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^ ': ~ a: tar ~yzing the ~la~onship olden economic i~dic~rs Id mod . . Am. . . Ads in a: p~c-u fir selling. Comic tuitions Ibis a Anions First., Cabal ~ Me dominate sounds of Scot Second, bongo ~uclu~ion$ {a#~cts~etypes!pdl~velsqfTesou~es OCR for page 24
c~ ~ as ~- - politico abode. including cages in policy as well its polio labial. ~ Tbes gamer may instance Me avai.libilit,~!of resources inlays: by ~it! excel on cavity ~, lion ad economic go; ad by Obey ally direct find edict action aid We Vision of Sg~e~e~l~ selves alley tall di~ul:ion of Souses, Domestic Clitics ~ may bevies pl~ayed~a =~lili(~ly amino ale Clan each nomic vad~ation~ In Me Eu~~es~of lbe past buff they bevy ~on~ld~b~ s~b- s~l~, lo econ~o~i~c cabs into Scubas Cam ~(see~Ch;~er S2)i. Tbe~ ibid soloed of Rio, B~tu~on~s in He sordid ~ec~on~om~ also bus bed mom eat In co~empo~y developing Lie ah!= in t~is~c!~ ~ - ~ pop~ladon~s. The pats of ~expo~ed ~=d~!~-i~po~d~ goods 1be availab:~l-i~ of Malign. aids, panda -~e 893i~I~il!i~lyS woof cedi1 ~1 above played i~ormn~t Pleas in ~e~in~ing economic~!~dc~Alids~s in~s$bb>~S!~!~A~!see Chafer 2~. ~ Cosine ~# !.: lbc a ~ ~ ~ ~ `^ v as ~ ~^ it, ~ _ . ^ ~= ~ ~ _ ~ . stage! Or ED breve His ~l~i~nship~ is! Evened: #~l~i~l~i:l:y of gad mill Ductile less dic~d~by the Cain ~ p~ic0~l~ ye= ~ cause~inz~periods~ of Shore there ~il~l ~ ~ Fillip Coda doing off e~xi~sl- i!~3'~ Sacks of grains Alas to ~impo~ Gail Lam oars Ions. TV ~!po~ss~i~bililies~ ~, tidal also ~uence~e slays ~uct~abon~s alley the dis~bution~ isle soars Ian a ~00U!~^ in a downy ~i~.~bo~ ~ricul~ m.~luhng sectors, A Regive agh~ub~l~ sbock~ not only sou~es~wed0~s~t~1~0 S8Cl~. TV ~ !~di~!~oD Of s ~S ~ Fact stipends! on ED goods responds ~ He $bock. Alibou~b~ Deb ~ ~dc~l~ bo~u~bol~d p{Oduce$. am, it may ~ecei~ve~ ala Boar aunt of~!~m~u#1~:ed~ good ~. . each u~nit~of~tbe~cuit~ls goods idly dogs DOOM. . ~ However if abed is He bails! over regions ~ a O!xed Crates Of Echo between ~d ig~csu~1~1:~^ and mud goodly the second Eva ~il~1~ absent add only ~a~dcul- 61 ho~sSbol~d.s gill abbe avers resoles. Tb!is eagle illumes grower poise Foul He ~sthhution~ Of ~sou~e~s: Sb~ks gilt by doe sector geser~ly inGu~ence~ over sects. Thus' a rise ~:~ in~ioni1 prices A ogre sector of 1ho economy, say pe~ol~eum, Cal ~s~ 1- ink i.nc=~$ed purob.asing power ~ bousebolds Boise Memos work sects lad into increased dead far boa do~$dc and

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^2 to ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ^d, Saab as consl~clion slices. mill ate into bight laces or groat in loose sectors {or eta. ad thus ~i~l1 bone bous~e~l~ds Sian Most _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ A_ _ beveling esi~ec ~d~i~c~11y or Idly am the ~v~bles~price movement may Me an east of Weir pu~b~i~ng power as Me aces of Obese nod goods doe. A Precise desscri~pl!ion~ Of He m~itudb and Dicta off these spillover e~c1$ is beyond Elba Asia of this pow., Act Me implication. Ma shocks am Sol likely to 2~ coned to one sector ~ the economy is of ce~1 impotence. Gsove=ment policy gl$o Finances dis~bu110na1 exacts ~ A$ Cab. 2 stoles, abed gourmets ~mpl got ~i~sulate ~mbSli~c Adduced fiend ~con- sume~-~m Ins O~c$ualio~ns~ by c^~l~l~ling~-du~cse~ pacers of exported commodities, govern~en~1 =~venues will van as tooled prices ~c~ luale mad Very Ill Van l~f~i~po~ duties ace an import solace of gov- e~mmenl~ avenue gad ~ut~1~1!idos in goad pages act domestic demand Bar finesse ibid Goods. . . . The chat of Bliss version in govse~ment Eva e_ on ~ ~es~c ~ ~>~s~ age m so~=es. if revenues me cb~nel~ed dig inflow pa~ic~ul~s~c~to~. of the economy leas dense sewers ~ Me ~< belies of able pace movome~1s served if My ~ ~not~$b~ ones mutually producing or consuming 1be traded commodity Finally, distributional enacts vary Bile 1be~pe~s~l~veness~ano the pea si~stence ofibe shock Add faith the ib~ili~ly~of~i~hbivi~dualslos~nsfosrr~s~ources ~ single crop f~.l~ure~in~a particular yc~r~for an individual tamer bus only ~ limited e~1~p~ ibis ~rbsou~es in 1bat ye= if be grass asps and limo. c~ Isle rescues am comer glue Odor comber tilde Pub ~b ~^ ^ ~ ma $eclor~(s~,~bagk~ logs for gov~me~l-~oosso~d c:- ice) or the informal ~soclOr (say lows oats Ham gaily tends. Jibe m~edi~um-1e~ effects of eEc~onOmiC~sbock.s on~bousebOld resources depend on Elba Willie of indi~vi~du~s to shift aged moms activities ~tb~1 may hover become less able towed molts peace obese. ~~in; ~ $~u~s1~1~hed declines ~1~ me pace for t!i$ m Lapse a bear may swig ~ ~o~~ ASCENDS. ~~e~m~D1 ~ Sell tab CONE ~ the blat moat Off Etch , . .. . . ^ . .. . occll.no acts as ~ ~su1!I ol~govemmenc pocky or give up Awing ogler He -~lib~i~lily of Eve Ivies is sensitive lo my: types of claps Id gown (for example, cape Aid ~ long gig cycle admit less [exi~l~ily ma Pose gag in ~ single yeast; 1be~diversi~y of the economy babe say, jobs Ball available in ma~u~ctu~ri~ng); ad ~S~C1:S of government policy. Tbus, Me ~medium^ru~n ens of shocks 0~n bousebold Sources may van subs~l~1ial~l~y Cam country 10 C0un1~. Beyond Cycling He overall level of ~sou~ses available lo pa~icul~ bouse~lds, economic Ouclualions a~:c1 1~ types of ~ms~rces available

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l~lytbroupbtbe~l~re,>:cton ~e~rel!al~ive prices oidiftre~n1~oodstba1 27 Of~p~ic~uls~impo~nc~e far our study c~b~gesin the costs~otrais-ing chi~l~dren~i~ncl~uding botb~di~ctand opposed nitty costs. Tbeso costs may~chanJe as ~ res~u~l1!~0f market response, for eat ~ ple~.a dsein tbe~pri~ce of~food.fbllo~idg aEctop~sbo~ge; bo~eve~in counties dim a~s~ong gsosve~n~menl~s~ector. changes in~bbil$b, education, Id ~ scab costs. Cobs in gov~mm~ent e~xpe~dituress may stem ~- cb~$ in ovemment pities or in ~!l!