Examination, Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO/PEMD-93-8 (Gaithersburg: Author, January 1993). Note that the cost figure for NAEP is misleading: NAEP is not all machine scorable. Furthermore, NAEP uses a sample of students to make inferences about the population of students at a grade level, so the total cost is less than that of administering a less expensive test to the entire population.


Student Testing: Current Extent and Expenditures with Cost Estimates for a National Examination.


Daniel M. Koretz, personal communication, 29 June 1993.


Student Testing, 15.




Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education.


Pamela Aschbacher, "What We Know: Small Group Sessions-Multidisciplinary" (Presentation made at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 10-12 September 1992).


Ruth Mitchell, Testing for Learning: How New Approaches to Evaluation Can Improve American Schools (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1991); Alan Bell, Hugh Burkhardt, and Malcolm Swan, Assessment of Authentic Performance in School Mathematics (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1992).


Assessment of Authentic Performance in School Mathematics.


The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Mathematics Assessment: Myths, Models, Good Questions, and Practical Suggestions, Jean Kerr Stenmark, ed., (Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc, 1991).


Lee J. Cronbach, "Five Perspectives on Validity Argument," in Howard Warner and Henry I. Baum, Test Validity (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988); "Complex, Performance-Based Assessment"; "Validity''; Pamela Moss, "Shifting Conceptions of Validity in Educational Measurement" (Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, April 1992).

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