
^{34}

Shinya Ohta, "Cognitive Development of a Letter Formula" (in Japanese), Journal of Japan Society of Mathematical Education 72 (1990):24251, in Ezio Nagasaki and Jerry P. Becker, "Classroom Assessment in Japanese Mathematics Education" in Norman L. Webb and Arthur F. Coxford, eds., Assessment in the Mathematics Classroom (Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1993), 4053.

^{35}

R. L. BangertDrowns et al., "The instructional Effect of Feedback in TestLike Events," Review of Educational Research, 61:2 (1991), 213238. This study reported a metaanalysis of 40 studies that showed that (a) immediate feedback is more effective than feedback that is delayed a day or more after a test, and (b) providing guidance about correct answers is more effective than feedback that merely informs students whether their answers were correct or not.

^{36}

California Assessment Program, A Question of Thinking: A First Look at Students' Performance on OpenEnded Questions in Mathematics (Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Education, 1989), 6.

^{37}

Mathematics, Insight and Meaning, 218.

^{38}

Margaret C. Wang, "The Wedding of Instruction and Assessment in the Classroom," in Assessment in the Service of Learning: Proceedings of the 1987 ETS Invitational Conference (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1988), 75.

^{39}

Maria Santos, Mark Driscoll, and Diane Briars, "The Classroom Assessment in Mathematics Network," in Norman L. Webb and Arthur Coxford, eds., Assessment in the Mathematics Classroom, 1993 NCTM Yearbook (Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1993), 220228.

^{40}

Examples include J. K. Stenmark, Mathematics Assessment: Myths, Models, Good Questions, and Practical Suggestions (Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991); Assessment in the Mathematics Classroom; Measuring Up; Assessing Higher Order Thinking in Mathematics; California Assessment Program, A Sampler of Mathematics Assessment (Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education, 1991); Judy Mumme, Portfolio Assessment in Mathematics (Santa Barbara, CA: California Mathematics Project, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1990).

^{41}

Gerald Kulm, "A Theory of Classroom Assessment and Teacher Practice in Mathematics (Symposium paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA, 17 April 1993). Related papers at the same symposium were Bonita Gibson McMullen, "Quantitative Analysis of Effects in the Classroom"; Diane Scott, "A Teacher's Case of New Assessment"; James A. Telese, "Effects of Alternative Assessment from the Student's View."

^{42}

"A Theory of Classroom Assessment," 12.

^{43}

Gilbert Cuevas, personal communication, April 1993.

^{44}

The College Board, An Invitation to Serve as a Faculty Consultant to the Advanced Placement Reading (New York, NY: Author, 1993).

^{45}

Paul LeMahieu, "What We Know about Performance Assessments" Session (Presentation made at the annual conference of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA, 10 September 1992).
