported by Adventure Network International. Figures from other operators will increase these totals. Sources: Enzenbacher (1992), National Science Foundation (1992a), N. Kennedy, National Science Foundation, personal communication (1993).

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic prohibiting U.S. citizens from traveling to the Antarctic Treaty Area on a non-U.S.-flagged vessel. In view of the potential effects of tourism on antarctic scientific and environmental goals, it is important that governance arrangements, including the work of the Committee for Environmental Protection, take account of such activities. It is also desirable that, to the extent feasible, governance arrangements seek to ensure that environmental regulations—perhaps modeled on the IAATO Visitor and Tour Operator Guidelines—extend on a uniform basis to all visitors and tour operators in Antarctica.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Visitors Antarctica, the world's last pristine wilderness, is particularly vulnerable to human presence. Life in Antarctica must contend with one of the harshest environments on earth, and we must take care that our presence does not add more stress to this fragile and unique ecosystem. The following Guidelines of Conduct have been adopted by all members of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) and will be made available to all visitors traveling with them to Antarctica. With your cooperation we will be able to operate environmentally-conscious expeditions that protect and preserve Antarctica, leaving the continent unimpaired for future generations. Please thoroughly study and follow these guidelines. By doing so, you will make an important contribution towards the conservation of the Antarctic ecosystem and minimize visitor impact. It will also help to insure that you will have a safe and fulfilling experience in visiting one of the most exciting and fascinating places on earth. 1. DO NOT DISTURB, HARASS, OR INTERFERE WITH THE WILDLIFE. never touch the animals. maintain a distance of at least 15 feet (4.5 meters) from penguins, all nesting birds and true seals (crawling seals), and 50 feet (15 meters) from fur seals. give animals the right-of-way. do not position yourself between a marine animal and its path to the water, nor between a parent and its young. always be aware of your surroundings; stay outside the periphery of bird rookeries and seal colonies. keep noise to a minimum. do not feed the animals, either ashore or from the ship.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Most of the Antarctic species exhibit a lack of fear which allows you to approach relatively close; however, please remember that the austral summer is a time for courting, mating, nesting, rearing young and molting. If any animal changes or stops its activities upon your approach, you are too close! Be especially careful while taking photographs, since it is easy to not notice adverse reactions of animals when concentrating through the lens of a camera. Disturbing nesting birds may cause them to expose their eggs/ offspring to predators or cold. Maintain a low profile since animals can be intimidated by people standing over them. The disturbance of some animals, most notably fur seats and nesting skuas, may elicit an aggressive, and even dangerous, response. 2. DO NOT WALK ON OR OTHERWISE DAMAGE THE FRAGILE PLANTS, i.e. LICHENS, MOSSES and GRASSES. Poor soil and harsh living conditions mean growth and regeneration of these plants is extremely slow. Most of the lichens, which grow only on rocks, hard-packed sand and gravel, and bones, are extremely fragile. Damage from human activity among the moss beds can last for decades. 3. LEAVE NOTHING BEHIND, AND TAKE ONLY MEMORIES AND PHOTOGRAPHS. leave no litter ashore (and remove any litter you may find while ashore); dispose of all litter properly. do not take souvenirs, including whale and seal bones, live or dead, animals, rocks, fossils, plants, other organic material, or anything which may be of historical or scientific value. 4. DO NOT INTERFERE WITH PROTECTED AREAS OR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. do not enter buildings at the research stations unless invited to do so. avoid entering all officially protected areas, and do not disturb any ongoing scientific studies. Areas of special scientific concern are clearly delineated by markers and/or described in official records (the expedition staff know these sites). Scientific research in Antarctica is in the interest of everyone...visitors, scientists, and laymen. 5. HISTORIC HUTS MAY ONLY BE ENTERED WHEN ACCOMPANIED BY A PROPERLY AUTHORIZED ESCORT. nothing may be removed from or disturbed within historic huts.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Historic huts are essentially museums, and they are all officially maintained and monitored by various governments. 6. DO NOT SMOKE DURING SHORE EXCURSIONS. Fire is a very serious hazard in the dry climate of Antarctica. Great care must be taken to safeguard against this danger, particularly around wildlife areas, historic huts, research buildings, and storage facilities. 7. STAY WITH YOUR GROUP OR WITH ONE OF THE SHIP'S LEADERS WHEN ASHORE. follow the directions of the expedition staff. never wander off alone or out of sight of others. do not hike onto glaciers or large snow fields, as there is a real danger of falling into hidden crevasses. In addition to the Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Visitors adopted by IAATO, all visitors should be aware of the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora. This annex to the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 addresses the protection of the environment and conservation of wildlife. Citizens of any government that has ratified the Antarctic Treaty are legally bound by the following guidelines of conduct in the region south of Latitude 60° South: Conservation of Wildlife Animals and plants native to Antarctica are protected under the following five instruments outlined in the Agreed Measures: 1. Protection of Native Fauna Within the Treaty Area it is prohibited to kill, wound, capture or molest any native mammal or bird, or any attempt at such an act, except in accordance with a permit. 2. Harmful Interference Appropriate efforts will be taken to ensure that harmful interference is minimized in order that normal living conditions of any native mammal or bird are protected. Harmful interference includes any disturbance of bird and seal colonies during the breeding period by persistent attention from persons on foot.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic 3. Specially Protected Species Special protection is accorded to Fur and Ross Seals. 