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As ~ : ~ ~ 4 J\e~l0> : ~ S ~ cadger Resend ~ ^~^ ~e~ economy ~ ~ fly of a _ ~ between the Tao in Abbe seven countries selected for study be It first ou~l!:~nes Me economic dies ill Bed region ~ ~ ~bole, and Men takes up 1b.e economic changes in Abe seven counties. ~, . . . . . beat, it Ivies ate demo ^ g~ph1C~ cadges 1n Boa. me gallon Id He seven conies. ECO`O~lC~ CADGE 1~ SLB~S4~RA~\ ^F,1C~^ psoody ding Be past 1 at years. I. ~ ~# 1~1~ (e Defoe onn!u~ ~ of fib of few gross na~tio~ !p~duc~1 peel fir ~1 subs counties was ~2.8 pacing Cam 19~8~0 to 1~9~87~. gin cloth fist limb Was of 2.9 pedant arm 1965 10 197~3 and of 0.1 pe:rcch1 Ham Hove, A~ co~unldos aged gorse ~= otter developing countries !: tag 1980~s. 6~example, Me avers annoy Me off Tab of =~ grass ~.~adon~ product per claim between ^sl.~ou~b~ meant of Bask Fenced 197!3 ~ lg80S (amid Bank. 19~89b) ad- - _ . a. ~1980 Id 1987 gas 4.0 peel ~r all lo income countries, as c1assi~zesd by Be ~rl.d Bank, in cow Tab ~3 6 percent for a11 lo~-inscome Apical lIn abet Allows, "Arch" arms $ub-Siba=~. ^~i~c~. i^*udin~ all which counties concept Soutb A-a. Namibia. B~y-pl. Libya. Tu~i$ia, Algeria. Ad ~o~c~o. p

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70 ~~ ~~ ~ In counties. Fib some Afican counties, a~erage~s~ndards ofl~iv~g Pierre 1~- 1~. These age S18tiStiCS mask consider ~ e diversity ~ ong Afican cousins. gall Afican countbesibll~o~ed tbe'41ypici1" paltry of blab to~moderale g~os~tbi~n~tbe 19~60$ and~l97~0s ind~dec~lineib tb~l9~80~ss~. One group of counudes~i~ncl~uding B01s~an<~d C roon,conl~i~ued ~ grow n~pi~dlyinlbe 1980s. ^notbbr group,inctudigg~ianda,~Cbad,hnd Angola, experienced lag declises~i~nl~iv~ing~s~ndabis during Me 14~70s, mainly dug to pol~iticalinsubility. Tbeescono~niesofotbe~,such as Benin and Senegal, bove simply been s~gnantovertbe pas~1sev~en] decades. Still' We genera p _ an ~ Afican counties in 1be 1980s:is one of decline. Fu~be~nnore,severalfac~ sand out as ~ 1eastpari~ly respon- si~ble fortbis decline. Ii~t,tbe economies of~mo~s1 A~i~can coun.thes~J~y heavily on capons of pdm~ary commod11ies, Bose prices were typically log dudng the l9SO!s relative- ~ Be 19~s and 1970s {see Gersov~itz Id P~sx~on, 1990~. OFF may African counts, declines in commodity paces produced declines in Me lends of made (Rri~ce$ of expo~s~neled~ve to lbe prices of~i~mpo~s) for many African counthes For ex ~ ple, of We 29 Office counthes for wbi~cb the Ideas Calm soiree on Trade and ~eve~l~opment~repo~s Aces of made, only 3 bad 1enns of~tn~de tab mere bigger in 1982183 tbanin 1974-1979,a~d only lobbed lOnnS of~edelba ~ere~bighertb~n in 1960~197~3 (Ge~ov~i~1z and~P~xson, 1990) These den cIines mean1red~ctionsin exno~e~nings gad pu~cbasing powe~rfora~la~ge group of Africa counties. ^ . . . .. . Seconds lee decline 1~ ~col~modi~ p~ges~provoked a dobl~cdsi!s~for many A~fd~can counties. Obese counties had increased ~eirindebtodse~s$ dodge ~g Typos am dyes. P~diic and puliToIysgu~eed obligate lions far p~ime!