~ven~uts, Tab of which may, in gum., gem -m cabs in domestic for inle=~$i~oc~ conditions. EFFECTS OF CH43~G~S~O#SE,OLD~pES~OU~E~S O\~D(~O~G~PHIt E:VE\1S Tt~eoletk~] baggy ~ ~ }an ~ ~^ ~ ~ ~ Abe ~ ~ >- ~ee~a~econ~o~i~c~l~ulg~~s~Ed~mograp~lc~!~sl~$~e ~1mu- si=~!mep1~itinc~se~sin~1.~ge~s ~ste~inc~ses~in m~ia~or ~i~lily~~euni~< (ascent been ~ bibbed ~ En varietio~s~do nol~ne~ces.sori~ly~re$pond~to ~Etbe~ss~s~e aspects of ~sou~:e~ivai~l^ abil~i~.~ PoreXa~pl~e')4818~19~85,~19~ OCR for page 24
go ~: enacts on agility and he accuse of 1~ city ~ 1be~!~1~ion- ~hi~ Abet lingo economic cb~e and these event in he long an. . ~ a c1~= consensus about he mec~b~isms u~erly~in~ he long relax dons~bip heed echoic cyanide Id ~i~lity. but ibe ceases of so Violin in moose ad agility has a~ He'll unversed. The magma ale may be ~pos~ilively~co~ela~d Id resole availability eider because of ~ explicit costs ~s^~i~d aim ~ process of gage {e.g., payment of ~ide~eal~) ~ because of ~ perceived need ~ ascetic l~vei of ~n;~- cie1 Decay beige maize. Par Chili? dud ~dods!of sc~i~ly the dominant ages a~ likely ~ ~ conscious clamps ~ limit ~i~lity~ in con.l,~epling p~ulation$. delayed begin;, and tan each of m:igra1ion he flee of n~,t~i-tign~1 $ chatty bat received subs~ntli1 ~B~O~i Tut! except dudes pounds of extreme scan city, 1be evidence ~t sucb an earl is aged (meson et at., 1.981). \ 1bou~ economic Meow Musing On Me [me=cosl of chilsd~n suggests a ss~ible negative Sip between gages add Till ill ~e~sbo~^~n {Butz ad ha. 1979) Be eve is cola conclusive s(~b~ 1992). To 1bescase~s ot bold mo~:isty =0 ~l!e-~lllly, a Stone Sol mace between ibex 1m~ed1~ Ed cu!muJa1~i~ve emcee of an economics sbock~. gods east inc~o=~ be~1e!~ge~e~i~ly ill the Ok Of de suggest abut Sods of bigger Can Sage mat mill ~ Allowed by periods Floe labs avenges mod if He inside blab Gaily leads ~ ala ~d~isp~po~ona number of decals Gong He Filet member ~ He Upon.. Rev ~_~ gala leek potion of he popul~al:ion, En bib tab merge ~mo~ily ma Raise ink Elba Lear period. In he Encase He c~d)~ative eggs of a . , given sb~k Would jibe smeller ~ sued by ~ sbo~!=n. ^~1~< as in Be 1~1~ it would exceed ales immediate excel Upon at a., 1~98~. ~ Set gent oo$enti~ilv Flies. in abet cog of med. ~Ui~.~ he he of Lila is complicated, boveve~ by -~ inle~~of gess~io!n and by the connection that Tsar arm the ~~llon an !~!~as~edmg good ~a~ ~ it! ~1< Arty Aid 3!~=0 ails _ ~= Id togae to ~ gamin lid Ben give cation is not practiced. ~ fain I! Acc~iet~s hi!+ loot levelly ~of~scobl~ective use I! and ~o- Lund b~as~odi~ng~ the c~m~u~l~ive egg of !3 given! ;~0~ in ~111~y can ~ ~!consi~de~=bly smalls ~= he immediate Act. Moreover ~a driven vad~al~i~ in Age ~ilab!iJi~ may blase din- e~cts on deli ~b~vi~ and processes ~ economic development proceeds. For example, dad i~mpl~nla1:ion an He 1980s~ of puma Beat cog Eagles m!igb1 ~ executed ~ blase Send 1be lain See echoic conditions and. Bald ~mor~li~, Betas he ~nc=~=d av~l~il~i~ modem con~=eplive methods migb1 bee s~ng~enesd 1be link Awed svelte beads gal ~ ~ ~. ~1# 1 ~