4. Specially Protected Areas (SPAs) Areas of outstanding scientific interest are preserved in order to protect their unique natural ecological system. Entry to these areas is allowed by permit only. 5. Introduction of Non-Indigenous Species, Parasites and Diseases No species of animal or plant not indigenous to the Antarctic Treaty Area may be brought into the Area, except in accordance with a permit. All reasonable precautions have to be taken to prevent the accidental introduction of parasites and diseases into the Treaty Area. Additionally, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits U.S. citizens from taking or importing marine mammals, or parts of marine mammals, into the U.S. Both accidental or deliberate disturbance of seals or whales may constitute harassment under the Act. Further, the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (U.S. Public Law 95–541) was adopted by the United States Congress to protect and preserve the ecosystem, flora and fauna of the continent, and to implement the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora. The Act sets forth regulations which are legally binding for U.S. citizens and residents visiting Antarctica. Briefly, the Act provides the following: In Antarctica the Act makes it unlawful, unless authorized by regulation or permit issued under this Act, to take native animals or birds, to collect any special native plant, to introduce species, to enter certain special areas (SPAs), or to discharge or dispose of any pollutants. To ''take'' means to remove, harass, molest, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, restrain, or tag any native mammal or native bird, or to attempt to engage in such conduct. Under the Act, violations are subject to civil penalties, including a fine of up to $10,000 and one year imprisonment for each violation. The complete text of the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 can be found in the ship's library. Our ship's staff will make certain that the Antarctic Conservation Act and the above guidelines are adhered to.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic By encouraging your fellow expeditioners to follow your environmentally-conscious efforts you will help us to ensure that Antarctica will remain pristine for the enjoyment of future generations. Thank you in advance for your cooperation.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Tour Operators Thoroughly read the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (U.S. Public Law 95-541), abide by the regulations set forth in the Act, and brief your staff accordingly. Comparable legislation for non-U.S. countries should be adhered to accordingly. Be mindful of your own actions and present the best example possible to the passengers. Be aware that under the Act, it is prohibited to enter Specially Protected Areas (SPAs) and Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) unless permits have been obtained in advance. Only those with "compelling scientific purpose" are allowed permits to enter SPAs, as any entry could "jeopardize the natural ecological system existing in such an area." SSSIs are ''sites where scientific investigations are being conducted or are planned and there is a demonstrable risk of interference which would jeopardize these investigations.'' Permits to enter SSSIs are only granted if the "proposed entry is consistent with the management plan" for that particular site. Enforce IAATO Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Visitors in a consistent manner. Please keep in mind, however, that guidelines must be adapted to individual circumstances. For example, fur seals with pups may be more aggressive than without pups, and therefore passengers need to stay farther away; gentoo penguins are more sensitive to human presence than chinstraps; penguins on eggs or with small chicks are more easily disturbed than molting chicks. Hire a professional team, including qualified, well-trained and experienced expedition leaders, cruise directors, officers, and crew. Place an emphasis on lecturers and naturalists who will not only talk about the wildlife, history and geology, but also guide passengers when ashore. It is recommended that at least 75% of the staff have previous Antarctic experience.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Hire Zodiac drivers who are familiar with driving Zodiacs in polar regions. Zodiac drivers should take care not to approach too close to icebergs or other floating ice, or glaciers where calving is a possibility, or to steep cliffs where snow or ice may suddenly slip down into the sea. They should also use caution not to disturb wildlife, which can be very sensitive to engine noise. Educate and brief the crew on the IAATO Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Visitors, the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978, and make sure they are consistently enforced. We encourage tour operators to give slide illustrated talks to the crew and offer guided tours ashore, in order to stimulate the crew's interest in Antarctica and to make sure that they also understand the need for the environmental protection of the region. Unsupervised crew should not be ashore. Have a proper staff-to-passenger ratio. Ensure that for every 20 to 25 passengers there is 1 qualified naturalist/lecturer guide to conduct and supervise small groups ashore. Limit the number of passengers ashore to 100 at any one place at any one time. Brief all passengers thoroughly on the IAATO Guidelines of Conduct for Antarctica Visitors, the Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 and the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978. It is imperative that passengers and crew be briefed about the Acts and Agreed Measures, as well as the specifics about the landing sites, prior to going ashore. Make certain that passengers understand both the ethical and legal responsibilities outlined in these documents. When approaching whales or seals by ship or by Zodiac, the ship's officer on the bridge, or the Zodiac driver, should use good judgement to avoid distressing them. Communicate your voyage itinerary to the other passenger vessels in order to avoid over-visitation of any site. Give proper notice to all research stations: 72 hours advance notice and a 24-hour advance reconfirmation of the ship's estimated time of arrival at all Antarctic research stations.

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Science and Stewardship in the Antarctic Respect the number of visits which have been allocated by different stations, for example Palmer and Faraday, as agreed with the NSF and BAS, respectively. Comply with the requests of the station commander—for example, the commander at Arctowski requests that visits only be made in the afternoon. Respect the work the scientists are conducting—do not disturb those working while visiting the stations. It is the responsibility of the tour operator to ensure that no evidence of our visits remains behind. This includes garbage (of any kind), marine pollution, vandalism, etc. Litter must never be left ashore. Follow Annex 5 of the Marpol Agreement. Retain all plastic for proper disposal on the mainland. Wood products, glass and metal must be compacted and disposed of well away from land or returned to the mainland. Ensure that incinerators, if used, are functioning properly. Refrain from dumping bilges or treated sewage within 12 nautical miles of land or ice shelves, or in the vicinity of research stations where scientific research is taking place. This might inadvertently affect the results of scientific investigations, and could potentially harm the wildlife. Respect historic huts, scientific markers and monitoring devices.