~1s ~f~ph~nc~ips~ Acid interest tb~fb~i)~ landed (expert p~ublic~deb1 servicer obl~ig~don$)~ose~om 1.2 pe-menl of ~nos~s~adon~ pr~duct(C~P)-~in 1~97p~10 4.1 percentile 1987; and for eve~yss~b-Sibaran Afdc~ncou~ntry Limb available da~,~debtas s Con of GAP ~asbiBberin 19~57~tb~nin 1980 (Todd Bsank,198~9b).~Tbe~dec~l~ine~is com mod~ily prickers, and 1be ~esul~1in~ los~sinsex~n ea~!~s,~ue11ln~as~n~ly Ol~lC~l~ 1of many Toucan cons lo~mee~tthelr dent service o~bl~lg~onss tab ~epre- ~sentesd an inc~sin~l~v farce sbaro of e~xpo~ Beings ^ ^ ^ ^ _ . . Forename, t~eenl935 _ 19~8,de~bt$erice~=luall~ypaid amounted ~27~p~e~ al Afic~exporte~ing~s<~dsdB~19~89b). Somecounthesceased make i~ngdebtpayments~,amove ~alenabled Demon ~e~irexpo~e~m~i~n~s butb~ampe~d ~emi~nb~ining~ne~w ~=i~g~lending. Pdre~igs aid ~ Ahican coincides ge~ne~dly~i~reased in the l9SOs and may~bave~p~1i~ly oB\etlhe equals ofadverse movem~enlsi~ ex~po~ earns ings fb, Some coun~lri~es Tbla1 official develop me assistance per su~b- Sibar~n A~n persona incised bill 1e~nn$) ~ m $20 to $2i beg

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~~ /~ Act- 0:~ 7 laden 1980 ad 1937 mold Baa, 1989b). However lath me level of ad received ad me size ~ Cases in aid in 1be 198~0s aged Dimly gases conies. Par ex le. me ~po~d level ~ malign aid in 19~80 ~ $0 pa Person in aim, in ~C~1~110 $118 in Bo~lsv~a.. In genera, ad levels Id average living Stanzas bare no cam ~labonship. ~6r ~e~ple<, Issue level of ~velop~1 ~ass~stance ~r Mason was 1~ ~r middle^ income ~= combers gag for ~lo~-i~ome Vatican rowdies Saud Ok, ~l93!9b). F~urtbe~o~, Me cantles ~ e~pedenced Me steepest plainer fig living sands Gina Me 1980s~E~e=~ ~~1 ~=cesseri~l~y Ace coupes ~1 Ceil me boat increases ~i~ Malign assi~s~ce. Par ex~e. n~!i~nal Acid ~v~e~lop~1 as~s~i~s~c~e to ~iged~a Pose lam $0 ~t anon ~ $~1 far person ~t~e~s1~98~0 ad 19~87, baggy enough~to~ omen declines ~ ^ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~!~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ , _ _ _ _ Tripod add Banks 19~89b). Comb _y ~C~!~^S~ clergy sued Isle Janice ~wtb in 1be Laos 1i~1e dime en Was on bovs~tbi$ recession aced the incomes of diadem Cups Of people It bin countries. 6~ back cooing ales ~syst~a~ally collecl~d~a ~ income dis~1ion., ad none bags flair able data on boa the inches of distend Was ~ Steele brave cad over time. Pug, He -~l-c evidence ~S~ggO~SlS ~= He ~cessi~ aced these congest fir Icky vowing guys, depending on 1~ source seventy of He decline, ~ he'll as on the re~spdn~s of India gOv<~ One cam mon failure oftbc~198~0s recession Posits adhere enact on the events of African Gove men. Tbese~govem:men.ls~rely~beav~ily on di~ect~nd.ind1rec1~d~ ages ~ ~eirreyenueS$(sbe O~ov~il~ and P8XSOB, 1990~. Tbis~rolia~ceise~speci~ly grealforcountiestb.~ expo~me~u]~s~a~d For~sexa~pple,~i~n~1983 tbe~Niged~n govennmen!1 OCR for page 9
