INDEX

A

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 38

American Museum of Natural History, 38

American Type Culture Collection, 71

Army Corps of Engineers, 36, 78, 148

Arthropods, 70, 71

Audubon Societies, 42

Australia

biodiversity organizations, 65

Environmental Resources Information Network, 97

B

Bacteria, 69, 71

Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39

Biological assessment

development of protocols, 79

Biological data and information, 54, 121

access for researchers, 95

benefits, 53

dispersed locations, 57, 115, 161

needs, 94

online access, 161

organization, 97

public needs, 95

sources, 106

use by decision-makers, 93, 95, 97

use by public/private organizations, 55, 95

Biological diversity

data management, 104



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OCR for page 193
A Biological Survey for the Nation INDEX A Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 38 American Museum of Natural History, 38 American Type Culture Collection, 71 Army Corps of Engineers, 36, 78, 148 Arthropods, 70, 71 Audubon Societies, 42 Australia biodiversity organizations, 65 Environmental Resources Information Network, 97 B Bacteria, 69, 71 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 Biological assessment development of protocols, 79 Biological data and information, 54, 121 access for researchers, 95 benefits, 53 dispersed locations, 57, 115, 161 needs, 94 online access, 161 organization, 97 public needs, 95 sources, 106 use by decision-makers, 93, 95, 97 use by public/private organizations, 55, 95 Biological diversity data management, 104

OCR for page 193
A Biological Survey for the Nation decline, 65 development of a data model, 105 difficulties in minimizing threats, 44 inventories of rich areas, 158 maintenance and enhancement, 61 prospecting, 47, 48 Biological indicators ecological trends, 87 importance, 87 monitoring and assessment, 87 standards, 87 Biological resources, 31, 59, 61 anticipation of conflicts, 56 assessment, 28 challenging issues, 56 decision-making, 31, 54 definition, 26 detecting trends, 80 distribution, 57 dynamics, 52 effects of climate change, 85 effects of suburbanization, 65 esthetic experiences, 46 evaluation, 61 identifying changes, 80 improved management of, 54 information base for decisions, 57 information needs, 84 information flow, 111 inventorying and monitoring, 55 management, 29, 49, 50, 52, 54, 72, 90 management and preservation, 133 national and international networks, 39 objectives for assessment, 64 products of practical value, 121 programs directed at understanding, 28 regional management systems, 124 scientific basis for management, 31, 55 stewardship, 26, 129 sustainable use, 44, 54, 59 synergistic focus, 51 understanding, 29, 50 values and services, 26 Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends, 112 Biota documentation and assessment, 31 lack of basic knowledge, 27 preservation, 59 specimen and data collections, 67 Biotechnology, 25, 48, 71 Birds of North America, 65 Bishop Museum, 38 Botanical Society of America, 42 Breeding Bird Survey, 106, 112, 120 British Columbia regional management system, 125 Bureau of Land Management, 32, 139 inclusion in NBS, 28 organization, 133 Bureau of Mines inclusion in NBS, 28 Bureau of Reclamation inclusion in NBS, 28 C California, 158

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A Biological Survey for the Nation example of regional cooperation, 125 regional management system, 125 California Academy of Sciences, 38 Canada biological survey, 51 biological surveys, 42 Carbon dioxide, 47, 73 atmospheric concentration, 47 buffering by natural processes, 45 Caribbean biological surveys, 51 Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity program (CARICOMP), 40 decline in reef corals, 73 scientific expertise, 42 Carnegie Commission on Science and Technology, 148 Census Bureau Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing, 107 Center for Biological Conservation, 39 Center for Plant Conservation, 40, 72 Central America biological surveys, 51 scientific expertise, 42 Climate change, 47 preparations for dealing with, 54 Classification systems, 74, 111 development, 158, 159 limitations, 76 predictive, 64 uses, 75, 76 Collections, 38, 64, 67, 69-72, 84, 96, 103, 107, 109, 144, 147, 157 inventory of specimens and data, 69 Committee on the National Institute for the Environment, 148 Communities and ecosystems, 60 effects of alien species, 86 effects of climate change, 47 effects of human settlement, 65 evaluation, 157 functional integrity, 87 inventorying threatened, 158 management, 76, 125 rate of change, 86 types, 64 understanding, 74, 77 Conservation information needs, 96 Cooperative programs role in NPBS, 39 Costa Rica National Biodiversity Institute (INBio), 65, 97 D Data and information ability to provide, 52 challenges in computerization, 96 coordination and management, 106 custodianship, 109 dissemination, 117 ensuring scientific quality, 119 examples of necessary products, 121 formal review, 119