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~ ~ ~ - =~sou~e~s may also Educe ~ chance ~ even sizable economic reversals will ~sb11 ill ~ incised risk ~ deem.. ~ And if con~epbves am =~l~le Ed cul1~1~y able economic ~F~essi~~ may not moan a Multi in He maids an, because of Be possibility of I mailbox able e~t~ion of said c~bild~=ing. SO V^RlAT10~ 1\ ~El\~ST8lAL ERROR Curb of the Ii~ con Be relabon of Damon Ions ~ veal ~_s~ acmes on He Eva of -~ paces ~ ~ind~ Eur~L=, l9Bl;~G~l~o~ay, 198~8~. proms is that I've the druidic ~ coming Ems fin lolls selves, me ague ~ . ~ ~ Tic Is is a Ad. Sum of Vernon gain ~ Bases ~ ~e~- are of resole ~ail~ility. ~ big jests dogs not spay dismay bousebold~s to He net p~uce~ of a c~modi~ (~a non~~!ligible Ration of p~i OCR for page 24
Ha =~ ~E~ ~ S~~ /~7^ includes Neil, poslneo~na$~. c~b~ild. and adult ~moftality spa by cruise pa~icul~ly ~ischem~c abeam disease. Whomever Boone Is analyse~s~bs~ve been c~hti~cized on Me grounds of an Topic 1~ Sure {~c~#in~bEey Ad gS~1~ 1987~. ~ ~ ~ Without doubt Lay Sponged ~ He GO Dep~$sio~h =~d bps Icons t~inued since 1O ~ Scaled by economic conditions (Esslerl:i~$ 1963~. He lows in ~i1~ily experienced in fibs 1930s in ~g no~-d~yeloped porkpies C'. He experience of ~tbe Dsutcb Hunger gainer ~(19~1~94~5)~ is also ~1 s even Afar a blockade was Unimposed on ~ paw of He Dumb popul~ti~.+ ~1[iEliOn81 ~S~$ delerioraled, aid red~ucti~~s dial Slimy Ad :inc~ase~s~E~i~n Polity Aeon also observed Step elf a1.. 1975). He Sly obvious ~i!tn~is~ =~d sexed ad tb~e Hod of SC=C~19 Mae dial possible ~ ~tdbuslS~ at a. ~ ~ Evidence of economi~c-demogr~b~c ~l~ion~sb~.pEs in develops could tress is mum Beaked ill peat because Able s$~is~lical in~sl~=cture is m~u~cb less we'll developed. Direct evidence of He enacts of the Gored Dep~ssio~d on demographic con~did~ons in 1be d~e~veloDi~s tooled is scarce. but! indigo evidence suggest lingoes. HiI1 ( I 99 ~1 ) at!~y~ze$ Abbe dislributi~onis ~ ^~ ~ 34 developing counties with al Please three Causes Her Hold Mar a, and detects a saline each of tbe 193~0s sign Cal 1be cohorts s~i.vin~ Cam the Food ~ smaller tab those surviving Mom Be immediately p~c~ OCR for page 24
:c~ ~ ~ ~- pace Lab 1b~e:increase~i~p 1b~ page of~dce;tb~o sbo,- 4~4~lo~n~-run elas~t~ic~i- t~i~es, e$limalod adobe mean pddg office Here O.li and 0.23, respectively. By fitting a modellbat~i~nco~driled quadratic arms Ray~lion also found evidence of nonlinear eD~cl~s~. _ ce,tbe subs- ~nd~long~rus elas~li~ci1~ies gene 0~50 and 0.~8~1.,respec~dvel~ Ho also Id fha1~12 pe~sce~nloftbc movably v~adalionin moiety ov~erthe four years sung ending the Urine could be explained In 1be~p~ce data. Razzaq~ue and bait colle~agues~s(19~90~ulcd~. Ho~ever,.thc~se~stadle~s~ee~J~i~m~i~d tO coubthe$~itb~gcod vi~t~st~isdc~ssy~s~tems>~wbibb leave {1~ib~Lidn A m< OCR for page 24