72 ~C *Ems ~ S~~\ ~;icullu~l exports. In this Age, altb~ou~b Over Venues decline Em exam pages. so do Avenues of pa producers ~~d by ~ si~i.!e Scare. -Over coupes, ~sucb as Cole d'lvoire find Agog, breves soluble to s~bil~ize He pacers tbat Hers Cave far E. pros ~ Mining Reducer Aces tab do got ~uctu~a~ as Pub as goad paces ~du.ction~s in gibe world price of me c~ommod~ly~e,~a~l~l~ Bluely in Cons is go<~e~~menl revengers? lying producers! ~:~hco~s~ re~laliveJ~y $1able~ glees Cerso~vitz and Parson, 1990~- ~A~c~ Is brave respond :~.~h I ways to the Lesion war e~ple, Bean Geiger :~venUes collapsed aria Zoi1 pri~ess~in~e edgy 1!980~s, able ~gove=~men.1~ ~:n~it~1~y do ma~i~lain ~o~ve~~1~e~d:tlu~s ~!roug!b~ddEst~il ~n~=c:~ng.! ~Lalc:r Prompts Is reduce the deck ~i~cl~uded~soc~~s$~-boa~ Spend caulk ~oym~ ~se, ~ public ~ ~ education systems ~ . ~~ doles baleen ~m0~$~ucce~ss~1 at Mainlining Stable livings studies dS~sp~i~c shocks ~ Be eCson~o~.y.~ Tbe~ Botswana Overt ~r example. bus ~s~n~d ~ alias ill di~ond re~S:n~$ by ~buildi~!!~up!~d ^~g dope S~nan~ci~l~ ~se~e!s, tbe~by Hoeing living adds {sees Hill and )4okgb~i.1~9893< Cou~ips~b~ve~di^red as ~el.J~! Sian l~botyfes~ofexpendi~ ~utslbc!y a~empl 10 m~in!1~:~i:n the fice~bidec~J~i:ni~g~,e!vebubs. In ~ study of boa movements ~f~Afdc~a~ find n~o!n~Idc~an developing c~oUn~ldes CU~1 expen~dl~re~s~ Pinkos find Ku~bis~b~(J.9!84)~csonc~lude~tb~l:go!ye~menl~s henna ~lylendlo protect CUT expen~d~itues~mo~ Ban c~p~itilexpenditures.~!and social,~adm~i~!~!s~l~stive,a~sd d>!fa~s~e e~ip~ndi~ldre~s~moretb~n~b!o~se on~!~1n~- s~u~ctu~ onsd other producl:~o~ ~~!~vitie~s. ~ Hoe obey! ~1e colonies Bevy Baldly in Me amount of Preston Rely gin to d~i^~n1 codes of em Dense this dive:rssi~l~ severely cene=1 1rends ~ gin ~ expel d.iO~ Am. b1~$1. a cog m~ some evidence, in Many Toucan counters ~ov~e~mtn1 ex~Dendi~:=s Con belled ~ ded~lined. in the s 1~9~8!0s. lo~-ipco~e amen comes lot ~1Ch~ dabs ~ ~av~i~l~le~ Etch tie of GAP allowed ~ogove~rn~ n:ex!pe~ndsi~lu~son bc~tb~^~lined betted 19~S~O cold 19S7 (~\Vo~rl~d~B~nk,~1989b~.! 1b each o~fibe~six,reali~Jomd perc~ OCR for page 9
.~3 ~3 A I;- ' ~ .~ : ~ g: ~/ ' ',: :^ - i_k ff~. MY - . ~ = -SO .~ :'<~ef~< I: ~ I' Y - * MY' : ^: y ~ " ' X: ' - - : C~ : S~Y .,' ' - : ~ my. my. , - ~ IS A . -. Pi =~ ~ I: '2t ~C> _ 'art ~ Y ~ ~ ~ , at' :~ . ~ 'at. RY :` . t A ~ Ye> Ails Hi' 'em: :~k :~~ If *is, I-< .~ {fief ~-L I, ~ :,'t =.

