January 1, 1993, when a bill unrelated to the NVICP but containing language that would have extended the tax was vetoed by President Bush. The trust fund into which the excise taxes were paid had a balance of about $620 million at the beginning of 1993.

It is too early to assess the program's impact on future cases of liability against individual manufacturers, and it is not entirely clear that the compensation program is having the desired impact on the number of vaccine manufacturers in the business (see Appendix B). Despite the apparent drop in vaccine-related lawsuits and despite the increased activity in vaccine-related R&D (see Chapter 4), none of the companies that dropped out of vaccine manufacturing in the United States in the 1970s and 1980s have returned. However, as noted in Chapter 4, foreign companies, many of whom have traditionally shied away from the U.S. vaccine market, appear to be readying themselves to enter the U.S. market, either by applying for FDA licenses for their products or by entering into alliances with other companies and entities that currently hold U.S. product licenses.


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