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1980$ was a dame of economic s~gna~tion off revered ~r much of s~-S~= Ages. For tbe~=gion Sable, (O~P) far Lima Lined between 19~8sO ^^, are ale ~Age. ^ gooses noons p~d~c1 mat ~d ~ be In's lo~income counties (par crib GASP less men $~ in 1987), ~11 ~ ~ Snug tale of ~3~.6 pe~ent~ build Bank, 1939b~. Economic ~=c~ in ohm Dan of be developing Body over be she pedod~ gas mixed: 6, chits ~1 Loss ~n~on~ Induct gear at an Nub ~ of 4.0 perenl ~: ~1 lo~^inco~ couriers, bd$ ~cl:i~ped it ~ ~- - ~ 1.~1 Docent Clan Cain Id laddie a~ cud. bows ex~pl~ations brave Input Or He pow ace discussed! in me derail in Cube 2, ~ner~Iy inch ale or ~!0~ of Mesa aunts: one, reverser lands debug He 19~80~s in Abed ~comm~ily prices, ~b~b~resduced em - Seventh ~ndretumsbo producers; 1~0, excess sivel~e~vels of mainly public)deblo~ed ~ofbreign b~sk~sand goven~nenls, Blob wonted the Sterna sever limb bigh foliage ex~bange outlays; db~e.exces~siv~e~@overnment~i~t~d~ncei~:nibe ecso~nom ~ tbrou~b botb slate mo~Dopol~i~es and other regulation. Some~have also Glued tab poor pe ~ nuance bos been e~xaceDboled by media policies,oh~n Chad $~UC~ tural a~us~lme~nt prOg~un$. the Ben imposed by o~g~niz~ion$sucb as tbelnern~ional)Tone1~ry Fund and he avoid Balk and ~1are~i.n~nded lo elimi~na~ inethcie~nciesin~th~e economy. Astbe magnitude oftbe recession ~ developing counties beeline eve dentin He eddy 1980~s.:in$1ilulions and individuals raised concerns about

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d 1be enacts on vulnerable groups. Eat ~~ ~ S# P~iculatly ~i~n~uc~ntial was a volume publ~isbed in ~1984 under 1be auspices of Abe [ni1od ~ati~ons 1~1e~mationa Cbildren s Emergency Puked, 74~ gaff ~ ^~ ~ ~ CAf/~ (J~olIy and Gloria. 1984~. Me unde~tlying~ argument of this volume Was am able Cessions ad es~pec~i~ly Me a~ustme~n1 policies Induced in Me name of sound economic managemp~, Ply Scatted He ~1~ of ~ young. l\vo s~ubsequ~e~1 volumes dfe~ss~ays and country case studies(com~ia e1~1., 1~. 1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m~igb1 Bane ad l~ncl~udod pelimin~ evidence tba1 -~ustme~1 policies bad Aeon associated Big increases its ingot and child mollify bitt some off counts studied. Links ~t~ee~nlbeesconomica~ddemo~gr~bicp~ar~metersofa ~ u~Ia- liOC ~ is~tuid~vel~yplau~sible ln~ecaseofmo~i1~tb~eassoci~10nseems clean On ~ cros~s-~ssec~tional basis, b~igb~i~come countries have locater mo-- ~ily, ~batever~indicalor is chosen. than Lois come countries. Similarly. ~ m alongiludinilperspective, ins in lift expccl~cy and f~l~lsin child Polity brave in genera Scamp Died gains in ~rc~itaincome. filmy, the c~oss~seclion~ and ~longitudinai relationships suggest Bat i~n- co~ goings He ~soci~d Bib logger ~il~il~ Comb He sborl-le~ ~ spob~se~issprobably1beSs~si~. The trim csomponen1 ~ pop~lali~on change, million, figs Moore collier. 11~!s~gen~er~ly~seen ~s~driven partly by gal gage diCtrenti~ls begged origins Bald de~s11~nsalionsE>bu1 also byline costs of m~i~gr~1ion,~so 1b~ a supposing pos~i~1ive~relati~0~sbip Ida economic condi: i~nsidibe:~plsoo 0f~!r:igin emerges. Steps ~bave been made lo folio ups o~ Bee p~e~l~im.:inory~! OPTICS sding~s in ~con~mpo=~ dealing cougar stags =~d ~ tests rigorously Be ~b~ypo~esi~s~ Bale epic verbals bare dem~og~bic ens. Base Cop leer 3 ~sc~dbes fain great dial. Bare is a body Of knowledge on Ace ~1~ 1ions~bips between economics conditions ad demote pales pen l~icularly in bis~ri~c~1 populism ~ Cove despite tb~e clear ass~i~ion$ between long~te~n econom~c~=d dem~o~gn~pb~:ic~cb~anges, es~bl~i~s~bi~ng ally cau~s~1~rel~i~on~sb~ipsbe~l~een~tbem has been ex~lremel~y~difi~c~l~p~ily be- cau~s~oflbe COmDl~eix-~lY of Me n~oce~sse~s~i~v~ved~a~d parlay bec~ause~ofibe imposs:ibil!~ of~se11~i~g up age expe~e~1~:1esls. ~Sbo~$o~n ral~i~on~sb~ip~s bevy pnovon~m~ore1~ac1ible ~E`~s~ivc =al~y $~is of tim~e~series~sd~ ~r Pius Rape ~~veal.s pe~si~s~te~nl and plau sibl.e dom~og~r~b~ic :~sponses to economic conditions Ed limited swoon in 1be contemporary developing World s~gGes1!s~s~imilarli^~s. Hoer astbe discussion~i~n Cb~pler 3 sbo~$, ~ ~ systematic studies 0ftbc enacts of ~e ~198sOs~=cession bare been candied out, except Olin America. As ~ result, 1be Corm mitl!ee on Popul~i~on'$ Panel on Popula1:ion Dynamics of Sub-Sibaran Afdca decided 10 undertake ~ m ~ori~nitia~liveintbis~area as Ha. ~ ~ ~ o