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duce beg ~-~ . ~ s - ~ ~ , ~ e~- ~s ~ ^~ Is ~ _~, Is C adverse enacts of budget cuts. Second, ~ evidences Cam the ln~ional L^ur O~niz~ion India colas, ~r may African dominoes, 361 ~~es of mode =~d public sector employees decl~i~d during Me 1980s. Pd~bc~m~om, agues appa~nll~y brave become more caressed, Ill We ~051 far those at 1be under end pay scale (see ~de~mo~ele. 1ss97l, ~r ~ samba. ~_ _ ~r ~ ployment~ rates also over tag she ~pedodj In some i.nstanceS<~pIi~s in e~xpo~ paces Loan for metals a~ mine~l#~-~-led ~qvern~6nls ~ = llC~ wages ad employment levelly in ~e 6~! ~ ~en, ^~bx ample. car races declined dudes to 1970s Ada ~? 19~80~s' 1be Z~m~ big govemmenl Educed the ~1 wage paid lo 60>D~ mimics 5~3 DC~e~l~ between 1970 and 19~84 and court Omen in fins He'll (I~- ^ ~ t!iona1 Lsbour O~anizabon, various yenta. may coupes Resided 10 log gove~mcnl avenues by bold annul i~nEc~scs in ~o wages of civ~i~1 secants ~ alloy roles of inn For expel, an 1975 and 1983, gal basic sawing salaries of Gb=aian civil sealants ~11 by 60 10 90 pert ce~n~l,d~pending on tab ape oij~ob(Li~ndauere1 ~.~1988). Tbisske~by e~i!dence~sugge~sts ~blfbo recession of the l980~slo~ered e~living standards of many Africans. = . . . . . . . . . .. . What He do not agog, because Callable dale ~ l=Klng, is nov lea Jecil~n~Os ~m disputed S<~ithi) {oun- Ties: gore tan 70 percent of lee African labor face is employed ifs ~dcullure, ad mom Man 70 peeps of Emit A~con ~pulation~li~ses in ~=ra1 ~as. Di~c1 evince on He lilting shades of terse indi~vid~1s, and hoot living sac deeds cb~nged duri)) the 1960s,is~ OCR for page 9
Kig~eda, Senegal, bond Luanda. id ~73 A~Doend~ix A ~rov~ides~details~on eco~nomicdbua~sourcesand deEnitions.,~s ~ellas~lb~e~1!i~mesori~esused~inibe analysis. As liable 2-1 sbo~s.lbe~se counties have vary dickens per c~p!ita in^ . ~ . comas. In 1980, Ace! jrbBs domb~s~c p~oduc~l~(GpP)pt~r>ipitaid~Bolsw~na (~e dcbeslco~upt~yin ou~samplp) ages 7.8time~sth~ off Uganda(1he pogr- ^ ~ ~1~1~. _ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ac~osstbese coun~ies,as Table 2-1 gad Fixture 2-2~reve~ Synergy expe~- e~ded~ most gro~tb!, Bols~ada~e~ s~ad~il~y,an~d~(}bana~bbgbblo deter rio+ate madkedl~yin1be~rn~id-1970s Kenya, ~igeda,dnd Two followedibb Paulsen tba1 is mom typic of 1be "average>' Aims coun*ry~; they bad moderste$o bigh brow ~tesin~!$b~ 1970s~and negative gro~(bratesinib!e l9&Os. t#pllds _ a sharp deceit he 1 . \Vb~ve~r 1beir dances these seven couhniCs~= simile: to each ~ _~ # ~_~ ~ -, odber(and ld Osaka A~fid~as co~uotie~s)in their h~e~vi~reli~nc~c on ex~po~$ of primary co~m~m~ities Air tbe~ir incomes, <~d in the ~dc~doration in their Aces of lame in Me 19sSO~s. Table ~2-2 does tbe~ impose of pump commodity ex.po~$ 10 Saab of tat severs doonthe$ in 1984, and paged in export queues Id Ike 1~S~ the ~S ~b 1974~31!