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A Biological Survey for the Nation historical information needs, 85 horizontal integration, 111 inherent incompleteness, 56 judicious use, 50 local application, 133 management, 112 management office, 160 management in NBS, 112 methods of exchange, 117 national network, 161 needs, 94 NPBS management programs, 162 organization, 51 policies and programs, 93 preparing manuals and guides, 159 problem-specific nature, 53 products, 117, 120 quality assurance, 117 range, 50 scale of application, 50 sharing, 108-120 software tools, 118 standards, 106 supplied by the NPBS, 117 technical reports, 117 usability, 106 vertical integration, 111 Data management, 51 functional requirements, 110 NPBS objective, 108 Databases assessment of exiting, 157 biological, 84, 106 Center for Plant Conservation, 40 computerized, 160 conservation, 106 coordination, 106, 115 custodianship, 109 damage from interruptions, 52 development, 103 distributed queries, 111 environmental and socioeconomic, 107 flexible system design, 112 Flora of North America, 39 functional requirements, 110 Human Genome Project, 108 impediments to integration, 106 learning from others, 108 national and international, 75 NBS goals, 116 network interfaces, 110 NPBS development and organization, 31 queries on different scales and levels of organization, 111 regional and statewide efforts, 161 requirements for NPBS, 94 specimen-based, 38 state level, 37 taxonomic, 106 The Nature Conservancy, 39 transformation, 109 use in ecosystem classification, 75 Decision-making, 59 available information, 54 communication of research findings, 94 information needs, 97 need for reliable information, 49, 93 role of NBS, 139 value and economic influences, 57 Delaware River basin, 39

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A Biological Survey for the Nation Department of Agriculture, 117, 133, 140 Agricultural Research Service, 35 Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service, 35 research programs, 73, 144 systematics research laboratories, 70 Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 35 Department of Defense, 36, 70 Department of Energy, 70 Department of the Interior (DOI), 5, 40, 70, 105, 124, 127, 128, 133, 140, 141, 160 cooperative research units, 144 diverse bureau mandates, 125 formation of NBS, 28 FY 1995 budget, 153, 154 internal reorganization, 151 land management bureaus, 125, 141 National Biological Survey, 123 proposed National Biological Status and Trends Program, 112 role in NPBS, 32 Development effect on natural resources, 124 Diversification, 51 E Ecological diversity esthetic experiences, 47 Ecological productivity effects of climate change, 47 Ecological services decline due to pollution, 45 maintenance, 45 management and conservation, 45 replacement by technology, 45 Ecological Society of America, 42 Ecology, 51 Ecosystems alteration and degradation, 27 availability of short-term information, 47 determining highest priority, 157 documentation and assessment, 31, 53 environmental services, 25, 45 impact of changes, 79 interactions, 79, 80 inventorying, 158 location and size, 53 maintenance, 59 management, 71 modification from exotic species, 48 reducing undesirable effects, 45 research, 50 sensitivity to change, 54 structure and dynamics, 53 terrestrial and aquatic, 77 understanding location, 76 Endangered Species Act, 125, 139, 145 backlog of listing candidates, 26 embodiment of national policy, 43 recovery programs, 26 Environmental impact statements, 56, 77

