Examination, Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO/PEMD-93-8 (Gaithersburg: Author, January 1993). Note that the cost figure for NAEP is misleading: NAEP is not all machine scorable. Furthermore, NAEP uses a sample of students to make inferences about the population of students at a grade level, so the total cost is less than that of administering a less expensive test to the entire population.

36  

Student Testing: Current Extent and Expenditures with Cost Estimates for a National Examination.

37  

Daniel M. Koretz, personal communication, 29 June 1993.

38  

Student Testing, 15.

39  

Ibid.

40  

Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education.

41  

Pamela Aschbacher, "What We Know: Small Group Sessions-Multidisciplinary" (Presentation made at the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 10-12 September 1992).

42  

Ruth Mitchell, Testing for Learning: How New Approaches to Evaluation Can Improve American Schools (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1991); Alan Bell, Hugh Burkhardt, and Malcolm Swan, Assessment of Authentic Performance in School Mathematics (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1992).

43  

Assessment of Authentic Performance in School Mathematics.

44  

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Mathematics Assessment: Myths, Models, Good Questions, and Practical Suggestions, Jean Kerr Stenmark, ed., (Reston, VA: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc, 1991).

45  

Lee J. Cronbach, "Five Perspectives on Validity Argument," in Howard Warner and Henry I. Baum, Test Validity (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988); "Complex, Performance-Based Assessment"; "Validity''; Pamela Moss, "Shifting Conceptions of Validity in Educational Measurement" (Paper presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, April 1992).



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