tic =~= ~ S~ ~ THE RELEVANCE FOR 4~F81(A OF RESECTS FROM OTHER Si3LDlES ^ ^ p~ponden~nceofevi~dence~s~uppo~inga~=l~tionship between econa~ica~ddemop~hi~v~i~some~ladonsb~s~likely merge fb~sub-Sibaran Africa. None~eless,lbis region and otbe~ tbatb~ve began ~ . ~ . . Bugled ul~er~l~n~mpo~ant Ways. tion. A~ldbough~lbe~sbock~s1n a~h~c~ul~lur~1 ou~t~tba1~domin~ated ~uc~= I Resin peindusti~1 Europe ~ likely tosbe s!i~n~i~cantin ~d agd~cul~lural~i~on.s of A~ic~,lb~iLc~easesi~!tbeimpo~ance~ofi~ actions lade and~capi~tal~CO~s~co~up~led Aide He s~u~bst~nti~ tootle off He pub~licsecto~ b~s~dim~!~is~bed Ash ~IadVe~impo~nce~of Bit typedishock. Obese other Pesos auc1ual~ion~s may be aslarge~as~,orlargertban, Dose at. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . P ~ ~ ~ comp~lcaS~l~on~s. F!~rs$~no single,easily collected a~asureadeq-uz~l~y Selects He expel ofv~dal~ionforAfi.catbe ~aytbalgTain priced B~p~i~dus~ial~Europe. A~l~ough agg~g~.measu~s ofeconomic activity such as ~ gross anon tiff product could.in odncinle. mectibis need, choir accuracy is magi su~s.~otsho~-~nn V~8liOB in economic conditions in couriers ~-1~ 1~< infb~n~ or su~bsis~nce sec!lo~ is suspect. Diect Census of em sbock.s such ~: loose in World priers or banns of Ride ~ Ada easily measured, bat Hey captu=~onl~y one cog portent of He version in Scot Bosnia con!ditions,~nd~so gem ad~sesap~bblem o~fom~i~t~d~v~dible!bi~asi~n any Isis of ~c reiladons~b~ bellmen d~n~nd d~mog~phic~es. Fast n~l~y,tbepedo~cityotpolilic~al~ly Add !i!~1ers~ign~1y~ dd~ve~sbocks~ as likely to~besub~liallylson~gertb~n~tb~ ofsbocks~divenLy Abe; ~si~dent:i-- . ., ^~ . ~ . . . , ~ . Ulna me erect al economic shocks over ~1~=lv~eiy $00~ TO ~oTl~zo~s . ~ i= Besides ~e!d~l~tencbs~-in No origin of~conomic sb~ocks,lbeir~e~cls on household So av~libilily in A~ca~day ~sol~i~k~lylo diner ham Hose in T~e~1ndus~d~al~Europe Di~ren~ce~sin ~ ability ~ Or compile Oo~s~tbe opportunity fbrunde~iking~ne~ ictivibe~si~ As selo cb~nging~conditions~,and ~e~rolepl~ayed by J~ government sec~ralliBtc both ~ magni~de~nd the dis~i~bul:~n of He elf ~ In s~bock on bo~us~bbld Trounce availability ltis d!~.ficul.~lo assess ~ei~plicallons of bis v~de~g~ed pigeon for an.an~vsis oflhe demo hi ejects ofeco~ . .. . _ ^ 1C Cons Cause many ells Me omening. panning services He of Me effects of economic sbock~s or Split 1bem, sp=~dotgove~nme~tbe~ and~un~ily Fad ex~ple,lbe may eilberda ~ en depending on bog defined. Aninc~ascin made deceases

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cabs In ~ ~- the each of medic =`i~nmenl~ shocks on resource ~v~lib~ility but incenses exposure to ~uctualions in ine~ion61 conditions. S~b-S~ar~n Attica and p~i~ndus~ial E=- seem to ~ moist coma role in Me relalio~nship Been reroute av~libil~i~ty and Amoebic ~- b~viors. ^l~o!ugb, as Tuned Eve, ~idesp~-ad ~ai~l~i~li~ of pdm~ belle can Ed co3~ceptiy~os could! Id ~l~