Samuel Messick, "Validity," in R. L. Linn, ed., Educational Measurement (New York, NY: American Council on Education/Macmillan, 1989), 13.


See Educational Measurement; Robert L Linn, "Educational Assessment: Expanded Expectations and Challenges," Educational Evaluation and Policy 15:1 (1993), 1-16; Robert L. Linn, Eva L. Baker, and Stephen B. Dunbar, "Complex, Performance-Based Assessment: Expectations and Validation Criteria," Educational Researcher 20:8 (1991), 15-21.




"Complex, Performance-Based Assessment"; John R. Frederiksen and Allan Collins, "A Systems Approach to Educational Testing," Educational Researcher 18:9 (1989), 27-32.


Edward Silver and Suzanne Lane (Remarks made at the Ford Foundation Symposium on Equity and Educational Testing and Assessment Washington, D.C., 11-12 March 1993).


David J. Clarke, "Open-Ended Tasks and Assessment: The Nettle or the Rose" (Paper presented to the research pre-session of the 71st annual meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Seattle, WA, 29-30 April 1993).


Malcolm Swan, "Improving the Design and Balance of Assessment," in Mogens Niss, ed., Investigations into Assessment in Mathematics Education: An ICMI Study (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993), 212.




See for example, Eva L. Baker, Harold F. O'Neil, Jr., and Robert L. Linn, "Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment" (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, August 1991); Robert Glaser, Kalyani Raghavan, and Gall Baxter, Cognitive Theory as the Basis for Design of Innovative Assessment (Los Angeles, CA: The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 1993).


Edward A. Silver and Suzanne Lane, "Assessment in the Context of Mathematics Instruction Reform: The Design of Assessment in the QUASAR Project," in Mogens Niss, ed., Cases of Assessment in Mathematics Education: An ICMI Study (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993), 59-69.


Edward A. Silver and Suzanne Lane, "Balancing Considerations of Equity, Content Quality, and Technical Excellence in Designing, Validating and Implementing Performance Assessments in the Context of Mathematics Instructional Reform: The Experience of the QUASAR Project" (Pittsburgh, PA: Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, Draft version, February 1993).


Ibid., 47.


Thomas A. Romberg, E. Anne Zarinnia, and Steven R. Williams, "Mandated School Mathematics Testing in the United States: A Survey of State Mathematics Supervisors" (Madison, WI: National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education, September 1989).

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