~0g5 dmb =hod galas :: : dot Ha 19~(~19?S ~ h ~ semen] ~ fx~o)~FLs~ ~ counties gig Me lowes~lEf~on~s of elopers in. O>]P~ l984~, Ghana and [ganda,b~ve~eipede~nced f~irly~drunati~ctad~cl~i~n~si~si!nstheirexpo~ quanli~ ties since fbe 1960-~1973 time period. pops does no~l~pecess~ily~me~n,boSeve~th~tc~bsngesin export conditions have n~olbeenimpo~htde~nnl~n~ants ofebo~So~mic pe ~ nn~nce~. Second,i~n ~1 bu~1sone of1be ~$iX coun~tdes for Hick damson tennis of edeire~vail~shle,ten~sof1~d~dS~rio~a~d bel!~ben~197~4-197~9 and I982- 1965. (And even ~e~eycepti~, Nigerian an oil porter, e~\p~rie~nced a declined ifs Cans of /#de been 1980~1~81 and~l98~2~1985.) Hoed only logo co~un~ie~s--~Sbana and Kenya Aeon tams of bade Arose in 1~1~# 1~1~. ~# _~# 1 evened go levels ~1~ this re~sp~cl, lease sewn cog~ntd~es have nol~all experienced be continuous decline dbal many over African countries have, as discussed endow Anotb~er may of analyzing cbang~s in tbe in~liona1 economic en~vi- ~~nm~e~n~1 of obese seven counties is to 1~ directly ~ the ~1 princess ~ the commodities each eXpOrlS As gable 2-3 $bo~s,eacb relies on ~ fs~ pain Idea that ladies of fibs TOWS of Me (I exam: gu=$it1cs~) in all s7~edo~ ~ ox- pros~d ablative TO avenge Values ~r 19~1973. ^r exudes. me F=t Boa of Table ~2~: indicates abet IS of k~c in Gbana fig 1982-1983 ~ 8~1 went of avcr~c 19~1973 val~uc$.

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ad TABLE 2~1 Real Frosts Domestic Deduct Or Coping as ~ action of 19S OCR for page 9
17 e :- _ - . - e ~ ~ ~' ~ ~: ~ ~ ~It ~ =~-! ~= 1 . . . ~- ~ . ~... _ _ s .~ c a L = . ~ . ~ |~ ~1] : = s ~ ~E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 085T of 8^TTeI8d 9TTdeO Jau dOS I98b - .z .~ e & .. a: c = a a a: e . # o o a:

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~ it . ~ ~=~ ~ s=< .~ i 4_ ~= I- -"c ~:i { $ 2, _: ~ it.= ~e~ =` #at ~ =5e ~ . ~,, ; MAX ~ ~ 'a 2 C,.) ~ ~ it ~2 ', it at >,~ v ~ i ~ ~ ;^ ' .S - ~ ~ '2 '= ~ S,~j - , ~ ~ ~ I- c. 'a ~ =~ 2. =' ~; 4~-- ~ ~ ~-tS 'a ~5 I- ~ So 0~ ~2 ~ t^-Y '2~ ~ I- ~ at' it' ~ ~ 22 ~ ~ At,) _~ '.' ~ ~ 2.~ ~= ~. ;: at< ~ # - I'~ ' ~` ~, {' ~ ~ :~ ~ < - 3, $~( I' :~ #> ~i A. ~4X _- -, .,~4) -d }- =3 ~ ~ ~Sin ~'' $~: ~' : ~me: ~ A,. ~ S., - ~} me. ~ She ~ ; ~i '2 ~ ~ ): ~ _ ~', ~ ,= _ -: ~3c -at} ~ ~ S - ; ~ ' ~.: - s ~=\ ~>~ C ~ 5~.,~ ~' ~r,,s,~ . ~ son, I. ~Sat semi Sat ~ ~. ~be: ~ ~ sea ~ ~ :~C ~ :S~j ~, ~ ,~ ( - d If. >4,= ~-~3 ~ ~ in ~ :S~ ~so ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~as 'i 'i #>. ~ ,-*~ ,~F ~.~ as ~-s#~> ~ ~A-* ~ ~ ; A_. i, ' ; ~ ~= i. - k.~ V : ~= ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ an' := t > ~ At. .= w ~ i3 ~. '=~semi, ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ an, ,,, ,~ ,~, , , ~ 1- a< ~ at, ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~. ~At $ ~, ~i ~ ;3~ ~ ~ OCR for page 9