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A Biological Survey for the Nation Environmental Protection Agency, 36, 78, 79, 133, 140, 149, 154 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, 107 research programs, 144 Environmental research, 70 interdisciplinary, 60 needs, 149 problems facing, 149 species inventories and classification, 70 Evolutionary biology, 51 Exotic species, 48, 79, 86 F Federal Coordinating Council on Biological Survey, 142, 144, 148, 153, 155 Federal Geographic Data Committee, 107 Fertilizers, 45 Field Museum of Natural History, 38 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, 154 Flora of North America, 65, 106, 113 information available from, 39 Florida Everglades, 158 Florida Museum of Natural History, 38 Freshwater Imperative, 40, 107 Functional integrity communities and ecosystems, 87 definition, 27 Fungi, 44, 46, 59, 69-71, 81, 83, 87 G Gap analysis database, 106 program, 112, 120 program completion, 159 Gene sequences, 44 Gene splicing, 48 Geographic Information Systems, 104, 155 Global Change Research Program, 112 Great Lakes Fisheries Assessment, 112 Great Lakes Fisheries Councils, 139 Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 73 Greenhouse gases, 47 H Habitats management and preservation, 25, 46, 47 variation in data needs, 53 Hawaii, 158 extinctions due to alien species, 86 native forests, 73 Human activities biological impact, 44 contribution to decline in natural resources, 27 effects on climate change, 47 effects on species, 65 environmental effects, 45, 48, 159 most affected geographic locations, 161 Human Genome Project, 108, 109

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A Biological Survey for the Nation I Insects, 70, 71, 73 insectaria, 72 Interagency Task Force on Water Quality Monitoring, 107 Interagency Working Group and Data Management for Global Change, 107 Interior Geographic Data Commit tee, 105, 107 International Joint Commission on the Great Lakes databases, 39 Internet, 108, 110, 161 Invisible present, 86 Izaak Walton League, 42 K Keystone linkages, 76, 77 Keystone species, 76, 77 L Land use decisions, 53 economic and biological effects, 57 Lichens, 71 Living collections, 72 M Maps and mapping, 104 deficiencies, 104 Marine environments degradation, 45, 49 lack of knowledge, 71 Massachusetts Audubon Society, 39 Medicines, 48 Metadata, 104, 107 Metropolitan areas expansion, 27, 44, 46, 51, 156 ecological impacts of expansion, 95 low density land use, 45 percent of population, 51 Mexico biological survey, 42, 51 Microbial diversity, 44 Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 139 Migratory birds, 45 Minerals Management Service, 28, 139 Missouri Botanical Garden, 38 Montana regional management system, 125 Moths of North America, 65 Museums, 144 Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 38 American Museum of Natural History, 38 Bishop Museum, 38 California Academy of Sciences, 38 efficient use of resources, 55 existing relevant programs, 30 Field Museum of Natural History, 38 Florida Museum of Natural History, 38 integration with NBS, 29 Missouri Botanical Garden, 38 National Museum of Natural History, 38 New York Botanical Garden, 38 role in NPBS, 38

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A Biological Survey for the Nation N National Aeronautics and Space Administration EOSDIS, 36, 107, 109 National Audubon Society, 39 National biological information system, 97 National Biological Status and Trends program, 112, 116, 162 National Biological Survey as information facilitator, 53 cooperative agreements, 144 cooperative research units, 144 coordination, 144 coordination within DOI, 138 critical role of state agencies, 133 data and information policies, 93 field and state coordination, 139 focus of information management, 160 formation, 28 FY 1994 budget justification, 28 FY 1995 budget, 154 leadership role, 49, 125 mandate, 128 mission, 5, 28, 127, 128 mix of scientific disciplines, 155 National Partnership for Biological Survey, 60, 61, 103 need for extramural research, 143 need for objective science, 128 personnel transfers, 142, 154 publication and electronic communication capabilities, 162 purpose, 129 recommended organizational structure, 134 relationship with management experts, 127 requirements for director, 129 research on ecological requirements, 73 research priorities, 156 role in NPBS, 29, 32, 152 role and function of, 125 scientific focus, 133 scientific work, 129 separation from the political process, 129 staff capabilities, 142 staff needs, 142 strategic implementation plan, 152 National Biotic Resource Information System development of, 103 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 108, 109 National Commission on the Environment, 148 National Environmental Council, 149 National Environmental Protection Act, 43 National Heritage database, 106 National Institute for the Environment, 149 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 112 National Institutes of Health, 70 National Marine Fisheries Service, 148

