dents every year. However, they share one crucial characteristic: they do not have a long-established research tradition, and many such institutions have only recently enlarged their missions to include ''research" to any substantial degree. This lack of a research tradition is an example of a problem that Ph.D.-granting institutions do not have, but that manifests itself, for example, in evaluating faculty for promotion at NPhD schools. This and other problems of NPhD schools can be grouped by their common features into three categories: mission, size, and resources. The issues covered here are also generally applicable to universities that have recently established Ph.D. programs.

MISSION

The NPhD school's goal of having faculty actively engaged in research has several consequences for the faculty, especially for those in ECSE. Chief among these is the substantial teaching load that is characteristic of NPhD institutions. Teaching is a time-consuming activity. When it is done right—and it must be done right, because quality teaching is often the selling point of NPhD schools—there is little time for research. This is a critical problem for ECSE faculty, given the large investment of time and intellectual resources required to create or experiment with an artifact. No school can, in fairness, expect significant research from ECSE faculty in the presence of extensive teaching obligations.

The mission of NPhD schools implies a second serious consequence for ECSE research: the absence of doctoral students. As noted in Chapter 2, Ph.D. graduate students are essential to creating artifacts, the medium in which ECSE research is conducted. By definition, there are no doctoral students at NPhD schools. The alternative is to engage advanced undergraduates and master's degree students in constructing artifacts, but the nature of their participation will differ from that of doctoral students. First, they must be closely supervised, a characteristic that is consonant with the goals of NPhD schools. Second, the requirements of the task must be more completely specified because the student presumably has less background. Third, the magnitude of the task must be modest because the student's available time—both in duration and in hours per day—is typically more modest. Fourth, many master's students are not full-time students. Such considerations limit the artifacts that can be created and the experimentation that can be conducted.

A third aspect of the mission of NPhD schools that affects ECSE research concerns the ability to compete for grant funding. Both federal agencies and industry favor Ph.D.-granting institutions in re-



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