~~ /# If 0~ UP TABS 2-3 Shams of Commodities fain Co~uh~'s Tow Exports Percents C6~ arid Commonly ~19~1~3 1974~1979 1980*1981 ~1982-~9~ Bologna ~ ' ~-'~ ~31 ~ t~:ic~kol art ~-~2323 lo - ~12 11 ~ - ~ ~ ~ 55 ~37 3 Aluminum 8 ~8 20 74 ~76 ~79 ~ ~ ~- ~ 11 i2 ~11 19 41 ~ ~;# ~ ~ ~> ~ ~ Cam ~1 ~52 92 96 1 ~14 4 ~2 2 #1 ~96 9 ~10 G{~bts ~S? g l? .m~ Deduce 3 9 23 1.9 7 11 21 17 1 63 e 68 Togo 58 ~31 19 13 13 ~ ~11 8 7 Ilium pouch - 4 14 1 92 81 urea Cog 30 ~85 99 92 Cocoa 21 7 1 - 71 42 lea 92 BOW: Only cogs ~ bag Sally connoted ~ egg Bergs during Me Salk Shod are included gibe sum gear ~= 1= is ~ S~TiStiC8] Will, SOURCES: ~r countries omit tam Bogs. ~ age of ibc data its 1~ ~n~1io~ Toothy Fund (~1987): far Burma. me source i$ unp~bli~sh~ ;~mcn1 gumbos, sag plied by Cager ~11~1.

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20 may commodities far Me balk of il. exam Is. Par Botswana, Ghana., Nigeria! ~d. Cgandb, ~ *bag 5~0 po~e~n~t ^~ <~^ Caliphs in ~ 1 9~0s was dedved from ~ single com modity {diamonds. cocoa. Claude petroleum. and choke, respe~clively). Kenya, Senegal. ad Mao bad moan diverse export ~es. However Me all rcli=~ of stash tb=c count on exports of ~1mleum products is misled. Cab imports cads petroleum ad expq~ gained pes~ole-um p~d~uc~ls. ~ovemen~ls in He price of cad pe~oieu~m have little eagle on the Has of Bade or pursing power of ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . Jumble 2-4 p~e~sc~lsaver~e val~ues~of~ealoom modify paces onlbe~odd m~fEel~for ~ set otc~o~n~nodities exposed by the seven counties. Pot stall com Bodies, real ~ ces declined ill the 1980~$ rela11ve to a~erage~197~4~ 1979 values. Four osfibos~e~ven counters Cb~Ke~ya,Tbgo.and Uganda rely beav~ily on exports o~fcoftc~orcsocoafo: botb),~d prices ofibes~esl~o commodities plunged. The prices of pb~osphales (~impo~nllo Senegal and ~go), Tuneful oil (Senegal), and <~ Ileum {~Nig~ri~) also esprit eared Looms in the 1970$ and su~b$equc~t clews. ~Udhougb a long~d~ne Seders on 1be pace of diamonds, Bots~ana's m {o: expo~>is not available, evidence from Willard )4dkge~tbi(1989)i~d~ica~stba1d~iannon!d p~d.ces losses 1# ~ 1~ ~ 1~ 1 1~2~ 1~. This section teas f6c~u$ed on the changesi~n ~e~i~ne~rn.~ion.al economic envinonmentiba1 aid the economic perfonnan~ce of obese sears coma Odes. Theseinte~lationalfacto!~$, of~ou~e,aren~ol Ace sole delenn.~nan~lso~f Other ~210rs, scab as poJ.~1ica1 alibi and Me TABLE 2~4 A~verage.Real Comm.o~ty Ices Relive ~ Sample amen 1~1( 1~1~ 1 9!Si: ~1~9~7 ~0 ~1^ #3 0# Cow 0.95 1~33 0 93 0.78 Ma 1~20 0 76 0.68 0.# ~1 14 ~0 ~0< It oil 1~06 1.20 0.7$ 0.41 Canon 1.12 0.94 0.77 0.~9 052 1~1 ~1# 0 ~1.37 0 92 ~ 0 INS: ELI process an Cam 195~0 10 1987, Faced far ~a (19il 10 19~87). ~1 dices ~= c~pu:~d ~ ~ I avow !P^c ~ 1~ yam. diddled by tab muffs Bait ague (SLAV) Edge, Bob is a ~e~1 paw index far Its of mon~u~~ prompts Ham d^clo~d ~ ~v~l~ppi:~g comities. A~ve~gt =~1 commodity I ~ deified ~ Be ply metal ~ ~ ~1~1 91987 (of ~c ~- ~ Bob gala ~ ~v~}~lc). Sag Id. A ~ a di.$cussio~ of DISC -8 ad Weir gorge.