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literslu~ and to utilize excising ads SC1S 10 employ links be~l~ee~>domo- g~pb~icou~1c0~mes~ndavad~ety o~feconomicindi~c~o~tbatcaoturedi~ren~1 dimensions of ~e ~:ce~ssi-. Ibe underlying sl~legy n~ Theses lo use ~co- s~1iveevenlbisto~ d~easasubsti~ ~rv~i=1~1s~aliond~ ~sp~- v~idean~nu~ se~hesof~risksofJemog~bic events 1bat can be flamed to =nual$odesof~onomiomeasu~swi~sui~bTelags. Tbe~usisno st~clur~a~us~ne~1~rse,b~utonge~ileconomiccondilions~ . A~view ofoconomi~c and demographic cb~nEgoin~su~b^Sab~n Africa s p~se~n~di~n Cb~pter 2 The sources of economic data~tbeirlimi~ions, and deOnidons ofibe economic v~dabl~es usedin the study can be fbundin Appendix A. A discussion of the concep$u~ ~ ~ monk is plosen~d in C~bap~r S Adobe methodology in CbaplOr4 The demographic data tab He use co ~ Tom He Demographic and Sealab Survey (~S)~P~og, ~ . ~ation~1y representative surveys undoer th{< no have hang Lied out an! ~ dozen c~ou~ntde$ of sub-Sibar~n in~fbnnalion col ~ __ A~i~ca. Tab surveys fb}.lo~ a standardized fb~nat, Aim located Mom all Compel concerning dale of SO m~ip~e,and does otbi~b ~nd~if~lev~l.age alde~lb,ofallchil~d=n everborn alive. TO nag of the d.~al~i~mits He demograpbic ou~omestbalc~n be studied. ~\oinfbnna- tion~is available on to m~o~ity ofadu~lls,so me only eat ~ ins child mom amity Asks. However such Asks brave been the focus of many ofibe cone corns raised about economic crisis. The surveys do not include completer mandage b~is~ries,~necordine only date of Brat mandate. so redcap only study age maniage roes. second births, because dbe numDe~ OI ODDS OCC1~1CC rap~lO1y AS Olden O[~[ rises' Id Cause of He Even condilionality consents applied ~ bigger order bias (6 example, only a Roman Ago Away bus bad exactly two bias can abase a thirds. Ho~e~ve~ in He absence of Ides con~cep- dve use, family Ion Ed initiation of chil~in~ me ~i~mpo~an~1 deeds mingles of overall 1~11~ Ed ~pu~l~ion gawk. ~Besc~se m.ig~lion big Ages ~ not av~11ible ~ the D8S, me carom soda He link beech ~ , ~ EVE also limit analysis of fitly lo burst and ^ . . ^ ^ ec~ono~mc varl~lon ano mlgra~:lon~ns~ A discussion of He BUS and the quality of data can be foundin Appendix B. \~ hoe me =~yzed ~1 the aisle sues ~r sub-S^=an A~ca. Rather he bove Lied to include ill our analysis couches ~1 ~p~sen dirt Ems of economic ex~ri~enct Botswana, Gb~a, Kenya, Id, Senegal, ~go, and Uganda. ~ caboose these canes not Accuse ~tbeir populations arid economic expedences represent a11 of Utica. Rawer, the , . ~, a, aim was lo choose counties tab React 1be dives ot Pecan ex~pedence Sand for ~bicb data ~ m Demonic and Heals Survey Aeon avails able) The coupe are located in Ashen ALica (Kenya and Uganda), soutbe~rn Apical (Botswana), and Western Ahica (Gibing. Ike, Senegal, and Tb~o). The recenloconomi~c and demographic b~lslodes of these coun . ^ . . ^ ~ ~

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^ .~ as ~ In- / likes are brolly described i:n C~b~ter 2.. TO Mulls of Isis ~r each seven coun~ie~s, along ~i1b: i~n-