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A Biological Survey for the Nation Biological Survey Unit, 38 National Marine Sanctuaries, 133 National Museum of Natural History, 38 National Ocean Service, 148 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 35, 105, 107, 140, 154 agency responsibilities, 43 research programs, 70, 73, 144 National Park Service, 32 agency responsibilities, 43 cooperative research units, 144 impact of personnel transfers, 154 inclusion in NBS, 28 National Partnership for Biological Survey, 63 abilities of, 31 ability to communicate information, 52 accountability among participants, 152 benefits, 53 benefits to biodiversity prospecting, 48 biota analysis, 67 budgetary considerations, 140, 141, 145, 146 cataloguing of information, 54 comprehensive structure, 57 computerized databases, 160 contributions to information development and use, 54 coordinating role, 80 coordination, 132 data and information policies, 93 data and information supply, 117 data standards, 106 description of, 29 desired characteristics, 49 development of credible information base, 56 elements of, 32 federal level coordination, 55 federal programs, 155 framework for information assessment, 56 framework for multidisciplinary research, 50 funding stability, 155 identifying target areas, 78 implementation, 123 information from, 50 information management plan, 160 information products, 53 institutional components, 32 leadership role of the NBS, 32 limits to, 56 long-term effect, 133 management of institutional relationships, 123 means for effective organization, 49 need to set information priorities, 55 needs for scientific credibility, 49 online data dictionaries, 120 pilot projects, 90 print products, 121 priorities, 52, 61, 62 product communication, 121 product communication goals, 121 purpose, 31, 55, 57 research program, 50, 77 responsibilities toward selected taxa, 69

OCR for page 193
A Biological Survey for the Nation risk of label, 57 role of cooperative programs, 39 role of DOI, 32 role of federal agencies, 32, 35 role of foreign biological entities, 42 role of museums, 38 role of native american groups, 40 role of NBS, 32 role of nongovernment organizations, 39 role of private interests, 40 role of Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories and lands, 40 role of scientists, 42 role of Smithsonian Institution, 37 role of states, 36, 145 role of the National Science Foundation, 143 role of the Smithsonian Institution, 37 scientific credibility, 49 scientific focus, 133 scientific information standards, 119 species distribution assessment, 69 stimulation of research, 50, 76 strategic implementation plan, 152 strategy for development, 52 strengths, 51 taxonomic research, 65 timely and accessible information, 94 use of information, 52 users and participants, 32, 65 uses of information gathered, 93 vegetation characterization, 75 National Research Council Committee on Environmental Research, 148 National Science Board recommendations, 146 National Science Foundation, 36, 143, 146 FY 1995 budget, 154 peer review, 147 research programs, 154 role in biodiversity research, 146 National Spatial Data Infrastructure, 104 building blocks of, 107 involvement of NPBS, 105 National Water Quality Information System (NWIS), 107 National Wetlands Inventory, 112 National Wildlife Refuges, 133 Native Americans role in NPBS, 40 Nematodes, 44, 69, 71, 73 New York Botanical Garden, 38 Nongovernment organizations relevant programs, 30 role in NPBS, 39 Nonrenewable resources, 44, 46, 51 Nutrient cycling, 71 Nutritional sources, 48 O Office of Environmental Quality, 149