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=~C ~ I O~ of economic policies' gave bum impugn as well ^ . countess parlicul~ly Luanda ~:~.~ its politick ~oil, go ~n~iona1 environment bas ~guibJy bayed only ~ minor~olei~n dbe deter minion ofl~ivin) standards. ^ ---- ~o~ove~ it could ~ ~ a Lively small p~po~i~on of He population is involved in puking export Alas. or it could. be tba1 env~ironmen~1 Decors, far e~pTe, cain~ll, am moon impor- tag in some settings ~ others. Un nearly. wan gel did our analysis, we bag access lo slab #~nmbn1~: data over lima only for Son~eg~. fin C~haptets5, me present mom delaiJ~ed descriptions oftbe economic pedb~ malice Ad acorn ~~I1c~ios of gab of these seven counters over 1be p3S1 seven Headers, lo added belter bog scoot Ouctu~idos may brave ~. abode ~mog~h~:~c ores. DE~OGRA~1~C~ [B)\GE~ ~ SL8-S~ARA~ AFR1CA AND THE SEVER STLDY COTS Because ~d Panel on the Popu)~alion Dyna~nic$ of S~ub~Sibaran Mica bus published a sepal volume e~v~ualing debit levels edit Hands in ~o >~-ion (Panel ~ lo ~pul~1~i~ Dynamics ~gf~S~-S~n A~ca, 1993), He discussion Crease Sues is buff amuses primely on the seven populabonscon~sideedi.nlbi~s capon. 1~, COnlpa)SOn botbe ~stoflbe Dodd gad evento otber~less deve~k~ped regions, population gm~db r2~$ In high ill s.ub~Sab _ Attic,. For eas~rn,~middle,a~d Resewn ^~ico,annuilgro~ ~ rams ~ osti.~dlo ~ over S.O~rcenl~ far 1983 10 1990~, in co-=is~ vi-tb~2.~ percent in Clan Aroma Ad 1..87 Wrapt ~. Asia Use gable aria. Rags over 3 We Tunes pe~roe~n!tL~ply Doubling otpopule1ioninlesstb~n 25 ye~- ~n our~stud~y l6clude the most populous ^fd~c~an coun~-4Yi.7e~ia ~itb 87.5 million people as enumerated bv the I991 census and one of the a! ~ r~sn~;~l~ ht^~ hall Aeon mare in ~duc~i.~g in-1 Id child Boa aridly i) A~ca ill Cent decades (h~111, 1993), ~oagb it bas nol Den Of our seven counties, Kenya Ed Botswana have ma He g~ Beast progress so tbattbeir~necenlinfsnt moiety roes are comparable ~i~1b1bo~ein Latin A ~ dca and A~si.a,assbo~nin liable 2-5. 1~n Chew and Uganda, ma ily dec~linesa~ethousgh~lto brave s~l~Iedinlb~lole 197!0S find early 198~0s~. ~ an ?~ an_ _ ~ ~ 7~ _~ Vail Wendy, abed was generally little ex~c~o~ of regal_ den . . cline in by in Its (see Al dell Ad C~ald~el~l. ~1990). Boas evi. ~ ~ ~e DO Ed becalm Surveys (DOSS; InsUluto far Re ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ source Deve~lopmenl,v~do~us yews), ~bicb there conduced in the mid 10 l~e-1980~s, i.~nd~i~ca~s gal ~ility bar an to ~11 in some countries. Cost nomad bave been 1be Lines ~ Botswana, Kenya, Ad Zimbabwe (Cohen'

