Peter W. Airasian, "Symbolic Validation: The Case of State-Mandated, High-Stakes Testing," Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 10:4 (1988), 301-313; Eva L Baker and Regie Stites, "Trends in Testing in the USA," in Susan H. Fuhrman and Betty Malen, eds., The Politics of Curriculum and Testing, 1990 Yearbook of the Politics of Education Association (London, England: The Falmer Press, 1990), 139-157; National Commission on Testing and Public Policy, From Gatekeeper to Gateway: Transforming Testing in America (Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College, 1990); Grant Wiggins, "Teaching to the (Authentic) Test," Educational Leadership 46:7 (1989), 41-47; Dennie P. Wolf et al., "To Use Their Minds Well: Investigating New Forms of Student Assessment," in Gerald Grand, ed., Review of Research in Education (Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association, 1991), 31-74; Daniel Resnick and Lauren Resnick, "Assessing the Thinking Curriculum: New Tools for Educational Reform," in Bernard R. Gifford and Mary C. O'Connor, eds., Changing Assessments: Alternative Views of Aptitude, Achievement, and Instruction (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992), 37-75; U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions, OTA-SET-519 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992).


O. W. Caldwell and S. A. Courtis, Then and Now in Education, 1845-1923: A Message of Encouragement from the Past to the Present (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book, 1925), 180-181.


Harlan H. Homer, Education in New York State, 1784-1954 (Albany, NY: University of the State of New York, State Education Department, 1954), 70.


Herbert E. Hawkes, E. F. Lindquist, and C. R. Mann, The Construction and Use of Achievement Examinations: A Manual for Secondary School Teachers (Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1936), iv.


George F. Madaus et al., The Influence of Testing on Teaching Math and Science in Grades 4-12: Executive Summary (Boston, MA: Boston College, Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy, 1992), 1.


Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions, 64-65; National Council on Education Standards and Testing, Raising Standards for American Education: A Report to Congress, the Secretary of Education, the National Education Goals Panel, and the American People (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992), 12; See also The Influence of Testing on Teaching Math and Science in Grades 4-12: Executive Summary, 18.


Raising Standards for American Education; Edward Silver, "Assessment and Mathematics Education Reform in the United States, International Journal of Educational Research, in press; Andrew C. Porter, "Assessing National Goals: Some Measurement Dilemmas," The Assessment of National Educational Goals: Invitational Conference Proceedings (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1970), 21-42; Lorrie Shepard, "Inflated Test Score Gains: Is the Problem Old Norms or Teaching to the Test?" Educational Measurement: Issues and Practices 9 (1990): 15-22; Testing in American Schools: Asking the Right Questions.


Thomas Romberg, E. Anne Zarinnia, and Kevin F. Collis, "A New World View of Assessment in Mathematics," in Gerald Kulm, ed., Assessing Higher

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