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A Biological Survey for the Nation Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement inclusion in NBS, 28 P Pacific Northwest forests, 125 Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program, 112 Partners In Flight, 40, 124 Pesticides, 45 Pilot projects, 78, 89, 90 data model systems, 161 goals, 90 regional collaboration, 70, 157 scope, 91 study of key species, 74 Pittman-Robertson Act, 145 Pollution, 79, 83 assessment, 49, 79 assimilating of pollutants, 25, 61 biological impacts, 95 biological indicators, 79 negative effects, 45 nonpoint, 79 of wetlands, 45 recognizing warning signs, 79 sensitivity of organisms to, 86 Population biology, 74 Population genetics, 51 Populations distribution and abundance, 60 Private landholders role in NPBS, 40 Private sector conservation efforts, 26 existing relevant programs, 30 Public lands acquisition, 26 Puerto Rico, 42 biological resources, 40 role in NPBS, 40 R Regional Collaborative Projects, 90 Regional management system complications in achieving, 125 Renewable resources, 46, 51 Research, 60 biological resources, 60, 63 broadening programs, 159 comparative, 51 communication of results, 118 coordination, 140 different perspectives, 104 domestic and international, 51 ecosystems, 73 environmental indicators, 158 federal spending, 146 human settlement patterns, 51 interdisciplinary, 60 restoration methods, 77 selected species, 73 short-term plan, 157 species diversity, 50 stability and financial support, 52 stimulating and coordinating, 50 stimulation of appropriate, 50 taxonomic, 65 type and scope, 50 Resources human and financial, 61 Restoration, 48, 77 identification of target areas, 78

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A Biological Survey for the Nation inventorying, 158 marine environments, 49 of rivers, 78 pilot project, 78 potential candidate areas, 158 priorities, 78 research efforts, 159 research on methods, 77 Restoration biology, 77 Rivers need for national inventory, 78 Russia relevant expertise, 42, 51 S Setting priorities, 59-61 data management, 160-162 for implementation, 151 general considerations, 62 multiple criteria, 61 personnel and administrative management, 153, 155, 156 research and inventory programs, 156, 158, 159 Smithsonian Institution, 154 National Biodiversity Center, 37 research programs, 144 role in NPBS, 37 specimen-based databases, 38 Standard Methods for Measuring Biological Diversity, 113 Social sciences, 51 Society for Conservation Biology, 42 Soils contamination and erosion, 48 decontamination, 48 South Pacific relevant expertise, 42, 51 Spatial analysis new opportunities, 104 Spatial data, 103 collection and documentation of, 105 fuller use, 105 production, 104 Spatial interactions, 97 Species changes in distribution and abundance, 87 criteria for study, 72 international distribution, 51 knowledge of natural history, 72 population biology, 64 relevance to environmental issues, 73 understanding ecological requirements, 72 where they occur, 72 Species distributions, 96 Species diversity, 57 Species viability, 44 State biological surveys, 36, 65, 106, 107 integration with NBS, 29 State Heritage Programs, 37, 39, 119 Statistical design and evaluation, 51 Status and trends, 50-53, 61 information, 55 measurement, 57 monitoring, 86 need for information, 44 objectives, 31, 83 predictive models, 159 Strategic implementation plan, 152 Systematics, 51 Systematics Agenda 2000, 107

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A Biological Survey for the Nation T Taxa appropriate for immediate study, 69 classification, 70 determining highest priority, 157 discovery and classification, 69 establishment of collections and information, 70 field guides, 159 need for U.S. specialists, 71 Taxonomists register of specialists, 157 The Nature Conservancy, 37, 39, 74 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 Heritage Program, 113 Toxicology, 51 Trends mapping and monitoring, 74 U United States species, 65 taxonomic research, 65 Universities, 144 Cornell University, 38 existing relevant programs, 30 integration with NBS, 29 Ohio State University, 38 role in NPBS, 38 University of California, 38 University of Kansas, 38 University of Michigan, 38 University of Texas, 38 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 32, 78, 139 agency responsibilities, 43 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 Biological Survey Unit, 38 cooperative research units, 144 impact of personnel transfers, 154 inclusion in NBS, 28 Standard Methods for Measuring Biological Diversity, 113 U.S. Forest Service, 78, 140, 148, 154 agency responsibilities, 43 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 U.S. Geological Survey, 128, 139 Biodiversity Research Consortium, 39 inclusion in NBS, 28 leadership role, 73 National Mapping Division (NMD), 107 Water Resource Division, 133 U.S. Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS), 107 V Virgin Islands, 42 W Wallop-Breaux Act, 145 Waterfowl Inventory, 112 Wetlands, 36, 45, 79