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~ c: ~-: : ~=: - ~ ~Or~ ~04> I. ~ =< , ~ ~ ~ , ~ x~_c -'I ~ . ~ ~ ~$~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =. Eli ~ ~ ~ . '-my GYM MA ~86~ ~s ~Is_ ~ MA ~ ~ ~ -4 ~ ;,~c ~ sew }~ ~ <<1 .= ~=~-= i . ~: i.: ~ - ~ ~. rat ; ~ 5 C: Cal ~_ ,1~;~ k. _( ~= =- ~ is q_~ ~ .- ~ ~ ~ .> ~t ~ .t- ~ -me ~ ~ '~'= 'V3 ) ~' ~ I. .. ~ If " ~2 ==N - ., ~ me .-a am. : ~, ~I =: ~ ~ ~:: ~A6' :;3 ~i,- ~ :-: ~ ~= ~= ~ xe ~ ~ ~Apt :: ~ ~ ~ =~ ^: ~. ~ ~ ~ ~{ - ~ ~ ~' Ha:{ = = ~d ~: me: ,- ;~: ^~ :~ k ~- ~ ' ~~; ~ Am ~y9- ~,~j, ' ' ': ,3 ~4:_~ ~ ED P; ~ ~, ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ it Or ~ ~ ~) x ~ ~ brat ~ ~ ~ ~ - } ~ ~ ~,> S me: ~? :: ~=: V -et ~ ~* * A A ~ ~x - .= oN I- ~ :~e ~.,' , - :'~ i'' >= \;: Am; ~3^ ~ ~ ~ ~ '*em SEX I. ~--* ~ 5 oi ~ =~ ~ * -, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~,,~* ~-a -~* En, ~ ~,x: ' 2. , ~ Sex :~ ~ -, , i!* '~* OCR for page 9
~~~c ~ D#~c ~ ~1993). allbc~ugb ~=iJi1y remains bigb by i~n~le~aliona1 s1andards. (Cniled Onions estimates of the told Agility rales-~e number ~ cb~il~d=~n ~, ~oman-a~ also Shown in Male 2-i Air We pulse of in~rna1~0nal c~- p~=isons.) Some Abyss have ssyge~sted lhat destines may have begun else:~be=, for exim~pl!e~. in awls of Iberia (Cil~d~el!1 e1 ~al., ~199~2) and in Senegal (Careen, 1993~. A11bou~b bob by i~lc2~ional sods, ~i~lily is Snot as boil as it migb1 ha. ~onsuscepti~biT~ily to conception dial Me po~stp~um period contin- ues to ~ ~ considerable inhibit of ~11~i~y id Attica (Jolly Ad Dribbled, ~199~S). Cough b~ssl~d~i~; and postage abstinence, mangy women ~ able to space Me births of Weir c~bilde~ so 1ba1 the be~a~l1b of 1bc cbi~l~en is . ~ - --am - - -I-/ - - ~ ~ - . ~ A. enhanced. Osc of con~acepti~on is impotent at 1be ~lioni1 level in only Me counties, Botswana, Kenya, and Zlmb~we. Almond mewed omen aged ~15-49, ail, 2~7, and 4~3 Percents, actively gem using c~o~n~cep110n in the Me l9SO~s~l~nstitu~ for R~eso~uroe~Develop~nenl,l99l). T1 ~ spent out of marital unions tins ~ Beer f:~il~ity~resduction each than contraception in Abe older A~can Lies ~r ~bic~b DIES delta ~ available (Jolly Ad Addles 1997~ Tb~e~ is evidence of Some incense in the age at age d i) #filch ova den Male, !~, but go (e cb~lenge~s off dating the be~i~nnin~s of marina juniors in Alma aids problems of comp#~i~lily of .~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ,~ ^~#d~#iepin~1 ~- se##o~n~s >~ie4 ~#, ~- ~t~ic and Ache S/eVs area Con~2t~d ~13 Me ~19~86319~ #+i~. Amen ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ j ~ aged I~-4~9 were asked flu! feeler maria! bi~stg~