Author, 1992); M. Fleming and B. Chambers, "Teacher-Made Tests: Windows on the Classroom," in W. E. Hathaway, ed., Testing in the Schools: New Directions for Testing and Measurement (San Francisco, CA: Jossey Boss, 1983), 29-38; Leslie Salmon-Cox, "Teachers and Standardized Achievement Tests: What's Really Happening?" Phi Delta Kappan 62 (1981): 631-634; R. J. Stiggins and N. J. Bridgeford, "The Ecology of Classroom Assessment," Journal of Educational Measurement 22:4 (1985), 271-286; Linda Darling-Hammond and Arthur Wise, "Beyond Standardization: State Standards and School Improvement," The Elementary School Journal 83 (1985): 315-336.

30  

"Equity Issues in Performance-Based Assessment"; "A Technological and Historical Consideration of Equity Issues"; Raising Standards for American Education; National Commission on Testing and Public Policy, From Gatekeeper to Gateway: Transforming Testing in America (Chestnut Hill, MA: Author, 1990).

31  

Commission on Chapter I, Making Schools Work for Children in Poverty: A New Framework Prepared by the Commission on Chapter I (Washington, D.C.: American Association for Higher Education, December 1992).

32  

Ibid.; National Forum on Assessment, "Criteria For Evaluation of Student Assessment Systems, Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 11:1 (1992), 32.

33  

Diana Pullin, "Legal and Ethical Issues in Mathematics Assessment" (Paper commissioned by the Mathematical Sciences Education Board, September 1993, appended to this report).

34  

Raising Standards for American Education.

35  

Michael T. Nettles et al., Leadership Statement of Nine Principles on Equity and Educational Testing and Assessment, 12 March 1993; Diversity and Equity in Assessment Network, Guidelines for Equitable Assessment (Cambridge, MA: Fair Test, 1993).

36  

Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh and National Center on Education and the Economy, New Standards Project (Pittsburgh, PA: Author, 1993), 11.

37  

Andrew C. Porter, "School Delivery Standards," Educational Researcher 22:3 (1993), 24-30.

38  

"A Technological and Historical Consideration of Equity Issues Associated with Proposals to Change Our Nation's Testing Policy; "Equity Issues in Performance-Based Assessment"; "Some Pre-Requisites for the Establishment of Equitable, Inclusive Multicultural Assessment Systems."

39  

Lonnie Harp, "Texas Finance Bill Signed Into Law, Challenges Anticipated," Education Week, 9 June 1993; Lonnie Harp, "Impact of Texas Finance Law, Budget Increase Gauged," Education Week, 16 June 1993; Millicent Lawton, "Alabama Judge Sets October Deadline for Reform Remedy," Education Week, 23 June 1993.

40  

"National Standards, Assessment and Equity," 7.

41  

Leadership Statement of Nine Principles on Equity and Educational Testing and Assessment.



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